Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Karim Errajaa, Patrick Legohérel, Bruno Daucé and Anil Bilgihan

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of scent congruence with the brand image in the formation of consumers’ reactions to the atmosphere of a place.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of scent congruence with the brand image in the formation of consumers’ reactions to the atmosphere of a place.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a factorial design (i.e. scent congruent with the brand image, scent not congruent and control), an experiment was conducted in a multi-service and hospitality space welcoming both local consumers and tourists (N = 303).

Findings

The findings show that when the scent is perceived as congruent with the brand image, reactions in the store are more favourable. It is not enough to use a scent that “smells good” or that is congruent with other factors (e.g. sensory environment); the scent must be perceived by consumers as consistent with the brand image. Findings also reveal that the diffusion of a scent congruent with the brand image improves guest satisfaction, intention to revisit and perceptions of the product and service.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations are both the emphasis on direct links and the focus on a French brand (café/co-working space franchise). It would be appropriate to extend the research to other contexts.

Practical implications

The findings show how important it is for hospitality organisations to use scents to generate a positive impact on their guests. Hotel, restaurant and café managers wishing to enhance customer reactions through the creation of an olfactory atmosphere should take scent congruence with the brand image into consideration.

Originality/value

The study of the effects of the atmosphere on consumer behaviour as a function of olfactory congruence with the brand image uses in-situ experimentation (café/co-working and food and beverage area).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Ibrahim Taylan Dortyol

This research aims to uncover consumers' deeply hidden thoughts and feelings about store scent and its effects on shopping experiences.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to uncover consumers' deeply hidden thoughts and feelings about store scent and its effects on shopping experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a qualitative approach, this research uses Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET). All the steps of the ZMET have been performed, and important constructs and contents have been explored.

Findings

Ultimately, a hierarchical value map was presented. Accordingly, the naturalness and intensity of the scent played a prominent part in its effectiveness. The pleasantness and complexity of the scent, the malodor, congruity and incongruity of the scent, as well as nostalgia, were seen as the predominant originator constructs that resulted in approach or avoidance reactions.

Research limitations/implications

These findings have practical implications for managers seeking to design a store atmospherics making way for consumers to engage with the store and the brand. The cultural milieu in which the study was performed could be seen as a possible limitation of the study. This cultural angle should also be taken into consideration while the findings were considered.

Originality/value

Using ZMET as an innovative research method makes the study significant. By doing so, the metaphors of consumption are extended to the sensory marketing field to provide a more comprehensive understanding on the effects of store scent. Moreover, the study contributes to the existing literature of smell marketing.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Sidney C. H. Cheung

The sublime in scent refers to the use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary olfactory experience, and I would like to borrow this…

Abstract

Purpose

The sublime in scent refers to the use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary olfactory experience, and I would like to borrow this literary concept to explore the recent development of incense traditions in Japan and China from a sociocultural perspective. In order to understand how olfactory characters of incense have been verbally expressed, we can start by looking into the sublime in scent through the articulation of relevant subtle approaches since ancient times.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explains how the description of scent experienced by individuals has been associated with thoughts and history and why the sublime in scent is more complicated than the aroma people can tell. The data collected for this research is mostly based on observations by participating in various events and conversations with different people.

Findings

In Japan and China, the use of incense has a long history, and relevant scent cultures have been developed not only for offerings in religious practices, but also as a kind of scent appreciation together with a poetic presentation. Again, it is important and significant to discern several interactions of incense traditions in these two countries, since the transformations became obvious in the last two decades, while Japanese Kodo participated more in international exchange, and the Chinese people's view of intangible cultural heritage has become more important in their daily social practices.

Originality/value

As a way of showing how the study of scent can enhance ethnographic writing and the understanding of changes in the appreciation of incense, this paper hopes to contribute to the study of art and tradition.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Hua (Meg) Meng, César Zamudio and Robert D. Jewell

This paper aims to examine how olfactory imagery, triggered by scent brand names prior to smelling, influences scented-product purchase intention.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how olfactory imagery, triggered by scent brand names prior to smelling, influences scented-product purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Five studies were conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict likelihood of olfactory imagery formation. ANOVA and t-test analyses were used for scent brand name group comparisons, and serial mediation analysis was used to test how scent brand names impact purchase intention through olfactory imagery vividness and the (dis)confirmation between imagined (i.e. expected) and experienced scents.

Findings

Scent name familiarity stimulates olfactory imagery formation. Scent brand name specificity (e.g. “Lavender Bouquet” vs. “Floral Bouquet”) influences purchase intention, with specific names leading to lower purchase intention, because they generate vivid olfactory imagery and induce a disconfirmation between imagined and experienced scents.

Practical implications

Branding scents on products should be a strategic product design decision. Surprisingly, although specific scent brand names trigger vivid olfactory imagery and precise scent expectations, they mitigate purchase intention and thus are riskier. General scent brand names are safer.

