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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Ana M. Arboleda, Carlos Arce-Lopera and Samuel González

The purpose of this paper is evaluate to what extent consumers can recognise a scent within a context that is congruent either with the product or with the user…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is evaluate to what extent consumers can recognise a scent within a context that is congruent either with the product or with the user, respectively, objects’ quality or subjects’ involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper consists of two experimental studies. The first study assesses people’s capacity to recognise three scents: leather, synthetic leather, and fabric. The second study assesses the way in which a frame of reference (quality or involvement) affects people’s capacity for scent recognition (leather and fabric).

Findings

Results confirm the difficulty of scent recognition revealing, in the first study, a low level of consistency in subjects’ responses. The second study shows an interaction between the type of scent and consumers’ framework: subjects who are primed to think about product quality present more accurate scent recognition when they smell leather, whereas subjects who are primed to think about themselves present more accurate scent recognition when they smell fabric.

Practical implications

These results can be used in brand communication. A scent, such as that of leather, should highlight quality attributes in its communication. If the product is unscented, communication should highlight the subject who uses the product.

Originality/value

Previous studies show the importance of the consistency between scent and product marketing strategies. This study complements these findings by differentiating the context where a scent is presented considering either the product (the object’s quality attributes) or the individual who uses that product (subject’s involvement).

Propósito

Este estudio evalúa en qué medida los consumidores pueden reconocer un aroma en un contexto congruente con el producto o con el usuario, respectivamente, calidad del objeto o involucramiento del sujeto.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Este artículo consiste en dos estudios experimentales. El primero evalúa la capacidad de los individuos para reconocer tres aromas: cuero, cuero sintético y tela. El segundo estudio evalúa de qué forma un contexto de referencia (calidad o involucramiento) influye en la capacidad para reconocer un aroma (cuero y tela).

Hallazgos

Los resultados confirman la dificultad para el reconocimiento del aroma mostrando, en el primer estudio, un bajo nivel de consistencia en las respuestas de los sujetos. El segundo estudio muestra una interacción entre el tipo de aroma y el contexto de los consumidores: Sujetos que se les induce a pensar en la calidad del producto tienen un reconocimiento del aroma más acertado cuando huelen cuero; mientras que sujetos que se inducen a pensar en sí mismos tienen un reconocimiento del aroma más acertado cuando huelen tela.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los resultados pueden ser utilizados en la comunicación de la marca. Un aroma, como el del cuero, deberá destacar en la comunicación atributos de calidad. Si el producto no tiene aroma, la comunicación debe destacar el sujeto que usa el producto.

Originalidad/valor

Estudios previos señalan la importancia de la consistencia entre el aroma y las estrategias de mercadeo de un producto. Este estudio complementa estos hallazgos diferenciando el contexto en el que se presenta un aroma considerando el producto (atributos de calidad del objeto) o el individuo quien lo usa (involucramiento del sujeto).

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Yamen Koubaa and Amira Eleuch

The purpose of this paper is to test for gender-specific effects on odor-induced taste enhancement and subsequent food consumption in olfactory food marketing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test for gender-specific effects on odor-induced taste enhancement and subsequent food consumption in olfactory food marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Lab experiments conducted among female and male participants using vanillin as a stimulus and ratings of sweetness, taste pleasantness and eating of sugar-free food as measures.

Findings

Odor-induced taste enhancement is gender-specific. Female consumers outperform male consumers in olfactory reaction and sweetness perception. While men outperform women in food consumption.

Research limitations/implications

Odor intensity was set to the concentration level of 0.00005per cent according to the findings from (Fujimaru and Lim, 2013). The authors believe that this intensity level is appropriate for both men and women. Still, there may be some gender effects on intensity levels, which are not explored here. The author’s test for the effects of one personal factor, gender and odor-induced taste enhancement of sugar-free food. The authors think that investigating the combined effects of more personal factors such as age, culture and so on adds to the accuracy of the results.

Practical implications

It seems that the stronger sensory capacities of women in terms of odor detection and recognition already confirmed in the literature extends to the cross-modal effects of this sensory detection and recognition on taste enhancement. It seems appropriate to tailor olfactory food advertising according to the gender of the target audience.

