Search results

1 – 10 of over 22000
Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Daniele Morselli

The purpose of this paper is to operationalise and apply a three-level analysis of double stimulation in a Change Laboratory with teachers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to operationalise and apply a three-level analysis of double stimulation in a Change Laboratory with teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

Within qualitative inquiry, this Change Laboratory intervention was conducted as case study, by way of an intensive analysis of an individual unit. The macro-level deals with the societal problem and the collective solution found to tackle it. An intermediate level looks at the Change Laboratory as a methodology able to boost expansive learning through chains of first and second stimuli. The micro-level analyses the participants’ interactions during the sessions and traces the terms connected to the first and second stimulus.

Findings

This analysis suggests that the conflicts of motives experienced by the participants at the micro level refer to the aggravated contradiction identified at the macro level. Conflicts of motives seem to be superior in number during the first block of sessions, when the first stimuli are analysed. The micro analysis indicates the 6th session as the turning point of the intervention, when the participants take the auxiliary stimulus and turn it into and effective and meaningful sign. The intermediate level helps to trace the third transition from the formation of the second stimulus to its implementation, reflection upon and further development and generalisation.

Originality/value

Vygotsky’s method of double stimulation is crucial to develop one’s agency and to explain how individuals deliberately influence events. Yet the literature is fragmented and made of brief accounts, and this paper for the first time inspects double stimulation on different levels within a Change Laboratory intervention with teachers.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2021

John N. Moye

Chapter 4 presents the research into the attributes of a stimulus, which the brain uses to construct a perception of the external stimulus. The processes used in all five…

Abstract

Chapter 4 presents the research into the attributes of a stimulus, which the brain uses to construct a perception of the external stimulus. The processes used in all five senses are examined and compiled into a collective model of the processes the perceptual system uses to discriminate and understand an external stimulus. While there are many commonalities across the senses, the structure of the discipline (energy) each system processes yields unique insights into the processes of the total system.

Details

The Psychophysics of Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-113-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2021

John N. Moye

Chapter 3 examines the attributes of an external stimulus, which the brain collects and models to construct a sensation. An important aspect of this process is the sensory…

Abstract

Chapter 3 examines the attributes of an external stimulus, which the brain collects and models to construct a sensation. An important aspect of this process is the sensory system's filtering capacity, which removes extraneous and irrelevant information from the modeled information. The response mechanisms of all five senses are discussed to establish the practice of viewing the discipline (psychophysics) from multiple perspectives (senses). The differences in multiple perspectives on the same data is compiled into a model of the attributes to which the brain attends to engage with a sensation.

Details

The Psychophysics of Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-113-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Anish Babu Zacharia and Nicolas Hamelin

This research used a Phenomenography approach of Eye Tracking to study the Biometric changes when participants were subjected to eight static subliminal images hidden in…

Abstract

This research used a Phenomenography approach of Eye Tracking to study the Biometric changes when participants were subjected to eight static subliminal images hidden in seven differently designed packages. Embeds or static subliminal stimulus in the form of pictures and words were hidden in seven different perfume packages and were used to study the changes experienced between the two groups, one of which was subjected to subliminal stimulus. This study was conducted in the Neuro Lab located in the SP Jain Sydney campus. A total of 46 healthy participants were separated into two groups, with one group shown image packages with static subliminal stimulus while the other group was shown image packages without any subliminal stimulus. Eye Tracking data was collected using iMotions. A detailed analysis of the Area of Interest (AOI), Fixation and Heat Map revealed that only a percentage of the participants visited the AOI with the hidden subliminal stimulus, but the participants who noticed the AOIs with the subliminal stimulus especially the male participants spent more time in the AOI indicating that they could be consciously processing the subliminal static stimulus. A statistical analysis of the time to first fixations (TIFF) revealed that the subliminal stimulus was not the first point of attraction.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

Cristina Carrozza and Rosa Angela Fabio

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show reduced attention to social stimuli. The reasons for these impairments are still being debated by researchers. The aim of…

Abstract

Purpose

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show reduced attention to social stimuli. The reasons for these impairments are still being debated by researchers. The aim of this study is to analyse if reduced attention towards social stimuli is determined by initial underlying difficulties in the control of visual attention. Among the variables that could produce these difficulties, the authors considered geometric complexity and typology of geometric figures.

Design/methodology/approach

To test this hypothesis, in this paper, an eye-tracker paradigm was used for assessing visual exploration and recognition memory towards geometric figures (curved vs rectilinear) with two levels of geometric complexity (low and high) in 17 children with ASD matched with 17 children with typical development (TD).

Findings

The results showed that the ASD group seemed indifferent to both the geometric complexity and the typology of figures (curved and rectilinear), whereas the TD group showed higher performances with highly complex and curved geometric figures than with low complex and rectilinear geometric figures.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed hypotheses further.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications upon the presence of an unspecified visual attention deficit that is present from the early stages of the processing of stimuli.

Social implications

The understanding of this deficit from the early stages of the processing of stimuli can help educators to intervene at an early stage when disturbances in social relationships are starting.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding the presence of dysfunctional perceptual antecedents that could determine general difficulties in paying attention to social stimuli in ASD subjects.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Maksim Godovykh and Asli D.A. Tasci

The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions…

Abstract

Purpose

The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures.

Findings

Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario.

Originality/value

The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Qian Hao, Xiangyan Shi, Danlu Bu and Liaoliao Li

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of the 2008 Chinese stimulus program on earnings management.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of the 2008 Chinese stimulus program on earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample period from 2004 to 2011 (per-stimulus period: 2004-2007 and post-stimulus period: 2008-2011), the authors compare the change in earnings management between the firms that received the stimulus funds and those that did not receive the stimulus funds.

