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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

John Carrell, Garrett Gruss and Elizabeth Gomez

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing using fused-deposition modeling (FDM). 4D printing is an emerging innovation in (three-dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing using fused-deposition modeling (FDM). 4D printing is an emerging innovation in (three-dimensional) 3D printing that encompasses active materials in the printing process to create not only a 3D object but also a 3D object that can perform an active function. FDM is the most accessible form of 3D printing. By providing a review of 4D printing with FDM, this paper has the potential in educating the many FDM 3D printers in an additional capability with 4D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a review paper. The approach was to search for and review peer-reviewed papers and works concerning 4D printing using FDM. With this discussion of the shape memory effect, shape memory polymers and FDM were also made.

Findings

4D printing has become a burgeoning area in addivitive manufacturing research with many papers being produced within the past 3-5 years. This is especially true for 4D printing using FDM. The key findings from this review show the materials and material composites used for 4D printing with FDM and the limitations with 4D printing with FDM.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to this paper are with the availability of papers for review. 4D printing is an emerging area of additive manufacturing research. While FDM is a predominant method of 3D printing, it is not a predominant method for 4D printing. This is because of the limitations of FDM, which can only print with thermoplastics. With the popularity of FDM and the emergence of 4D printing, however, this review paper will provide key resources for reference for users that may be interested in 4D printing and have access to a FDM printer.

Practical implications

Practically, FDM is the most popular method for 3D printing. Review of 4D printing using FDM will provide a necessary resource for FDM 3D printing users and researchers with a potential avenue for design, printing, training and actuation of active parts and mechanisms.

Social implications

Continuing with the popularity of FDM among 3D printing methods, a review paper like this can provide an initial and simple step into 4D printing for researchers. From continued research, the potential to engage general audiences becomes more likely, especially a general audience that has FDM printers. An increase in 4D printing could potentially lead to more designs and applications of 4D printed devices in impactful fields, such as biomedical, aerospace and sustainable engineering. Overall, the change and inclusion of technology from 4D printing could have a potential social impact that encourages the design and manufacture of such devices and the treatment of said devices to the public.

Originality/value

There are other 4D printing review papers available, but this paper is the only one that focuses specifically on FDM. Other review papers provide brief commentary on the different processes of 4D printing including FDM. With the specialization of 4D printing using FDM, a more in-depth commentary results in this paper. This will provide many FDM 3D printing users with additional knowledge that can spur more creative research in 4D printing. Further, this paper can provide the impetus for the practical use of 4D printing in more general and educational settings.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Shubham Shankar Mohol and Varun Sharma

Additive manufacturing has rapidly developed in terms of technology and its application in various types of industries. With this rapid development, there has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing has rapidly developed in terms of technology and its application in various types of industries. With this rapid development, there has been significant research in the area of materials. This has led to the invention of Smart Materials (SMs). The 4D printing is basically 3D printing of these SMs. This paper aims to focus on novel materials and their useful application in various industries using the technology of 4D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

Research studies in 4D printing have increased since the time when this idea was first introduced in the year 2013. The present research study will deeply focus on the introduction to 4D printing, types of SMs and its application based on the various types of stimulus. The application of each type of SM has been explained along with its functioning with respect to the stimulus.

Findings

SMs have multiple functional applications pertaining to appropriate industries. The 4D printed parts have a distinctive capability to change its shape and self-assembly to carry out a specific function according to the requirement. Afterward, the fabricated part can recover to its 3D printed “memorized” shape once it is triggered by the stimulus.

Originality/value

The present study highlights the various capabilities of SMs, which is used as a raw material in 4D printing.

Graphical abstract

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Xin Li, Jianzhong Shang and Zhuo Wang

The paper aims to promote the development of intelligent materials and the 4D printing technology by introducing recent advances and applications of additive layered…

13059

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to promote the development of intelligent materials and the 4D printing technology by introducing recent advances and applications of additive layered manufacturing (ALM) technology of intelligent materials and the development of the 4D printing technology. Also, an arm-type ALM technology of shape memory polymer (SMP) with thermosetting polyurethane is briefly introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins with an overview of the development and applications of intelligent materials around the world and the 4D printing technology. Then, the authors provide a brief outline of their research on arm-type ALM technology of SMP with thermosetting polyurethane.

Findings

The paper provides the recent developments and applications of intelligent materials and 4D printing technology. Then, it is suggested that intelligent materials mixed with different functional materials will be developed, and these types of materials will be more suitable for 4D printing.

Originality/value

This paper overviews the current developments and applications of intelligent materials and its use in 4D printing technology, and briefly states the authors’ research on arm-type ALM technology of SMP with thermosetting polyurethane.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2014

Eujin Pei

The purpose of this article is to reviews state-of-the-art developments in four-dimensional (4D) printing, discuss what it is, investigate new applications that have been…

2574

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to reviews state-of-the-art developments in four-dimensional (4D) printing, discuss what it is, investigate new applications that have been discovered and suggest its future impact.