Originality/value

Odor-induced taste enhancement is still a novel subject in marketing. While most of the research has investigated the effects of smelling congruent odors on taste perception and food consumption among mixed groups of men and women, the value of this paper lies in the investigation of the potential moderating effects of gender on this relationship.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Bartosz Wyszynski and Takamichi Nakamoto

This work has been motivated by the authors' long‐term research on odor‐sensing systems using acoustic wave‐based sensors and pattern recognition techniques. The sensors…

Abstract

Purpose

This work has been motivated by the authors' long‐term research on odor‐sensing systems using acoustic wave‐based sensors and pattern recognition techniques. The sensors should be fabricated in such a way that they mimic performance of the olfactory receptors. In these terms, the purpose of this paper is to test a simple method for fabrication of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors by using nanocomposites and amphiphilic gas chromatography (GC) materials. The obtained sensors were intended to be highly sensitive to odorants at low concentrations and in high‐humidity conditions, as well as contributing to discrimination among odorant samples.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed fabrication process consists of four stages: formation of all‐lipopolymeric layer on surface of the QCM sensor; preparation of lipopolymeric nanocomposites by means of chemisorption of lipopolymers onto nano‐Au; precipitation of the nanocomposites onto the lipopolymer‐coated QCM surface; and physisorption of amphiphilic GC materials onto the lipopolymer‐nanocomposite matrix. The fabricated sensors have been evaluated in the experiments of exposure to vapors of odorants at various concentrations and humidity levels.

Findings

The authors found that sensitivity of the sensors fabricated using the proposed method was much superior to that recorded for the sensors with all‐lipopolymeric and all‐amphiphilic films. The novel sensors' performance showed robustness against humidity and capability to discriminate among odorant samples at relatively low‐concentration levels.

Practical implications

The sensors fabricated using the proposed method can be useful in recognition of the odorant samples at ppb‐level under high humidity. Their performance has not been deteriorated even under high humidity.

Originality/value

The paper presents application of a relatively simple chemi‐/physisorption processes to form an odor‐interactive coating, with high sensitivity and robustness against humidity. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the method proposed here has not been presented by other groups.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2021

John N. Moye

Chapter 5 changes focus from the external stimulus to the internal sensemaking by integrating and comparing new learning with the prior learning of the individual, which…

Abstract

Chapter 5 changes focus from the external stimulus to the internal sensemaking by integrating and comparing new learning with the prior learning of the individual, which is the process of sensory cognition. These processes are identified and compiled into a model of the processes the brain uses to construct a cognition from the information, including both individual and collective learning. This results in the internalization of a new individual cognition constructed from the integration of the new information with prior information.

Details

The Psychophysics of Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-113-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

T. Oishi, M. Kaneyasu and A. Ikegami

An integrated sensor with three elements (zinc oxide, tin oxide and tungsten oxide) was fabricated by thick film techniques in order to develop a smell sensor. Using this…

Abstract

An integrated sensor with three elements (zinc oxide, tin oxide and tungsten oxide) was fabricated by thick film techniques in order to develop a smell sensor. Using this sensor and pattern recognition method, the possibility of identifying 15 chemical compounds which belong to the alcohol, ester, ketone, benzene and hydrocarbon group was examined. The following results were obtained: All 15 compounds have different patterns, so they can be individually identified; compounds which have the same functional groups have similar patterns; and, when gas sensitivity of three elements is displayed in a three‐dimensional space, the compounds with the same functional group form a specific closed space. This indicates that the sensor can identify functional groups of chemical compounds.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Raymond B. Starkey

The interest in biometrics grows as sensor development makes the science of facial recognition technically feasible. The notion of identity is directly related to physical…

