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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Debashis Mishra and Anil Kumar Das

The purpose of the experimental investigation was to optimize the process parameters of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique. The optimization of the process was…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the experimental investigation was to optimize the process parameters of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique. The optimization of the process was performed to identify the relationship between the chosen factors and the tensile strength of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and carbon fiber polylactic acid (PLA) thermoplastic material, FDM printed specimens. The relationship was demonstrated by using the linear experimental model analysis, and a prediction expression was established. The developed prediction expression can be used for the prediction of tensile strength of selected thermoplastic materials at a 95% confidence level.

Design/methodology/approach

The Taguchi L9 experimental methodology was used to plan the total number of experiments to be performed. The process parameters were chosen as three at three working levels. The working range of chosen factors was the printing speed (60, 80 and 100mm/min), 40%, 60% and 80% as the infill density and 0.1mm, 0.2mm and 0.3mm as the layer thickness. The fused deposition modeling process parameters were optimized to get the maximum tensile strength in FDM printed ABS and carbon fiber PLA thermoplastic material specimens.

Findings

The optimum condition was achieved by the process optimization, and the desired results were obtained. The maximum desirability was achieved as 0.98 (98%) for the factors, printing speed 100mm/min, infill density 60mm and layer thickness 0.3mm. The strength of the ABS specimen was predicted to be 23.83MPa. The observed strength value was 23.66MPa. The maximum desirability was obtained as 1 (100%) for the factors, printing speed 100mm/min, infill density 60mm and layer thickness 0.2mm. The strength of the carbon fiber PLA specimen was predicted to be 26.23MPa, and the obtained value was 26.49MPa.

Research limitations/implications

The research shows the useful process parameters and their suitable working conditions to print the tensile specimens of the ABS and carbon fiber PLA thermoplastics by using the fused deposition modeling technique. The process was optimized to identify the most influential factor, and the desired optimum condition was achieved at which the maximum tensile strength was reported. The produced prediction expression can be used to predict the tensile strength of ABS and carbon fiber PLA filaments.

Practical implications

The results obtained from the experimental investigation are useful to get an insight into the FDM process and working limits to print the parts by using the ABS and carbon fiber PLA material for various industrial and structural applications.

Social implications

The results will be useful in choosing the suitable thermoplastic filament for the various prototyping and structural applications. The products that require freedom in design and are difficult to produce by most of the conventional techniques can be produced at low cost and in less time by the fused deposition modeling technique.

Originality/value

The process optimization shows the practical exposures to state an optimum working condition to print the ABS and carbon fiber PLA tensile specimens by using the FDM technique. The carbon fiber PLA shows better strength than ABS thermoplastic material.

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Swapnil Vyavahare, Soham Teraiya, Deepak Panghal and Shailendra Kumar

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most economical additive manufacturing technique. The purpose of this paper is to describe a detailed review of this technique…

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Abstract

Purpose

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most economical additive manufacturing technique. The purpose of this paper is to describe a detailed review of this technique. Total 211 research papers published during the past 26 years, that is, from the year 1994 to 2019 are critically reviewed. Based on the literature review, research gaps are identified and the scope for future work is discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review in the domain of FDM is categorized into five sections – (i) process parameter optimization, (ii) environmental factors affecting the quality of printed parts, (iii) post-production finishing techniques to improve quality of parts, (iv) numerical simulation of process and (iv) recent advances in FDM. Summary of major research work in FDM is presented in tabular form.

Findings

Based on literature review, research gaps are identified and scope of future work in FDM along with roadmap is discussed.

Research limitations/implications

In the present paper, literature related to chemical, electric and magnetic properties of FDM parts made up of various filament feedstock materials is not reviewed.

Originality/value

This is a comprehensive literature review in the domain of FDM focused on identifying the direction for future work to enhance the acceptability of FDM printed parts in industries.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Alberto Boschetto, Veronica Giordano and Francesco Veniali

The paper aims to predict the surface roughness of fused deposition modelling prototypes. Since average roughness is not comprehensive, this study aims to extend the…

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2149

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to predict the surface roughness of fused deposition modelling prototypes. Since average roughness is not comprehensive, this study aims to extend the characterization to all the roughness parameters obtainable by a profilometric analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model of the 3D profile is supplied as a function of process parameters and part shape. A suitable geometry was designed and prototyped for validation. Data were measured by a profilometer and complemented by microscopic analysis. A methodology based on the proposed model was applied to optimise prototype fabrication in two practical cases.

Findings

The proposed profile is effective in describing the micro‐geometrical surface of fused deposition modelling prototypes. The third dimension enables the calculation of amplitude, spatial and hybrid roughness parameters.

Research limitations/implications

Because of mathematical assumptions and technological aspects, the validity of the model presents limitations related to the deposition angle.

