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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

H.B. Lu, W.M. Huang and Y.T. Yao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the future trend of development and potential applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Working mechanism in chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers is firstly identified. And then the physico‐chemical requirements for the representative polymers are characterized.

Findings

The different working mechanisms, fundamentals, physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins have been discussed. Current research and development on the fabrication strategies of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers have been summarised. The future trend and potential applications have been explored and estimated.

Research limitations/implications

This review examines physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins necessary to achieve chemo‐responsiveness, and then discusses recent developments and future trends.

Practical implications

Shape change/memory polymers can be used in the broad field of bio‐ and/or medicine.

Originality/value

Breakthroughs and rapid development of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers will significantly improve the research and development of smart materials, structures and systems.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

J.N. Chakraborty, Priyanka Kumari Dhaka, Akshit Vikram Sethi and Md Arif

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond with a change in their shape against a specific stimulus by memorizing their original shape and are reformed after deformation most…

Abstract

Purpose

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond with a change in their shape against a specific stimulus by memorizing their original shape and are reformed after deformation most often by changing the temperature of the surrounding without additional mechanical efforts. In the coming years, these polymers indeed will be in limelight to manufacture textile materials which will retain their shape even after prolonged use under disturbed conditions. This study aims at defining shape memory materials and polymers as well as their technological characteristics and also highlights application in various fields of textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used to explain these SMPs have been carried out starting with the discussion on their properties, their physical nature, types, viz., shape memory alloys (SMAs), shape memory ceramics, shape memory hybrid, magnetic shape memory alloy, shape memory composites, shape memory gels and SMP along with properties of each type. Other related details of these polymers, such as their advantages, structure and mechanism, shape memory functionality, thermally responsive SMPs and applications, have been detailed.

Findings

It has been observed that the SMPs are very important in the fields of wet and melt-spun fibers to offer novel and functional properties, cotton and wool fabric finishing, to produce SMP films, foams and laminated textiles, water vapor permeable and breathable SMP films, etc.

Originality/value

The field of SMPs is new, and very limited information is available to enable their smooth production and handling.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Irina Tatiana Garces and Cagri Ayranci

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and…

Abstract

Purpose

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and show the limitations and possible improvements in the different research areas within the different AM techniques. The purpose of this study is to identify academic and industrial opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces the reader to three-dimensional (3 D) and four-dimensional printing of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Specifically, this review centres on manufacturing technologies based on material extrusion, photopolymerization, powder-based and lamination manufacturing processes. AM of SMPC was classified according to the nature of the filler material: particle dispersed, i.e. carbon, metallic and ceramic and long fibre reinforced materials, i.e. carbon fibres. This paper makes a distinction for multi-material printing with SMPs, as multi-functionality and exciting applications can be proposed through this method. Manufacturing strategies and technologies for SMPC are addressed in this review and opportunities in the research are highlighted.

Findings

This paper denotes the existing limitations in the current AM technologies and proposes several directions that will contribute to better use and improvements in the production of additive manufactured SMPC. With advances in AM technologies, gradient changes in material properties can open diverse applications of SMPC. Because of multi-material printing, co-manufacturing sensors to 3D printed smart structures can bring this technology a step closer to obtain full control of the shape memory effect and its characteristics. This paper discusses the novel developments in device and functional part design using SMPC, which should be aided with simple first stage design models followed by complex simulations for iterative and optimized design. A change in paradigm for designing complex structures is still to be made from engineers to exploit the full potential of additive manufactured SMPC structures.

Originality/value

Advances in AM have opened the gateway to the potential design and fabrication of functional parts with SMPs and their composites. There have been many publications and reviews conducted in this area; yet, many mainly focus on SMPs and reserve a small section to SMPC. This paper presents a comprehensive review directed solely on the AM of SMPC while highlighting the research opportunities.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Yongtao Yao, Yuncheng Xu, Bing Wang, Weilong Yin and Haibao Lu

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of recent systematic and comprehensive advancement in electrospun polymer fiber and their composites with shape memory property.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of recent systematic and comprehensive advancement in electrospun polymer fiber and their composites with shape memory property.

Design/methodology/approach

The nanofiber manufacture technique is initially reviewed. Then, the influence of electrospinning parameters and actuation method has been discussed. Finally, the study concludes with a brief review of recent development in potential applications.