Abstract

The interest in biometrics grows as sensor development makes the science of facial recognition technically feasible. The notion of identity is directly related to physical information and the individuality of the human face is a substantial factor in providing a large part of our own identity. In Darwinian terms, the face must have a role in the development of the species. Why is it important to differentiate the face? Is it because as the species developed, its sense of smell became less important as the brain grew and visual recognition rather than odour signalled the cues to tribe, species or family? Or perhaps there is a deeper need in the human spirit to be unique unto itself? Whatever the case the face plays the important role in the identification process.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Krishna Chandra Persaud

The purpose of this paper is to review recent progress in electronic nose technologies, focusing on hybrid systems combining biological elements with physical transducers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review recent progress in electronic nose technologies, focusing on hybrid systems combining biological elements with physical transducers.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic nose technologies are moving rapidly towards hybrid bioelectronic systems, where biological odour-recognition elements from the olfactory pathways of vertebrates and insects are being utilised to construct new “bionic noses” that can be used in industrial applications.

Findings

With the increased understanding of how chemical senses and the brain function in biology, an emerging field of “neuromorphic olfaction” has arisen.

Research limitations/implications

Important components are olfactory receptor proteins and soluble proteins found at the periphery of olfaction called odorant-binding proteins. The idea is that these proteins can be incorporated into transducers and function as biorecognition elements for volatile compounds of interest.

Practical implications

Major drivers are the security, environmental and medical applications, and the internet of things will be a major factor in implementing low-cost chemical sensing in networked applications for the future.

Social implications

Widespread take up of new technologies that are cheap will minimise the impact of environmental pollution, increase food safety and may potentially help in non-invasive screening for medical ailments.

Originality/value

This review brings together diverse threads of research leading to a common theme that will inform a non-expert of recent developments in the field.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

K. Arshak, E. Moore, G.M. Lyons, J. Harris and S. Clifford

This paper reviews the range of sensors used in electronic nose (e‐nose) systems to date. It outlines the operating principles and fabrication methods of each sensor type…

Abstract

This paper reviews the range of sensors used in electronic nose (e‐nose) systems to date. It outlines the operating principles and fabrication methods of each sensor type as well as the applications in which the different sensors have been utilised. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each sensor for application in a cost‐effective low‐power handheld e‐nose system.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Torben Lenau, Hyunmin Cheong and Li Shu

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how biomimetics can be applied in sensor design. Biomimetics is an engineering discipline that uses nature as an inspiration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how biomimetics can be applied in sensor design. Biomimetics is an engineering discipline that uses nature as an inspiration source for generating ideas for how to solve engineering problems. The paper reviews a number of biomimetic studies of sense organs in animals and illustrates how a formal search method developed at University of Toronto can be applied to sensor design.

Design/methodology/approach

Using biomimetics involves a search for relevant cases, a proper analysis of the biological solutions, identification of design principles and design of the desired artefact. The present search method is based on formulation of relevant keywords and search for occurrences in a standard university biology textbook. Most often a simple formulation of keywords and a following search is not enough to generate a sufficient amount of useful ideas or the search gives too many results. This is handled by a more advanced search strategy where the search is either widened or it is focused further mainly using biological synonyms.

Findings

A major problem in biomimetic design is finding the relevant analogies to actual design tasks in nature.

Research limitations/implications

Biomimetics can be a challenge to engineers due to the terminology from another scientific discipline.

Practical implications

Using a formalised search method is a way of solving the problem of finding the relevant biological analogies.

Originality/value

The paper is of value as most present biomimetic research is focused on the understanding of biological phenomena and does not have as much focus on the engineering design challenges.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Robert Bogue

This paper aims to provide an insight into recent biomimetic sensor developments.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an insight into recent biomimetic sensor developments.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a brief introduction, this paper considers a number of specific sensor R&D activities which involve the use of differing biomimetic concepts, including the fabrication of artificial sensing organs, emulating human senses, novel uses of biological structures and systems exploiting biologically‐inspired behaviour.

Findings

This paper shows that a range of different biomimetic design concepts are being applied to sensors that respond to a range of physical, gaseous and chemical variables. Robust, multi‐sensor systems are being developed which emulate biologically‐inspired behaviour.

Originality/value

This paper provides an up to date technical review of a range of differing biomimetic sensor designs and concepts.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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