Design/methodology/approach

The article clarifies the definition of 4D printing and describes notable examples covering material science, equipment and applications.

Findings

This article highlights an emerging technology cycle where 4D printing research has gained traction within additive manufacturing. The use of stimuli-responsive materials can be programmed and printed to enable pre-determined reactions when subject to external stimuli.

Originality/value

This article reviews state-of-the-art developments in 4D printing, discusses what it is, investigates new applications that have been discovered and suggests its future impact.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Rana El-Dabaa and Islam Salem

Conventional motion mechanisms in adaptive skins require rigid kinematic mechanical systems that require sensors and actuation devices, hence impeding the adoption of…

167

Abstract

Purpose

Conventional motion mechanisms in adaptive skins require rigid kinematic mechanical systems that require sensors and actuation devices, hence impeding the adoption of zero-energy buildings. This paper aims to exploit wooden responsive actuators as a passive approach for adaptive facades with dynamic shading configurations. Wooden passive actuators are introduced as a passive responsive mechanism with zero-energy consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The study encodes the embedded hygroscopic parameters of wood through 4D printing of wooden composites as a responsive wooden actuator. Several physical experiments focus on controlling the printed hygroscopic parameters based on the effect of 3D printing grain patterns and infill height on the wooden angle of curvature when exposed to variation in humidity. The printed hygroscopic parameters are applied on two types of wooden actuators with difference in the saturation percentage of wood in the wooden filaments specifically 20% and 40% for more control on the angle of curvature and response behavior.

Findings

The study presents the ability to print wooden grain patterns that result in single and double curved surfaces. Also, printing actuators with variation in infill height control each part of wooden actuator to response separately in a controlled passive behavior. The results show a passive programmed self-actuated mechanism that can enhance responsive façade design with zero-energy consumption through utilizing both material science and additive manufacturing mechanisms.

Originality/value

The study presents a set of controlled printed hygroscopic parameters that stretch the limits in controlling the response of printed wood to humidity instead of the typical natural properties of wood.

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Irina Tatiana Garces and Cagri Ayranci

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and…

Abstract

Purpose

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and show the limitations and possible improvements in the different research areas within the different AM techniques. The purpose of this study is to identify academic and industrial opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces the reader to three-dimensional (3 D) and four-dimensional printing of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Specifically, this review centres on manufacturing technologies based on material extrusion, photopolymerization, powder-based and lamination manufacturing processes. AM of SMPC was classified according to the nature of the filler material: particle dispersed, i.e. carbon, metallic and ceramic and long fibre reinforced materials, i.e. carbon fibres. This paper makes a distinction for multi-material printing with SMPs, as multi-functionality and exciting applications can be proposed through this method. Manufacturing strategies and technologies for SMPC are addressed in this review and opportunities in the research are highlighted.

Findings

This paper denotes the existing limitations in the current AM technologies and proposes several directions that will contribute to better use and improvements in the production of additive manufactured SMPC. With advances in AM technologies, gradient changes in material properties can open diverse applications of SMPC. Because of multi-material printing, co-manufacturing sensors to 3D printed smart structures can bring this technology a step closer to obtain full control of the shape memory effect and its characteristics. This paper discusses the novel developments in device and functional part design using SMPC, which should be aided with simple first stage design models followed by complex simulations for iterative and optimized design. A change in paradigm for designing complex structures is still to be made from engineers to exploit the full potential of additive manufactured SMPC structures.

Originality/value

Advances in AM have opened the gateway to the potential design and fabrication of functional parts with SMPs and their composites. There have been many publications and reviews conducted in this area; yet, many mainly focus on SMPs and reserve a small section to SMPC. This paper presents a comprehensive review directed solely on the AM of SMPC while highlighting the research opportunities.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Yee Ling Yap, Swee Leong Sing and Wai Yee Yeong

Soft robotics is currently a rapidly growing new field of robotics whereby the robots are fundamentally soft and elastically deformable. Fabrication of soft robots is…

2044

Abstract

Purpose

Soft robotics is currently a rapidly growing new field of robotics whereby the robots are fundamentally soft and elastically deformable. Fabrication of soft robots is currently challenging and highly time- and labor-intensive. Recent advancements in three-dimensional (3D) printing of soft materials and multi-materials have become the key to enable direct manufacturing of soft robots with sophisticated designs and functions. Hence, this paper aims to review the current 3D printing processes and materials for soft robotics applications, as well as the potentials of 3D printing technologies on 3D printed soft robotics.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the polymer 3D printing techniques and materials that have been used for the development of soft robotics. Current challenges to adopting 3D printing for soft robotics are also discussed. Next, the potentials of 3D printing technologies and the future outlooks of 3D printed soft robotics are presented.