Findings

Shape memory polymer (SMP) nanofibers are a type of smart materials which can change shape under external stimuli (e.g. temperature, electricity, magnetism, solvent). In general, such SMP nanofibers could be easily fabricated by mature electrospinning technique. The nanofiber morphology is mainly affected by the electrospinning parameters, including applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, viscosity of solution, humidity and molecular weight. For actuation method, most SMP nanofibers and their composites can change their shapes in response to heat, magnetic field or solvent, while few can be driven by electricity. Compared with the block SMPs, electrospun SMP nanofibers’ mat with porosity and low mechanical property have a wide potential application field including tissue engineering, drug delivery, filtration, catalysis.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed review of shape memory nanofibers: fabrication, actuation and potential application, in the near future.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

John Carrell, Garrett Gruss and Elizabeth Gomez

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing using fused-deposition modeling (FDM). 4D printing is an emerging innovation in (three-dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing using fused-deposition modeling (FDM). 4D printing is an emerging innovation in (three-dimensional) 3D printing that encompasses active materials in the printing process to create not only a 3D object but also a 3D object that can perform an active function. FDM is the most accessible form of 3D printing. By providing a review of 4D printing with FDM, this paper has the potential in educating the many FDM 3D printers in an additional capability with 4D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a review paper. The approach was to search for and review peer-reviewed papers and works concerning 4D printing using FDM. With this discussion of the shape memory effect, shape memory polymers and FDM were also made.

Findings

4D printing has become a burgeoning area in addivitive manufacturing research with many papers being produced within the past 3-5 years. This is especially true for 4D printing using FDM. The key findings from this review show the materials and material composites used for 4D printing with FDM and the limitations with 4D printing with FDM.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to this paper are with the availability of papers for review. 4D printing is an emerging area of additive manufacturing research. While FDM is a predominant method of 3D printing, it is not a predominant method for 4D printing. This is because of the limitations of FDM, which can only print with thermoplastics. With the popularity of FDM and the emergence of 4D printing, however, this review paper will provide key resources for reference for users that may be interested in 4D printing and have access to a FDM printer.

Practical implications

Practically, FDM is the most popular method for 3D printing. Review of 4D printing using FDM will provide a necessary resource for FDM 3D printing users and researchers with a potential avenue for design, printing, training and actuation of active parts and mechanisms.

Social implications

Continuing with the popularity of FDM among 3D printing methods, a review paper like this can provide an initial and simple step into 4D printing for researchers. From continued research, the potential to engage general audiences becomes more likely, especially a general audience that has FDM printers. An increase in 4D printing could potentially lead to more designs and applications of 4D printed devices in impactful fields, such as biomedical, aerospace and sustainable engineering. Overall, the change and inclusion of technology from 4D printing could have a potential social impact that encourages the design and manufacture of such devices and the treatment of said devices to the public.

Originality/value

There are other 4D printing review papers available, but this paper is the only one that focuses specifically on FDM. Other review papers provide brief commentary on the different processes of 4D printing including FDM. With the specialization of 4D printing using FDM, a more in-depth commentary results in this paper. This will provide many FDM 3D printing users with additional knowledge that can spur more creative research in 4D printing. Further, this paper can provide the impetus for the practical use of 4D printing in more general and educational settings.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2020

Yongkun Wang, Yuting Zhang, Jinhua Zhang, Junjue Ye and Wenchao Tian

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of calcium sulfate whiskers (CSWs) on the thermodynamic properties and shape memory properties of epoxy/cyanate ester…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of calcium sulfate whiskers (CSWs) on the thermodynamic properties and shape memory properties of epoxy/cyanate ester shape memory composites.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the mechanical properties of shape memory cyanate ester (CE)/epoxy polymer (EP) resin, high performance CSWs were used to reinforce the thermo-induced shape memory CE/EP composites and the shape memory CSW/CE/EP composites were prepared by molding. The effect of CSW on the mechanical properties and shape memory behavior of shape memory CE/EP composites was investigated.

Findings

After CSW filled the shape memory CE/EP composites, the bending strength of the composites is greatly improved. When the content of CSW is 5 Wt.%, the bending strength of the composite is 107 MPa and the bending strength is increased by 29 per cent compared with bulk CE/EP resin. The glass transition temperature and storage modulus of the composites were improved in CE/EP resin curing system. However, when the content of CSW is more than 10 Wt.%, clusters are easily formed between whiskers and the voids between whiskers and matrix increase, which will lead to the decrease of mechanical properties of composites. The results of shape memory test show that the shape memory recovery time of the composites decreases with the decrease of CSW content at the same temperature. In addition, the shape recovery ratio of the composites decreased slightly with the increase of the number of thermo-induced shape memory cycles.

Research limitations/implications

A simple way for fabricating thermo-activated SMP composites has been developed by using CSW.

Originality/value

The outcome of this study will help to fabricate the SMP composites with high mechanical properties and the shape memory CSW/CE/EP composites are expected to be used in space deployable structures.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Lihuan Zhao, Li Qin, Fumei Wang and Hoe Hin Chuah

The purpose of this paper is to understand the recovery mechanism of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) shape memory fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the recovery mechanism of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) shape memory fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests were designed to study the effects of force, temperature and their combinations on the fabrics' crease recoveries. In the test a cantilever device and an ironing force which simulated people ironing their clothes were used, respectively.

