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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Cristina Carrozza and Rosa Angela Fabio

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show reduced attention to social stimuli. The reasons for these impairments are still being debated by researchers. The aim of…

Abstract

Purpose

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show reduced attention to social stimuli. The reasons for these impairments are still being debated by researchers. The aim of this study is to analyse if reduced attention towards social stimuli is determined by initial underlying difficulties in the control of visual attention. Among the variables that could produce these difficulties, the authors considered geometric complexity and typology of geometric figures.

Design/methodology/approach

To test this hypothesis, in this paper, an eye-tracker paradigm was used for assessing visual exploration and recognition memory towards geometric figures (curved vs rectilinear) with two levels of geometric complexity (low and high) in 17 children with ASD matched with 17 children with typical development (TD).

Findings

The results showed that the ASD group seemed indifferent to both the geometric complexity and the typology of figures (curved and rectilinear), whereas the TD group showed higher performances with highly complex and curved geometric figures than with low complex and rectilinear geometric figures.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed hypotheses further.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications upon the presence of an unspecified visual attention deficit that is present from the early stages of the processing of stimuli.

Social implications

The understanding of this deficit from the early stages of the processing of stimuli can help educators to intervene at an early stage when disturbances in social relationships are starting.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding the presence of dysfunctional perceptual antecedents that could determine general difficulties in paying attention to social stimuli in ASD subjects.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Abstract

Details

The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2015

Brooke Levin

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible explanations for deficits in social understanding evident in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible explanations for deficits in social understanding evident in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A potential intervention technique is proposed that has not yet been examined in this population: viewing and drawing portraits. This portraiture-based intervention seeks to address some of the core issues set forth in each of the theories explaining impaired social functioning. Furthermore, this intervention is intended to specifically increase exposure to facial stimuli in a safe and controlled environment. Instructions about how to look closely at a social partner’s face and how to glean salient emotional information from the facial expression displayed can be developed through a focused exploration of drawing and viewing portraits. Current techniques such as eye tracking and fMRI are discussed in the context of this proposed intervention.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews existing research about ASD and seeks to present a new proposal for an intervention using portraiture. First the paper discusses existing interventions and reviews the current research about potential causes/areas of deficiency in individuals on the spectrum. This paper subsequently proposes a new type of intervention and discusses the reasons underpinning its potential success in the context of existing research.

Findings

This was a proposed study so no empirical findings have been reported. However, observations of individuals on the spectrum engaging with artwork are discussed in this paper.

Originality/value

No other research or study has been proposed in current literature relating specifically to the use of portraits (looking at and creating) to help individuals with ASD.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Verity Chester and Peter E. Langdon

Social deficits are central within conceptualisations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and separately linked to offending behaviour. Social problem-solving interventions…

Abstract

Purpose

Social deficits are central within conceptualisations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and separately linked to offending behaviour. Social problem-solving interventions are often used with offenders, but little research has examined the social information processing (SIP) skills of individuals with ASD and a history of criminal offending behaviours. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper will introduce the SIP model, review SIP research as applied to those with ASD and in forensic populations, and further consider the relevance to the assessment and treatment of offenders with ASD.

Findings

Difficulties in all areas of the SIP model are noted in ASD and research suggests these difficulties may be directly linked to behaviour.

Practical implications

It is possible that identifying SIP abilities and deficits could improve the effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes for this group.

Originality/value

This paper reviews the utility of social information models in the offending behaviour of people with ASD.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2011

Douglas Sikorski

This chapter analyses the causes and effects of the financial crisis that commenced in 2008, and it examines the dramatic government rescues and reforms. The outcomes of…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the causes and effects of the financial crisis that commenced in 2008, and it examines the dramatic government rescues and reforms. The outcomes of this, the most severe collapse to befall the United States and the global economy for three-quarters of a century, are still unfolding. Banks, homeowners and industries stood to benefit from government intervention, particularly the huge infusion of taxpayer funds, but their future is uncertain. Instead of extending vital credit, banks simply kept the capital to cover other firm needs (including bonuses for executives). Industry in the prevailing slack economy was not actively seeking investment opportunities and credit expansion. The property and job markets languished behind securities market recovery. It all has been disheartening and scary – rage against those in charge fuelled gloom and cynicism. Immense private debt was a precursor, but public debt is the legacy we must resolve in the future.

Details

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Emerging Financial Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-754-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Ana Miranda, María Jesús Presentación, Rebeca Siegenthaler, Carla Colomer and Vicente Pinto

Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disabilities (RD) is greater than what would occur by chance. Considering the well-documented…

Abstract

Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disabilities (RD) is greater than what would occur by chance. Considering the well-documented adverse impact of both ADHD and RD on development, the presence of both conditions may lead to particularly poor outcomes for affected people. This chapter, which reviews 43 research studies carried out in the last decade that have focused on the link between ADHD and RD, is divided into two broad nuclei of contents. First, studies are described that contribute information about characteristics of the comorbid phenotype. Second, studies related to procedures directed toward evaluation and intervention in this problem are analyzed. The review carried out does not make it possible to extract definitive results on the exact nature of ADHD and RD comorbidity or, even less, reach conclusions about its causes. However, the literature-based evidence shows a cognitive profile of ADHD+RD characterized by failure of various functions that can produce more severe functional deficits and worse neuropsychological, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, the analysis of the set of results from the studies shows a limited efficacy of pharmacological and psychopedagogical treatments, and highlights the need for continued research on this topic. From a clinical and educational standpoint, the conclusions derived from this review underline the importance of performing an exhaustive evaluation of children and adolescents with symptoms of ADHD and/or RD, in order to be able to plan interventions with greater possibilities of success in each case.