Originality/value

This research contributes by extending the literature on the effect of verbal cues on scent perception by considering the role of scent brand name specificity on purchase intent. It also adds to work on how olfactory imagery influences purchase intention by incorporating olfactory imagery vividness. Finally, it proposes and tests an underlying cognitive mechanism to explain the relationship between scent brand names and purchase intention.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Tina Poon and Bianca Grohmann

This replication and extension of Hirsch and Gruss examines the impact of spatial density and ambient scent on consumers' spatial perception and anxiety. The paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

This replication and extension of Hirsch and Gruss examines the impact of spatial density and ambient scent on consumers' spatial perception and anxiety. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (spatial density: high, low)×3 (ambient scent: no scent, scent associated with spaciousness, scent associated with enclosed spaces) between-participants experimental design was implemented in a laboratory setting. A pretest determined scent selection and manipulation checks were successful.

Findings

Spatial perception was influenced by spatial density, but not ambient scent. Ambient scent and spatial density interacted, such that consumers' anxiety levels significantly increased under conditions of low spatial density combined with an ambient scent associated with spaciousness, and directionally increased under conditions of high spatial density combined with ambient scent associated with enclosed space.

Research limitations/implications

This research was conducted in a laboratory setting in order to increase experimental control. An exploration of the strength of the observed effects in a field (retail) setting would be insightful.

Practical implications

Results of this study suggest that retailers need to consider both spatial density and choice of ambient scent carefully in order to reduce consumers' anxiety levels.

Originality/value

This research is one of the few to consider the impact of spatial density and ambient scent on consumers' anxiety levels. The use of a between-participants design and the experimental manipulation of both spatial density and ambient scent results in a more rigorous test of the scent – anxiety relation observed in previous research.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Meng-Hsien (Jenny) Lin, Samantha N.N. Cross and Terry L. Childers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotions in processing scent information in consumer research, using event-related potential (ERP)-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotions in processing scent information in consumer research, using event-related potential (ERP)-based neuroscience methods, while considering individual differences in sense of smell.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior research on olfaction and emotions in marketing has revealed mixed findings on the relationship between olfaction and emotion. The authors review earlier studies and present a neuroscience experiment demonstrating the benefits of ERP methods in studying the automatic processing of emotions.

Findings

Results demonstrate how emotional processes occurring within 1s of stimulus exposure differ across individuals with varying olfactory abilities. Findings reveal an automatic suppression mechanism for individuals sensitive to smell.

Research limitations/implications

Scent-induced emotions demonstrated through the use of ERP-based methods provide insights for understanding automatic emotional processes and reactions to ambient scents by consumers in the marketplace.

Practical implications

Findings show an automatic suppression of emotions triggered by scent in individuals sensitive to smell. Marketers and retailers should consider such reactions when evaluating the use of olfactory stimuli in promotional and retail strategies.

Originality/value

The authors review past literature and provide an explanation for the disparate findings in the olfaction–emotion linkage, by studying individual differences in response to scent in the marketplace. This is one of the first papers in marketing to introduce the application of ERP in studying consumer-relevant behavior and provide technical and marketing-specific considerations for both academic and market researchers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Ana M. Arboleda, Carlos Arce-Lopera and Samuel González

The purpose of this paper is evaluate to what extent consumers can recognise a scent within a context that is congruent either with the product or with the user…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is evaluate to what extent consumers can recognise a scent within a context that is congruent either with the product or with the user, respectively, objects’ quality or subjects’ involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper consists of two experimental studies. The first study assesses people’s capacity to recognise three scents: leather, synthetic leather, and fabric. The second study assesses the way in which a frame of reference (quality or involvement) affects people’s capacity for scent recognition (leather and fabric).

Findings

Results confirm the difficulty of scent recognition revealing, in the first study, a low level of consistency in subjects’ responses. The second study shows an interaction between the type of scent and consumers’ framework: subjects who are primed to think about product quality present more accurate scent recognition when they smell leather, whereas subjects who are primed to think about themselves present more accurate scent recognition when they smell fabric.

Practical implications

These results can be used in brand communication. A scent, such as that of leather, should highlight quality attributes in its communication. If the product is unscented, communication should highlight the subject who uses the product.

Originality/value

Previous studies show the importance of the consistency between scent and product marketing strategies. This study complements these findings by differentiating the context where a scent is presented considering either the product (the object’s quality attributes) or the individual who uses that product (subject’s involvement).

Propósito

Este estudio evalúa en qué medida los consumidores pueden reconocer un aroma en un contexto congruente con el producto o con el usuario, respectivamente, calidad del objeto o involucramiento del sujeto.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Este artículo consiste en dos estudios experimentales. El primero evalúa la capacidad de los individuos para reconocer tres aromas: cuero, cuero sintético y tela. El segundo estudio evalúa de qué forma un contexto de referencia (calidad o involucramiento) influye en la capacidad para reconocer un aroma (cuero y tela).

