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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Cheng Sun, Meng Zhen and Yu Shao

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating…

Abstract

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating represents a significant proportion of total rural residential energy consumption and has reached 100 million tce (tons of standard coal equivalent), or more than 60% of total household energy consumption. In terms of energy consumption per square meter of gross floor area, rural residential energy consumption for heating is more than that of cities (20kgce/m2). However, the average indoor temperature of most rural residence is below 10°C, much less than that in cities (18°C). Hence, it is an important task for Chinese energy saving and emission reduction to reduce rural residential energy consumption, while enhancing indoor thermal comfort at the same time.

Restricted by local technology and low economic level, rural residences currently have poor thermal insulation resulting in severe heat loss. This paper reports on research aimed at developing design strategies for improving thermal insulation properties of rural residences with appropriate technology. A field survey was conducted in six counties in severe cold areas of Northeast China, addressing the aspects of indoor and outdoor temperature, humidity, internal and external surface temperature of building envelop enclosure, and so on.

The survey data show the following:

1. Modern (after 2000) brick-cement rural residences perform much better than the traditional adobe clay houses and Tatou houses (a regional type of rural residence in Northeast China – see figure A) in overall thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort;

2. Among the traditional residential house types, adobe clay houses have better heat stability and thermal storage capacity than Tatou houses;

3. Applying an internal or external thermal insulation layer can greatly improve rural residential thermal insulation properties, and is an economical and efficient solution in rural areas;

4. In terms of roofing materials, tiled roofs show much better thermal insulation properties than thatch roofs;

5. Adopting passive solar techniques can form a transition space (greenhouse) against frigid temperatures, resulting in interior temperatures 5.91°C higher than the outside surroundings. It is evident that local passive solar room design offers significant heat preservation effects and lower cost ($12/m2), embodies the ecological wisdom of rural residents, and is therefore important to popularize.

The above experimental results can provide guidance in energy conservation design for both self-built residences and rural residences designed by architects. In addition, the results can also provide experimental data for energy-saving studies for rural residences in China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Tashi Dendup, Yun Zhao and I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra

The differences in the distribution of factors associated with under-five mortality (UFM) can help explain the rural-urban inequities in UFM. The determinants contributing…

Abstract

Purpose

The differences in the distribution of factors associated with under-five mortality (UFM) can help explain the rural-urban inequities in UFM. The determinants contributing to UFM in rural and urban areas have not been previously explored in Bhutan. This study examined the factors associated with UFM in rural and urban Bhutan and the role of the factors in explaining UFM disparity.

Design/methodology/approach

The dataset of 6,398 single births (4,999 in rural and 1,399 in urban areas) from the 2012 Bhutan National Health Survey was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis accounting for the complex survey design was performed to investigate the determinants.

Findings

The UFM rate was 2.75 times higher in rural than in urban Bhutan. In rural communities, children of younger mothers, born in households without safe sanitation and electricity, and central and eastern regions had increased UFM odds. Whereas, children born to working mothers and educated fathers, and born in households with non-working household heads had lower UFM odds in urban areas. A higher number of births and smaller household size was associated with an increased UFM odds irrespective of rural-urban residence. Environmental factors were attributable for the largest portion of rural UFM disadvantage.

Originality/value

This study helps to understand the rural-urban differences in the factors influencing UFM in Bhutan. The findings suggest that policies aimed to improve environmental and socioeconomic conditions, women empowerment, and those aimed to enhance health utilization can help reduce the rural-urban child survival disparity and accelerate the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal target.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Xiaogang Wu and Zhuoni Zhang

This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the…

Abstract

This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the analyses of the sample data from population censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the mini-census in 2005. We pay particular attention to educational inequality based on gender and the household registration system (hukou) in the context of educational expansion. Results show a substantial increase in educational opportunities over time at all levels. In particular, women have gained relatively more; gender inequality has decreased over time, and the gap in college enrollments was even reversed to favor women in 2005. However, rural–urban inequality was enlarged in the 1990s. The educational expansion has mainly benefited females and urban residents.

Details

Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-977-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Matt T. Bagwell and Thomas T. H. Wan

Purpose – This study analyzed individual factors of race and dual eligibility on emergency room (ER) utilization of older adult Medicare patients treated by RHCs in CMS…

Abstract

Purpose – This study analyzed individual factors of race and dual eligibility on emergency room (ER) utilization of older adult Medicare patients treated by RHCs in CMS Region 4.