Details

Assessment and Intervention
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-829-9

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Anis Chowdhury, Iyanatul Islam and Donald Lee

The purpose of the paper is to review the social consequences of the Great Recession of 2008‐2009. In particular, it looks at impacts on the world of work – unemployment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to review the social consequences of the Great Recession of 2008‐2009. In particular, it looks at impacts on the world of work – unemployment, informal and vulnerable employment, working poor and youth unemployment, and on public health – hunger and malnutrition, suicides, domestic violence and child abuse. In all fronts, the Great Recession had serious adverse impacts and morphed into a global social crisis. The situation is made worse due to obsessions with fiscal consolidation in the midst of tepid and uncertain recovery. The paper argues that policies matter and advocates for strengthening social protection and continued stimulus in order to ensure robust recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a general review and it draws on the findings of the United Nations flagship publication, Report of the World Social Situation 2011. It is an analytical narrative of impacts of on‐going economic crisis.

Findings

The paper finds a worsening employment situation – rise in unemployment, informal and vulnerable employment, youth unemployment, and working poverty. It also finds adverse public health impacts in terms of rise in malnutrition and hunger, suicide rates, domestic violence and child abuse. Finally the paper finds that policies matters in mitigating worst impacts as well as sustaining recovery.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are tentative as the social impacts of economic crisis become obvious after a long time lag.

Originality/value

The paper argues that policies matter and advocates for strengthening social protection and continued stimulus in order to ensure robust recovery.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Jørgen Goul Andersen

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle’ from 1995 to 2005 and its subsequent decline during the financial crisis, which revealed more long-standing problems that precluded a quick recovery. The solution of Denmark's structural balance of payment problems in the early 1990s paved the way for long-term prosperity, and Denmark managed the challenges of globalisation and deindustrialisation almost without social costs. However, an accumulation of short-term policy failures and credit liberalisation facilitated a credit and housing bubble, a consumption-driven boom and declining competitiveness. In broad terms, the explanation is political; this includes not only vote- and office-seeking strategies of the incumbent government but also ideational factors such as agenda setting of economic policy. Somewhat unnoticed – partly because of preoccupation with long-term challenges of ageing and shortage of labour – productivity and economic growth rates had slowed down over several years. The Danish decline in GDP 2008–2009 was larger than in the 1930s, and after the bubble burst, there were few drivers of economic growth. Households consolidated and were reluctant to consume; public consumption had to be cut as well; exports increased rather slowly; and in this climate, there was little room for private investments. Financially, the Danish economy remained healthy, though. Current accounts revealed record-high surpluses after the financial crisis; state debt remained moderate, and if one were to include the enormous retained taxes in private pension funds, net state debt would de facto be positive. Still, around 2010–2011 there were few short-term drivers of economic growth, and rather unexpectedly, it turned out that unemployment problems were likely to prevail for several years.

Details

The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-778-0

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Gianluigi Guido, Marco Pichierri, Cristian Rizzo, Verdiana Chieffi and George Moschis

The purpose of this study is to review scholarly research on elderly consumers’ information processing and suggest implications for services marketing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review scholarly research on elderly consumers’ information processing and suggest implications for services marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

The review encompasses a five-decade period (1970–2018) of academic research and presents relevant literature in four main areas related to information processing: sensation, attention, interpretation and memory.

Findings

The study illustrates how each of the aforementioned phases of the information processing activity may affect how elderly individuals buy and consume products and services, emphasizing the need for a better comprehension of the elderly to develop effectual marketing strategies.

Originality/value

The study provides readers with detailed state-of-the-art knowledge about older consumers’ information processing, offering a comprehensive review of academic research that companies can use to improve the effectiveness of their marketing efforts that target the elderly market.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2006

Sandra Burkhardt

School disciplinary actions have numerous goals, including teaching social skills, promoting peer mediation, and increasing community involvement (Garnes & Menlove, 2003)…

Abstract

School disciplinary actions have numerous goals, including teaching social skills, promoting peer mediation, and increasing community involvement (Garnes & Menlove, 2003). Many school disciplinary actions are based upon behavior management principles, with consequences administered for behavior that is dangerous, disruptive, socially inappropriate, or incompatible with good academic deportment. Discipline often takes the form of punishment and is intended to quickly reduce undesirable behavior. Contingency management methods include detention, suspension, and expulsion (Turnbull, Wilcox, & Stowe, 2002).

Details

Current Perspectives in Special Education Administration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-438-6

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