Practical implications

The method is an effective tool in the process planning stage: it enables knowing in advance how to assure part specifications delivering a set of technical choices. Two practical applications point out the usability in the product development and process parameters optimisation.

Originality/value

This work fulfils an identified need to predict a complete surface characterization of fused deposition modelling technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Huanxiong Xia, Jiacai Lu and Gretar Tryggvason

The purpose of this paper is to continue to describe the development of a comprehensive methodology for fully resolved numerical simulations of fused deposition modeling.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to continue to describe the development of a comprehensive methodology for fully resolved numerical simulations of fused deposition modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

A front-tracking/finite volume method introduced in Part I to simulate the heat transfer and fluid dynamics of the deposition of a polymer filament on a fixed bed is extended by adding an improved model for the injection nozzle, including the shrinkage of the polymer as it cools down, and accounting for stresses in the solid.

Findings

The accuracy and convergence properties of the new method are tested by grid refinement, and the method is shown to produce convergent solutions for the shape of the filament, the temperature distribution, the shrinkage and the solid stresses.

Research limitations/implications

The method presented in the paper focuses on modeling the fluid flow, the cooling and solidification and volume changes and residual stresses, using a relatively simple viscoelastic constitutive model. More complex material models, depending, for example, on the evolution of the conformation tensor, are not included.

Practical implications

The ability to carry out fully resolved numerical simulations of the fused deposition process is expected to be critical for the validation of mathematical models for the material behavior, to help explore new deposition strategies and to provide the “ground truth” for the development of reduced-order models.

Originality/value

The paper completes describing the development of the first numerical method for fully resolved simulation of fused filament modeling.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Ying-Guo Zhou, Bei Su and Lih-sheng Turng

Although the feasibility and effectiveness of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method have been proposed and developed, studies of applying this technology to various…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the feasibility and effectiveness of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method have been proposed and developed, studies of applying this technology to various materials are still needed for researching its applicability, especially with regard to polymer blends and composites. The purpose of this paper is to study the deposition-induced effect and the effect of compatibilizers on the mechanical properties of polypropylene and polycarbonate (PP/PC) composites.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, three different deposition modes for PP/PC composites with or without compatibilizers were used for the FDM method and tested for tensile properties. Also, parts with the same materials were made by injection molding and used for comparison. In addition, different deposition speeds were used to investigate the different deposition-induced effects. Furthermore, the behavior of the mechanical properties was clarified with scanning electron microscope images of the fracture surfaces.

Findings

The research results suggest that the deposition orientation has a significant influence on the mechanical behavior of PP/PC composite FDM parts. The results also indicate that there is a close relationship between the mechanical properties and morphological structures which are deeply influenced by compatibilization. Compared with injection molded parts, the ductility of the FDM parts can be dramatically improved due to the formation of fibrils and micro-fibrils by the deposition induced during processing.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to investigate a PP/PC composite FDM process. The results of this paper verified the applicability of PP/PC composites to FDM technology. It is also the first time that the deposition-induced effect during FDM has been investigated and studied.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Mohammadreza Lalegani Dezaki, Mohd Khairol Anuar Mohd Ariffin and Saghi Hatami

The purpose of this paper is to review research studies on process optimisation and machine development that lead to the enhancement of final products in various aspects…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review research studies on process optimisation and machine development that lead to the enhancement of final products in various aspects of the fused deposition modelling (FDM) process.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of the literature, focussing on process parameters, machine developments and material characterisations. This study investigates recent research studies that studied FDM capabilities in printing a vast range of materials from thermoplastics to metal alloys.

Findings

FDM is one of the most common techniques in additive manufacturing (AM) processes. Many parameters in this technology have effects on three-dimensional printed products. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the optimum elements, for example, build orientation, layer thickness, nozzle diameter, infill pattern and bed temperature. By selecting a proper variable range of parameters, the layers adhere strongly and building end-use products of high quality are achievable. A vast range of materials and their properties from polymers to composite-based polymers are presented. Novel techniques to print metal alloys and composites are examined to increase the productivity of the FDM process. Additionally, defects such as shrinkage and warpage are discussed to eliminate the system’s limitations and improve the quality of final products. Multi-axis and mobile machines brought enhancements throughout the process to eliminate obstacles such as staircase defects in the conventional FDM process. In brief, recent developments were identified and a summary of major improvements was discussed in this study for future research.

Originality/value

This paper is an overview that provides information about research and developments in FDM. This review focusses on process optimisation and obstacles in printing polymers, composites, geopolymers and novel materials. Therefore, machine characteristics were examined to find out the accessibility of printing novel materials for different applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

M. Atif Yardimci and Selçuk Güçeri

Explains the fused deposition process and examines the rationale behind the cooling process model. Outlines the complexity of the problems and characteristics of fused

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2193

Abstract

Explains the fused deposition process and examines the rationale behind the cooling process model. Outlines the complexity of the problems and characteristics of fused deposition. Presents a general formulation for road cooling followed by results and their implications. Concludes with proposed directions for future work.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Alberto Boschetto and Luana Bottini

The purpose of this paper is to study the integration between this technology and barrel finishing (BF) operation to improve part surface quality. Fused deposition modeling

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1299

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the integration between this technology and barrel finishing (BF) operation to improve part surface quality. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes have limitation in term of accuracy and surface finishing. Hence, post-processing operations are needed. A theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out.

