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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Wei Liu, Yanhong Tian, Lei Yang, Chunqing Wang and Lining Sun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Design/methodology/approach

A N2 atmosphere at room temperature, 60°C, 100°C and 130°C, or an air atmosphere at room temperature were utilized in this study. The solder balls were composed of Sn‐2.0Ag‐0.75Cu‐3.0Bi, and 120 μm in diameter. The surface finish of one pad of the joints was 4.0 μm Au/0.1 μm NiFe/0.01 μm Ta, another pad was made of Cu plated with 3.0 μm Au. The laser reflow process time was controlled to within 10 ms. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to identify the oxidation condition of LR solder joints with or without protection from a N2 atmosphere at room temperature. The appearance and cross‐sections of the joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at different temperatures were evaluated using SEM analysis.

Findings

Oxidation of LR solder joints from an air atmosphere was extremely severe, and the surfaces of solder were rough as compared with joints protected by a N2 atmosphere. Au‐rich phases and needle‐like AuSn4 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interfaces of the solder and the pads. As the temperature of the N2 atmosphere was increased above 100°C, almost all of the Au‐rich phases disappeared. More needle‐like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces, as compared with that in joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at room temperature and 60°C. In addition, the orientation of the IMCs had clearly changed.

Originality/value

The results may provide a guide for controlling oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of micro‐solder joints during the LR process, and improving the properties of joints between solder and pads with Au surface finishes, by regulating the protective atmosphere.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Thomas Latka

The atmospheric turn can be understood as a departure from the occidental dominant thing and event ontologies and opens the way to a situation ontology, in which…

Abstract

The atmospheric turn can be understood as a departure from the occidental dominant thing and event ontologies and opens the way to a situation ontology, in which subjective-bodily felt being-in is at the centre. The focus shifts from objective things or events to subjectively experienceable facts of being within situations and atmospheres. Atmospheres have an affective content, a peculiar non-dimensional spatiality and a hybrid status beyond the typical occidental dualisms, such as subject and object or inner and outer world. If the philosophical potential of the atmospheric turn is highlighted and taken seriously, then fundamental new perspectives in thought and action can reveal themselves.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Rainer Kazig

This contribution deals with the effects of atmospheres. It considers the interest in atmospheres as part of a fundamental change in the mode of individual reasoning which…

Abstract

This contribution deals with the effects of atmospheres. It considers the interest in atmospheres as part of a fundamental change in the mode of individual reasoning which is characterised in contemporary post-industrial societies by an ‘experience orientation’. Atmospheres, which highlight the fact that the subjective state of a person can change in relation to the sensory qualities of the environment, become an interesting concept within this development. The chapter starts from the observation that – in spite of the importance that atmospheres have for spaces of leisure and tourism – there is little research on atmospheres in leisure and tourism studies. It presents three dimensions of effects of atmospheres (emotions and affective tonalities, attention, gesture) that allow us to understand why and how atmospheres matter. The second part links the effects of atmospheres to leisure and tourism, where it proposes distinguishing the corporeal and the sociocultural dimensions of atmospheres. Finally, it discusses the possibilities of designing atmospheres and stresses the necessity for further empirical research.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Jani Tartia

The rhythmic patterns of urban mobilities, and their fluctuations and modifications across the day, give the streets their perceived and experienced atmosphere and…

Abstract

The rhythmic patterns of urban mobilities, and their fluctuations and modifications across the day, give the streets their perceived and experienced atmosphere and character. This paper examines such street atmospheres and focusses on the role of embodied mobility rhythms in the (re)making of the atmospheres throughout the day. Utilising a rhythmanalytical framework and research data comprising videoed site observations and on-site fieldnotes, the study analyses ‘crepuscular’ (behaviour taking place during the twilight hours of the day, at dawn and dusk) mobility rhythms that reveal internal tensions and modalities of urban sites across a 24-hour period. The analysis highlights the connections between fluctuating pressures of motor traffic and mobile embodied appropriations of the space in the making of the streetscape and its changing atmospheres between the ‘day-time city’ and the ‘night-time city’. The chapter demonstrates that an analytical focus on such ‘in-between’ temporalities of the twilight can help to map the complex and multifaceted urban polyrhythmia, which, in turn, might provide new insight for rhythm-based perspectives towards urban atmospheres and street spaces as sites of urban social life.

Details

Rhythmanalysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-973-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Michael Volgger and Dieter Pfister

This introduction to the volume Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding (Emerald…

Abstract

This introduction to the volume Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding (Emerald) positions the atmospheric turn in the context of recent paradigmatic turns such as the linguistic turn, iconic turn, cultural turn, spatial turn, mobility turn and design turn. The specific contribution of the atmospheric turn is its profoundly holistic interest in overarching connections which are perceived with all senses and include both matter and idea. With its 22 chapters, this volume sets out to sharpen the atmospheric gaze and perception in research and beyond.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Dieter Pfister

First, this chapter traces how the concept of atmosphere has evolved in the fields of theology, philosophy, geography, sociology, psychology and architecture. Then it…