Hallazgos

Los resultados confirman la dificultad para el reconocimiento del aroma mostrando, en el primer estudio, un bajo nivel de consistencia en las respuestas de los sujetos. El segundo estudio muestra una interacción entre el tipo de aroma y el contexto de los consumidores: Sujetos que se les induce a pensar en la calidad del producto tienen un reconocimiento del aroma más acertado cuando huelen cuero; mientras que sujetos que se inducen a pensar en sí mismos tienen un reconocimiento del aroma más acertado cuando huelen tela.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los resultados pueden ser utilizados en la comunicación de la marca. Un aroma, como el del cuero, deberá destacar en la comunicación atributos de calidad. Si el producto no tiene aroma, la comunicación debe destacar el sujeto que usa el producto.

Originalidad/valor

Estudios previos señalan la importancia de la consistencia entre el aroma y las estrategias de mercadeo de un producto. Este estudio complementa estos hallazgos diferenciando el contexto en el que se presenta un aroma considerando el producto (atributos de calidad del objeto) o el individuo quien lo usa (involucramiento del sujeto).

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

Lena Goldkuhl and Maria Styvén

The intangible character of services makes it difficult for customers to evaluate a service offering before consumption. Scent offers a powerful means of making services…

Abstract

Purpose

The intangible character of services makes it difficult for customers to evaluate a service offering before consumption. Scent offers a powerful means of making services tangible. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to the understanding of how scents can be used for services marketing purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an overview of studies, mainly from the area of retailing, indicating how scents can be used in services, and this is followed by a number of examples of such applications.

Findings

The paper finds that, although there are examples of service providers utilising scents to tangibilise, enhance and differentiate services, this area has been relatively neglected in marketing literature.

Practical implications

By adding the component of scent to their offerings, service providers have the opportunity to create a competitive advantage. When using scents in services marketing, managers should consider the aspects of presence, pleasantness, congruity and memory of scents.

Originality/value

No other paper with a specific focus on scent as a tangibiliser, enhancer and differentiator of services has been found in marketing literature. This paper provides important insights into the use of scents for services marketing purposes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 41 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Kaisa Sandell

This study aims to examine the relationship between consumer characteristics and the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between consumer characteristics and the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The theories of the effects of consumer decision-making, olfaction and sensory marketing on purchase behavior are applied using loyalty card data collected through an experiment. These data are analyzed using quantitative methods.

Findings

The presence of an olfactory cue has a positive impact on purchase behavior, as measured by product-category sales. Results indicate that in sales promotion, olfactory cues are most efficient in men who have hedonistic or quality-oriented decision-making styles.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is the first to study the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior when the interactions between the individual characteristics of consumers are considered. The study broadens extant frameworks of sensory marketing by placing the consumer in the central position as the processor of sensory cues. The work pioneers the integration of consumer’s decision-making style (CDMS) as one of the moderating factors in the process.

Practical implications

The results encourage retailers and practitioners to consider CDMS – and not only gender or age – when using olfactory cues in sales promotions. Hopefully, this paper will inspire retailers to think of the more psychological aspects of consumer behavior and decision-making when planning their loyalty card systems.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to study the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior when the interactions between the individual characteristics of consumers are considered. Addressing the decision-making style in addition to demographics is a novel approach, contrasting with earlier studies that merely focused on olfactory acuity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 April 2009

Andrew G. Parsons

The purpose of the paper is to introduce the concept of associated scents for retail stores that are normally odourless, and provide an understanding of how associated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to introduce the concept of associated scents for retail stores that are normally odourless, and provide an understanding of how associated scent can be used by these non‐scented retailers to influence shopper behaviour and the appeal of the store.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involves both an experiment and a field study. The experiment is design to see if scents that have been identify as associated with different store types differed in their influence on behaviour and affect from scents that are not associated with the store. The field study involves an actual store where scent is manipulated, with an associated scent during one period, and a non‐associated yet pleasant scent present during another period. Customer perceptions of the store are measured, their purchase behaviour is measured, and actual year‐on‐year weekly sales are compared.

Findings

Previous studies have suggested that simply having a pleasant scent present can enhance liking for the store and encourage positive sales behaviour, however, this study shows that for a store that is normally odourless, the scent needs to have a perceived association with the store‐type to gain positive responses. Presence of a pleasant but non‐associated scent can actually lead to negative affective or behavioural responses.

Research limitations/implications

An important research implication is that the association of a non product‐specific scent with a particular (normally odourless) store might mean that encountering that scent elsewhere may trigger in the person thoughts of the store, which further research could show to be a motivator for visiting the store. Another implication is the need to identify best performing associated scents, and whether a retailer through a marketing campaign can create an artificial association, thus gaining a unique, sustainable competitive advantage.

Practical/implications

Because it is expected, the naturally scented store (e.g. the florist or bakery) gains no competitive advantage through the use of scent, but this study shows managers of normally odourless stores that they can gain a competitive advantage in their category through the identification and use of scent customers would associate with the store‐type. Furthermore, because the store is not stuck with the scent, unlike the naturally scented stores, and because there may even be multiple associated scents, managers can vary the use of scent so that desensitisation can be mitigated.

Originality/value

The paper introduces for the first time to the literature the concept of associated scents for stores, and demonstrates the managerial value that use of an associated scent in a normally odourless store can have with regard to enhanced shopper behaviour and liking for the store.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000