Design/methodology/approach

A geometrical model of the profile under the action of machining is proposed. The model takes into account FDM formulation and allows to predict the surface morphology achievable by BF. The MR needed in the model is obtained by a particular profilometer methodology, based on the alignment of Firestone–Abbot (F–A) curves. The experimental performed on a suitable geometry validated geometrical model. Profilometer and dimensional measurements have been used to assess the output of the coupled technologies in terms of surface roughness and accuracy.

Findings

The coupling of FDM and BF has been assessed and characterized in terms of obtained part surfaces and dimension evolution. Deposition angle strongly affects the BF removal speed and alters nominal dimensions of part. The geometric profile model gave interesting information about profile morphology and machining mechanism; moreover, the height prevision allows to estimate BF working time to accomplish part requirements.

Research limitations/implications

The prediction of the geometric profile as a function of FDM fabrication parameters is a powerful tool which permits to investigate surface properties such as mechanical coupling or tribological aspects. The coupling of BF and FDM has been assessed and now optimization of this process can be performed just evaluating effects of parameters.

Practical implications

This research has been focused to an industrial application, and results can be used in a computer-aided manufacturing. The prevision of surface obtainable by this integration is a tool to find the part optimum orientation to accomplish the drawing requirements. Both the experimental findings and the model can guide operator toward a proper process improvement, thus reducing or eliminating expensive trial and error phase in the post-processing operation of FDM prototypes.

Originality/value

In this paper, a novel model has been presented. It allows to know in advance profile morphology achievable by a specific surface of a FDM part after a determined BF working time. A particular application of FA curves gives the MR values.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Wenbiao Han, Mohsen A. Jafari and Kian Seyed

Compared to conventional manufacturing processes, fused deposition (FD)‐based layered manufacturing processes have dramatically reduced the part design and manufacturing…

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1392

Abstract

Compared to conventional manufacturing processes, fused deposition (FD)‐based layered manufacturing processes have dramatically reduced the part design and manufacturing time. However, it is necessary to further enhance their process productivity. To this end, improvement of FD process efficiency is studied in this paper. A build time analysis is conducted and the deposition parameters that can be used to speed up fabrication processes are identified. The tool path‐based deposition planning approach is extended for ensuring layer quality when the build process is expedited under adjusted deposition parameters. A test part was built to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Kamaljit Singh Boparai, Rupinder Singh and Harwinder Singh

The purpose of this study is to highlight the direct fabrication of rapid tooling (RT) with desired mechanical, tribological and thermal properties using fused deposition

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2944

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to highlight the direct fabrication of rapid tooling (RT) with desired mechanical, tribological and thermal properties using fused deposition modelling (FDM) process. Further, the review paper demonstrated development procedure of alternative feedstock filament of low-cost composite material for FDM to extend the range of RT applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The alternative materials for FDM and their processing requirements for fabrication in filament form as reported by various researchers have been summarized. The literature demonstrates the role of various post-processing techniques on surface finish of FDM prints. Further, low-cost materials for feedstock filament have been investigated experimentally to check their adaptability/suitability for commercial FDM setup. The approach was to realize the requirements of FDM (melt flow rate, flexibility, stiffness, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength), necessary for the successful run of an alternative filament. The effect of constituents (additives, plasticizers, surfactants and fillers) in polymeric matrix on mechanical, tribological and thermal properties has been investigated.

Findings

It is possible to develop composite material feedstock as filament for commercial FDM setup without changing its hardware and software. Surface finish of the parts can further be improved by applying various post-processing techniques. Most of the composite parts have high mechanical strength, hardness, thermal stability, wear resistant and better bond formation than standard material parts.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may be focused on improving the surface quality of parts fabricated with composite feedstock, solving issues related to the uniform distribution of filled materials during the fabrication of feedstock filament which in turns further increases mechanical strength, high dimensional stability of composite filament and transferring the technology from laboratory scale to various industrial applications.

Practical implications

Potential applications of direct fabrication with RT includes rapid manufacturing (RM) of metal-filled parts and ceramic-filled parts (which have complex shape and cannot be rapidly made by any other manufacturing techniques) in the field of biomedical and dentistry.

Originality/value

This new manufacturing methodology is based on the proper selection and processing of various materials and additives to form high-performance, low-cost composite material feedstock filament (which fulfil the necessary requirements of FDM process). Finally, newly developed feedstock filament material has both quantitative and qualitative advantage in RT and RM applications as compared to standard material filament.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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