Abstract

First, this chapter traces how the concept of atmosphere has evolved in the fields of theology, philosophy, geography, sociology, psychology and architecture. Then it analyses the question of how to describe atmospheres and how to deepen the perception of atmospheres through market research. Finally, the chapter discusses the possibilities and limits of naming and typologising atmospheres.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Dieter Pfister

This chapter proposes a place atmosphere model, which can be used for all types of space, from the landscape to the municipality to the property. In addition to the…

Abstract

This chapter proposes a place atmosphere model, which can be used for all types of space, from the landscape to the municipality to the property. In addition to the emotional aspects, this atmosphere model also describes the socio-cultural, economic and ecologic dimensions that can shape an atmosphere. It is modelled in such a way to permit connecting to the theory and practice of brand and destination management in particular and to the model and process ideas of the planning, design and construction industries.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Andreas Rauh

Comparing two different descriptions of the atmosphere of one and the same city allows for interesting insights regarding the production, duration and perception of urban…

Abstract

Comparing two different descriptions of the atmosphere of one and the same city allows for interesting insights regarding the production, duration and perception of urban atmospheres. Aspects of time are very important in this context as they form typical atmospheres here and always, ensure that the patina of the city and the people is based on experience, and generate expectations prior to actually felt-bodily perceptions by means of narration. Changes in environmental qualities or modes of perception can provide clues to both typologies of places and the people present. Moreover, this chapter introduces the Atmospheric Portfolio, which illustrates how research on personal atmospheric perception as well as site-specific atmospheres of a location becomes possible. In the sense of further heuristic starting points, methods employed by other research projects will supplement the study.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Anne-Marie Sassenberg, Cindy Sassenberg, Claudia Sassenberg and Marie Heneghan

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of atmosphere on consumer emotions and wine purchasing behaviours to assist winery management in the development and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of atmosphere on consumer emotions and wine purchasing behaviours to assist winery management in the development and communication of a strong positioning strategy. Studies in retail have indicated the importance of atmosphere in relation to consumer emotions and behaviours. Until now, limited evidence has existed on how the three dimensions of atmosphere may influence consumers visiting wineries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study consisted of surveys conducted in two stages. The first survey (n = 170) explored the factors applied in this study, and the second survey (n = 377) analysed the relationship between the atmosphere, emotions and consumer purchasing behaviours at wineries.

Findings

Findings indicated that atmosphere at a winery has the potential to positively influence consumer emotions and wine purchasing behaviours. Live music and the natural environment were particularly formative of atmosphere and consumer emotions and their subsequent wine purchasing while visiting the winery. The distinction allowed this study to analyse factors important for consumers to increase the time they spent at the winery.

Research limitations/implications

The geographical location of the study is limited to one state in Australia.

Originality/value

In distinguishing between different consumer wine purchasing behaviours, drinking wine and buying wine, this paper contributed to three important intersectoral fields: wine tourism, atmosphere and consumer behaviour. Additional factors that contributed to consumer emotions and wine purchasing behaviours included live music and the natural environment at wineries.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Mohammad Ali Ashraf

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of work atmosphere which have a positive influence on job satisfaction. Specifically, it focuses on how…

1793

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of work atmosphere which have a positive influence on job satisfaction. Specifically, it focuses on how supervisor’s cooperation and career growth affect job satisfaction mediating through work atmosphere in a private corporate entity.

Design/methodology/approach

To attain this objective, a research framework with a mediating variable of work atmosphere was formulated. Using measurement scales created to assess different aspects of job satisfaction, career growth, supervisor’s cooperation and work atmosphere, a survey instrument was developed to test the various relationships implied by the framework. Data (n = 325) were collected from the employees of a local chemical company in Bangladesh following convenience sampling procedure. The analysis has been done by bootstrapping procedure following structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The result shows that work atmosphere has a significant mediating role in linking supervisor cooperation and job satisfaction of the employees in the organization.

Research limitations/implications

As with any study, there are limitations to the study described here. One possible drawback is the use of a single company’s employees as respondents. Second, the sample size is not very large, because respondents were observed to be negligent in filling the questionnaire provided to them. If the sample size could be increased a bit more, then the authors might have better outcomes as postulated in the paper. Nevertheless, the usual cautions about over-generalizing findings from this sample, to populations for which it is not strictly representative, apply. The sample was not randomly drawn to represent a population to which findings could be generalized. Instead, it was a convenience sample, and as such, the ability to generalize the findings very far beyond the sample is limited.

Practical implications

From a practical perspective, as a cumulative body of work on job satisfaction with mediating variable of work atmosphere emerges, the authors will be better able to advise employers on the elements they need to address to increase their employee retention rate. In this study, the one area of findings that may help business and commercial organizations the most concerns work environment in the workplace. The authors found that supervisor cooperation and work atmosphere were associated with positive path value toward job satisfaction. Similarly, career growth and work atmosphere also exhibit positive path value towards job satisfaction. The implication is that employers can focus on supervisor cooperation in rightly and duly promoting the deserving employees, and in doing so, they can generate positive attitudes toward these activities.

Originality/value

This paper will add immense importance of work atmosphere to the organizational learning and behavior.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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