Findings

The authors find that from the pre- to post-stimulus period, the recipient firms experienced a greater increase in downward accrual management and a greater decrease in real management than the non-recipient firms did. This result is primarily driven by the non-state-owned enterprises and firms using non-Big-Four auditors.

Originality/value

The results suggest that the earnings management level is ultimately determined by the underlying economic and political factors influencing managers’ and auditors’ incentives (Cohen, 2008; Ball et al., 2003). Meanwhile, some mechanisms, such as high-quality audit (Eshleman and Guo, 2014) and state ownership (Wang and Yung, 2011) can also play a role in determining the level of earnings management.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Gaurav Bhatt, Abhigyan Sarkar and Juhi Gahlot Sarkar

The majority of past studies on the physical store environment have focused on the impacts of distinct store environmental cues like music, crowding and décor on…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of past studies on the physical store environment have focused on the impacts of distinct store environmental cues like music, crowding and décor on consumers' responses. However, recent research posits that consumer is more likely to experience several cues in a combination, rather than in isolation, i.e. different categories of store environmental cues are likely to impact consumer psychology holistically. Hence, our study aims to identify the relevant factors of store atmospheric cues impacting consumer's attitude in physical retail store context and validate scales to measure such factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research develops and validates psychometrically reliable scales to measure two broad store stimuli factors namely: attractive and facilitating store stimuli, following the scale development method suggested by Churchill (1979).

Findings

The study shows that attractive store stimuli predict affective and sensory store brand experiences. The facilitating store stimuli moderate the effects of attractive store stimuli on affective and sensory store brand experiences. Affective and sensory store brand experiences predict store satisfaction.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the existing body of store ambience research by empirically understanding the psychological mechanism through which customers perceive different store cues holistically leading to the elicitation of store satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Elmira Shahriari, Ivonne M. Torres, Miguel Angel Zúñiga and Nourah Alfayez

This paper aims to explore the influence of four types of imagery stimuli (i.e. visual, olfactory, gustatory and auditory) on food craving intensity based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the influence of four types of imagery stimuli (i.e. visual, olfactory, gustatory and auditory) on food craving intensity based on the Elaborated Intrusion theory and the central role of mental imagery in the food craving experience. The roles of overall perception of sensory imagery attributes and perceived availability in moderating this process were also tested. The aim is to extract the positive aspects of food cravings by increasing them and shifting them toward healthy foods.

Design/methodology/approach

In an online experiment, 314 participants were randomly primed with each imagery condition. After being exposed to either healthy or unhealthy food pictures, participants completed a questionnaire measuring their craving state, trait food craving, imaging ability, BMI, dietary restraint, hunger and mood. At the end, the impact of food craving intensity on marketing outcomes (i.e. willingness to pay, price sensitivity and food intake) were tested.

Findings

As predicted, visual imagery was found to be the strongest stimulus inducing food craving followed by olfactory, gustatory and auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the results indicate that perceived availability of food is the only important variable moderating this process. Additionally, the results show that hunger makes consumers more susceptible to food cravings than mood. Moreover, food craving intensity showed significant impact on the two marketing outcomes: willingness to pay and food intake.

Research limitations/implications

First, the authors used a cheeseburger as unhealthy food and salad as healthy food, future studies can increase the generalizability of the findings by using other types of food. Second, physiological and psychological disorders should be considered and studied as influential factors on food cravings in future studies. Third, future studies should include some behavioral measures besides the analysis of state and trait craving. Fourth, although the main objective of this study was to compare the effect of different imagery stimuli on consumers’ food craving, there was no control (no-stimulus) condition.

Practical implications

Marketing strategists may benefit from the fact that encouraging consumers to visualize some specific type of food product along with informing them about its availability will elevate their craving for that food product. Hence, using this strategy in shopping environments could be beneficial. In the context of improving people’s diet, our results showed that encouraging people to visualize healthy foods (e.g. fruits and vegetables) might be more helpful than priming them with the benefits of eating healthy.

Originality/value

There has been a recent enthusiastic interest in identifying the role of food related mental imagery and stimuli in consumers’ decision making and their final consumption (Christian et al., 2016). Nevertheless, very few studies in marketing have paid attention to these underpinning stimuli driving food craving and the significant influence of this food craving phenomenon on marketing outcomes.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Uri Fidelman

It is suggested that the left hemispheric neurons and the magnocellular visual system are specialized in tasks requiring a relatively small number of large neurons having…

Abstract

It is suggested that the left hemispheric neurons and the magnocellular visual system are specialized in tasks requiring a relatively small number of large neurons having a fast reaction time due to a high firing rate or many dendritic synapses of the same neuron which are activated simultaneously. On the other hand the right hemispheric neurons and the neurons of the parvocellular visual system are specialized in tasks requiring a relatively larger number of short term memory (STM) Hebbian engrams (neural networks). This larger number of engrams is achieved by a combination of two strategies. The first is evolving a larger number of neurons, which may be smaller and have a lower firing rate. The second is evolving longer and more branching axons and thus producing more engrams, including engrams comprising neurons located at cortical areas distant from each other. This model explains why verbal functions of the brain are related to the left hemisphere, and the division of semantic tasks between the left hemisphere and the right one. This explanation is extended to other cognitive functions like visual search, ontological cognition, the detection of temporal order, and the dual cognitive interpretation of the perceived physical phenomena.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 31 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 22000