Methodology/approach – A prospective, longitudinal design was employed to analyze health disparities that potentially exist among RHC Medicare beneficiary patients (+65) in terms of ER use. The years of investigation were 2010 through 2012, using mixed multilevel, binary logistic regression.

Findings – This study found that dual eligible RHC patients utilized ER services at higher rates than nondual eligible, Medicare only RHC patients at: 77%, 80%, and 66%, in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively; and above the White reference group, Black RHC Medicare patients utilized ER services at higher rates of: 18%, 20%, and 34%, in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively.

Research limitations/implications – Regarding limitations, cohort data observations within the window of 3 years were only analyzed; regarding generalizability, in different CMS regions, results will likely vary; and linking other variables together in the study was limited by the accessible data. Future research should consider these limitations, and attempt to refine. The findings support that dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and race continue to influence higher rates of ER utilization in CMS Region 4.

Originality/value – In terms of ER utilization disparities, persistently, as recent as 2012, Black, dual eligible RHC Medicare beneficiary patients age 65 years and over may be twice as likely to utilize ER services for care than their counterparts in the Southeastern United States.

Details

Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Other Social Characteristics as Factors in Health and Health Care Disparities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-798-3

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Aramide Kazeem

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations of gender, ethnicity, urban‐rural residence, and poverty, on children's unpaid work. It examines whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations of gender, ethnicity, urban‐rural residence, and poverty, on children's unpaid work. It examines whether the Nigerian experience parallels previous research in India and Latin America, which finds an ethnic gap in children's unpaid work.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the stated objectives, the 2004 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey EdData Survey (2004 NDES) were analyzed.

Findings

The series of logistic regression results confirm the existence of gender, urban‐rural residence, and wealth inequalities in children's unpaid work. For example, girls, children in rural areas and poor children conduct more unpaid work than boys, urban children, and non‐poor children, respectively. In addition, the series of logistic regression results indicate that an ethnic inequality persists in children's unpaid work only when religion, parental attitude on child labor and gender bias in schooling, and region of the country in which the child resides are not controlled for in the analysis.

Originality/value

While previous research in India and Latin America finds an ethnic divide in children's unpaid work, this research contributes to knowledge by discovering that the ethnic gap in children's unpaid work that exists in Nigeria is mediated by a regional effect/variable.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 33 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2007

Seamus Decker

The impact of globalization on individual well-being through the interplay of self and standard forms of lifestyle aspirations, has generally received less attention than…

Abstract

The impact of globalization on individual well-being through the interplay of self and standard forms of lifestyle aspirations, has generally received less attention than the merits of globalization at the macro-level. This chapter addresses this question by testing the hypothesis that poor rural-dwelling Botswana men suffer diminished well-being compared to their relatively well-off urban-dwelling counterparts as a result of unfulfilled lifestyle aspirations. The study combines ethnographic, psychological, and psychosomatic data to compare well-being among rural and urban adult Botswana men. Results indicate that failed urban migration associates with low cortisol and high depressive affect, and rural residence is also independently associated with high depressive affect. This psychosomatic syndrome may be similar to that observed in posttraumatic stress disorder, suggesting that the experience of failed urban migration is considerably more stressful than the demands of employed urban life in contemporary Botswana.

Details

The Economics of Health and Wellness: Anthropological Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-490-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Olga Lorena Rojas Martínez and Mario Martínez Salgado

Recent qualitative social research about Mexican families and gender relations underlines the fact that changes in male involvement in domestic life have occurred and that…

Abstract

Recent qualitative social research about Mexican families and gender relations underlines the fact that changes in male involvement in domestic life have occurred and that significant changes in paternal responsibilities have been reported, especially among younger fathers with high educational levels and living in urban settings. Significant lags have also been detected in rural and indigenous communities regarding women’s status and the reduction of gender gaps.

On the basis of this, we analysed data from the 2014 National Time Use Survey of Mexico in order to determine whether there are significant differences in the time spent on child raising between rural and urban fathers. We also used a regression model to measure the effect of the place of residence and other socio-demographic characteristics on Mexican fathers’ level of involvement in raising their children.

Our results updated the indicators on the generational change in fathers’ collaboration in childcare and show that fathers living in urban settings are more involved – measured in time effectively spent in child raising than their rural counterparts. Furthermore, the occupations of fathers and especially that of mothers are of particular interest as factors that encourage or discourage greater male involvement in child raising.