Findings

This paper reviews five different 3D printing techniques and commonly used materials. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique for the soft robotic application are evaluated. The typical designs and geometries used by each technique are also summarized. There is an increasing trend of printing shape memory polymers, as well as multiple materials simultaneously using direct ink writing and material jetting techniques to produce robotics with varying stiffness values that range from intrinsically soft and highly compliant to rigid polymers. Although the recent work is done is still limited to experimentation and prototyping of 3D printed soft robotics, additive manufacturing could ultimately be used for the end-use and production of soft robotics.

Originality/value

The paper provides the current trend of how 3D printing techniques and materials are used particularly in the soft robotics application. The potentials of 3D printing technology on the soft robotic applications and the future outlooks of 3D printed soft robotics are also presented.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Jihye Deborah Kang and Sungmin Kim

The development of a 3D printing method for the textile hybrid structure that can both be a solution to the conventional drawbacks of 3D printing method and a step forward…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of a 3D printing method for the textile hybrid structure that can both be a solution to the conventional drawbacks of 3D printing method and a step forward to a garment making industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel 3D printing method using the textile hybrid structure was developed to generate 3D object without support structures.

Findings

3D printing of curved panels without support structure was possible by using fabric tension and residual stress.

Practical implications

Garment panels can be 3D printed without support structures by utilizing the idea of textile hybrid structure. Garment panels are expected to be modelled and printed easily using the Garment Panel Printer (GPP) software developed in this study.

Social implications

3D printing method developed in the study is expected to reduce the time and material previously needed for support structures.

Originality/value

Comprehensive preparatory experiments were made to determine the design parameters. Various experiments were designed to test the feasibility and validity of proposed method.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

R. Durga Prasad Reddy, Haytham Elgazzar and Varun Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to print a thermolabile drug-containing tablet using the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique and analyze its mechanical, pharmaceutical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to print a thermolabile drug-containing tablet using the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique and analyze its mechanical, pharmaceutical and environmental feasibility using a variety of tests.

Design/methodology/approach

Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is the thermally-sensitive drug impregnated into polyvinyl alcohol excipient using ethanol-water mixture and printed by an FDM printer by varying three parameters without using any external stabilizing agent. Afterward, Taguchi analysis has been performed on these parameters to recognize the significant factors and interactions. Besides this, a regression model has been obtained based on the dissolution data. Various thermo-mechanical and pharmaceutical tests have been carried out to confirm the feasibility. Finally, a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis has been carried out to compare it with the existing tableting method by considering the environmental impacts.

Findings

The dissolution profile was found to follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, where the drug release occurred both by dissolution and erosion. Further, the infill percent has been found as the most significant parameter. The characterization tests and imaging outputs proved the fidelity of this attempt. Finally, the three-dimensional printed method was found to be more environmentally sustainable than the existing conventional tableting process.

Originality/value

LCA on a printed tablet is a one-of-a-kind attempt. Thus, this research attempt delivered another approach to print personalized tablets at a temperature lower than prescribed temperatures with required release behavior and can contribute toward the quest of sustainable personalized medication.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Carlos Alejandro Garcia Rosales, Hoejin Kim, Mario F. Garcia Duarte, Luis Chavez, Mariana Castañeda, Tzu-Liang Bill Tseng and Yirong Lin

Shape memory polymer (SMP) is capable of recovering its original shape from a high degree of deformation by applying an external stimulus such as thermal energy. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Shape memory polymer (SMP) is capable of recovering its original shape from a high degree of deformation by applying an external stimulus such as thermal energy. This research presents an integration of two commercial SMP materials (DiAPLEX and Tecoflex) and a material extrusion (ME) printer to fabricate SMP parts and specimens. The material properties such as Young’s modulus of the specimens was examined as a process output. Furthermore, stress-strain curve, strain recovery, instant shape-fixity ratio, long-term shape-fixity ratio and recovery ratio of SMP specimens during a thermo-mechanical cycle were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The ME fabrication settings for the SMP specimens were defined by implementing a design of experiments with temperature, velocity and layer height as process variables.

Findings

It was found, according to main effect and iteration plots, that fabrication parameters have an impact on Young’s modulus and exist minimum iteration among variables. In addition, Young’s modulus variation of DiAPLEX and Tecoflex specimens was mostly caused by velocity and layer height parameters, respectively. Moreover, results showed that SMP specimens were able to recover high levels of deformation.

Originality/value

This paper is a reference for process control and for rheological properties of SMP parts produced by ME fabrication process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of 852