Findings

Temperature was found to have little effect on the recovery of both the warp and filling of the fabrics. Crease recoveries did not improve significantly when the temperature was increased to above the polymer's glass transition. However, forces, applied in primarily compressive and tensile modes to simulate ironing and hand stroking actions, were found to be very effective in the fabrics' crease recoveries. Recoveries were 81‐87 per cent even when the applied force was very small, at 5 N/cm2. When forces were applied at elevated temperatures, just below and above the polymer's glass transition, there were no significant improvements in crease recoveries. Therefore, force was the main factor in PTT shape memory fabrics' recovery mechanism for the fabrics to return to their initial shapes.

Originality/value

The results suggest that PTT shape memory fabric has excellent shape recoverability and easy care property and it has large application potentiality.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Haibao Lu, Yongtao Yao and Long Lin

This article aims to present a systematic and up-to-date account of carbon-based reinforcements, including carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon nanofibre (CNF), carbon black…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to present a systematic and up-to-date account of carbon-based reinforcements, including carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon nanofibre (CNF), carbon black (CB), carbon fibre (CF) and grapheme, in shape-memory polymer (SMP) for electrical actuation.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies exploring carbon-based reinforcement in SMP composites for electrically conductive performance and Joule heating triggered shape recovery have been included, especially for the principle design, characterisation and shape recovery behaviour, making the article a comprehensive account of the systemic progress in SMP composite incorporating conductive carbon reinforcement.

Findings

SMPs are fascinating materials and have attracted great academic and industrial attention owing to their significant macroscopic shape deformation in the presence of an appropriate stimulus. The working mechanisms, the physico requirements and the theoretical origins of the different types of carbon-based reinforcement SMP composites have been discussed. Current research and development on the fabrication strategies of carbon-based reinforcement SMP composites have been summarised.

Research limitations/implications

A systematic review is to evaluate carbon-based reinforcements in SMPs for electrical actuation and discuss recent developments and future applications.

Practical implications

Carbon-based reinforcements in SMPs can be used as smart deployable space structure in the broad field of aerospace technologies.

Originality/value

To reveal the research and development of utilising CNT, CNF, CB, CF and grapheme to achieve shape recovery of SMP composites through electrically resistive heating, which will significantly benefit the research and development of smart materials and systems.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Xue Lian Wu, Chuan Peng Yang, Yu Qin Guo and Hong Yu Wang

This paper aims to focus on achieving triple-shape memory effect (triple-SME) of a commercial poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film with the thickness of 100 µm.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on achieving triple-shape memory effect (triple-SME) of a commercial poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film with the thickness of 100 µm.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermal characteristics and microstructure of PET film were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis. The dual-shape memory effect (dual-SME) of the PET film was then systematically investigated, and based on that, triple-SME in thin PET film was achieved.

Findings

Investigation of the dual-SME in PET film revealed the difference between recovery temperature and programming temperature reduced with increasing programming temperature. An obvious intermediate shape shifting between the original and final programmed shape was observed during shape recovery in triple-shape memory behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Compared with dual-SME in polymer, relatively less work has been done on multi-SME in polymer, especially in thin polymer film. In this study, triple-SME in a PET film was investigated based on the results of dual-SME of the film. The main implication of the study is on how to achieve a watermark between the final programmed pattern and the original pattern, for the application of shape memory polymer in anti-counterfeiting label.

Originality/value

Dual- and triple-SMEs were achieved in a PET film that is only 100 µm in thickness, and the underlying mechanism for the difference between programming temperature and recovery temperature was discussed. For the novel application of triple-SME in anti-counterfeit label, the watermark during shape recovery in triple-SME can effectively prevent duplication.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Hongsheng Luo, Xingdong Zhou, Yuncheng Xu, Huaquan Wang, Yongtao Yao, Guobin Yi and Zhifeng Hao

This paper aims to exploit shape-memory polymers as self-healable materials. The underlying mechanism involved the thermal transitions as well as the enrichment of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to exploit shape-memory polymers as self-healable materials. The underlying mechanism involved the thermal transitions as well as the enrichment of the healing reagents and the closure of the crack surfaces due to shape recovery. The multi-stimuli-triggered shape memory composite was capable of self-healing under not only direct thermal but also electrical stimulations.

Design/methodology/approach

The shape memory epoxy polymer composites comprising the AgNWs and poly (ε-caprolactone) were fabricated by dry transfer process. The morphologies of the composites were investigated by the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical conduction and the Joule heating effect were measured. Furthermore, the healing efficiency under the different stimuli was calculated, whose dependence on the compositions was also discussed.

Findings

The AgNWs network maintained most of the pathways for the electrons transportation after the dry transfer process, leading to a superior conduction and flexibility. Consequently, the composites could trigger the healing within several minutes, as applied with relatively low voltages. It was found that the composites having more the AgNWs content had better electrically triggered performance, while 50 per cent poly (ε-caprolactone) content endowed the materials with max healing efficiency under thermal or electrical stimuli.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may greatly benefit the application of the intelligent polymers in the fields of the multifunctional flexible electronics.

Originality/value

Most studies have by far emphasized on the direct thermal triggered cases. Herein, a novel, flexible and conductive shape memory-based composite, which was capable of self-healing under the thermal or electrical stimulations, has been proposed.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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