Details

Fathers, Childcare and Work: Cultures, Practices and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-042-6

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Ranjan Kumar Prusty and Kunal Keshri

– The purpose of this paper is to understand disparities in child immunization and nutritional status among children by migration status in urban India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand disparities in child immunization and nutritional status among children by migration status in urban India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-2006) data, which is the Indian version of Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression models were used to study the levels and factors associated with child nutrition and immunization by migration status.

Findings

Results suggest that malnutrition and no immunization are very high among children of rural-urban migrants and full immunization is lower than urban non-migrants and urban-urban migrants. More than half of the children from marginalized households suffer from the problem of undernutrition among rural-urban migrants. Multivariate results show economic status, age of the mother, education, caste and media exposure are negatively associated with malnutrition and positively associated with immunization. Children from south, north-east and east are found to have lesser chance of being malnourished than north region of India.

Practical implications

The challenges experienced by rural-urban migrants are reflected over their children and needs a greater attention among policy makers in India.

Originality/value

The finding of this study that children of the rural-urban migrants are in a disadvantageous position in terms of nutrition and immunization. This reflects the precarious condition of rural-urban migrants who initially settles in poor neighbourhoods, which are characterized by lack of adequate sanitation and clean water, poor housing and overcrowding, and difficulty in access to modern health services brought out by many researchers.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2016

Mohammad Mainul Islam, Mohammad Sazzad Hasan, Mohammad Bellal Hossain and Tehmina Ghafur

Studies on remarriages based on census data are not available in Bangladesh. Moreover, questions like why the remarriage rate is declining in Bangladesh despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on remarriages based on census data are not available in Bangladesh. Moreover, questions like why the remarriage rate is declining in Bangladesh despite the increasing trend of divorce rate and what factors are associated with this declining trend of remarriage are not answered yet. Thus the purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of divorces and the extent to which this has influenced the likelihood of remarriage in Bangladesh.

Methodology/approach

Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses have been performed by analyzing the most recent and largest sample census data of ever married men and women aged 10 years and above collected in 2011.

Findings

The prevalence of remarriage is low in Bangladesh but more common in rural places of residence, substantially larger in slums when compared with non-slums, among Bengali ethnic people, rent-free tenancy, the age group of 45 years and over, the male population, people of Muslim religion, who have no education, and poorest wealth quintile. Muslim religion, slum dwelling status, employed status, media exposure, and urban residence stand out as the major determinants in terms of remarriage. Women having higher education and the richest quintile of households are less likely to be remarried than those who have lower education and are from the poorest wealth quintile background. Males who remarry also followed the same pattern. But remarriage is higher among both the divorced males and females as compared to widowed males and females. Strategic targeting and responsive social policies are needed to be implemented toward the differential pattern of remarriage by sub-groups of the population and their vulnerabilities in relation to their marital status and marital relation, to understand remarriage dynamics in Bangladesh.

Details

Divorce, Separation, and Remarriage: The Transformation of Family
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-229-3

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Dipty Nawal and Srinivas Goli

The purpose of this paper is to quantify inequalities in utilization of maternal health care services and measure the relative contribution of different factors affecting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify inequalities in utilization of maternal health care services and measure the relative contribution of different factors affecting it in the context of Nepal.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses data from the latest round of the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Two stages of stratified cluster samplings were used. A total of 13,200 women aged 15-49 were interviewed.

Findings

Results of concentration index estimates in three selected indicators suggest considerable inequalities in maternal health care utilization. The decomposition analyses indicate that the critical factors contributing to inequalities in <3 antenatal care visits are poor economic status of households (32 percent) and women (23 percent) and their partners’ illiteracy (23 percent). However, in case of no institutional delivery, apart from the poor economic status of household (51 percent) and women's illiteracy (16 percent), the rural place of residence (21 percent) has emerged as critical factors contributing to inequalities. In case of no postnatal care within a day, birth order (21 percent) becomes a significant factor, next to the poor economic status of the household (41 percent) in terms of the relative contribution to total inequalities.

Practical implications

Policies and program targeting maternal health interventions need to consider equity with efficiency in utilization of maternal health care services, and further to achieve the targets of millennium development goal 5 in Nepal.

Originality/value

This study is an innovative effort to estimate inequalities in maternal health care services in the context of Nepal by using inequality decomposition model. For the first time, this study estimates the relative contribution of different socioeconomic factors contributing to inequalities in maternal health care services in Nepal.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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