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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Cheng Sun, Meng Zhen and Yu Shao

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating…

Abstract

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating represents a significant proportion of total rural residential energy consumption and has reached 100 million tce (tons of standard coal equivalent), or more than 60% of total household energy consumption. In terms of energy consumption per square meter of gross floor area, rural residential energy consumption for heating is more than that of cities (20kgce/m2). However, the average indoor temperature of most rural residence is below 10°C, much less than that in cities (18°C). Hence, it is an important task for Chinese energy saving and emission reduction to reduce rural residential energy consumption, while enhancing indoor thermal comfort at the same time.

Restricted by local technology and low economic level, rural residences currently have poor thermal insulation resulting in severe heat loss. This paper reports on research aimed at developing design strategies for improving thermal insulation properties of rural residences with appropriate technology. A field survey was conducted in six counties in severe cold areas of Northeast China, addressing the aspects of indoor and outdoor temperature, humidity, internal and external surface temperature of building envelop enclosure, and so on.

The survey data show the following:

1. Modern (after 2000) brick-cement rural residences perform much better than the traditional adobe clay houses and Tatou houses (a regional type of rural residence in Northeast China – see figure A) in overall thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort;

2. Among the traditional residential house types, adobe clay houses have better heat stability and thermal storage capacity than Tatou houses;

3. Applying an internal or external thermal insulation layer can greatly improve rural residential thermal insulation properties, and is an economical and efficient solution in rural areas;

4. In terms of roofing materials, tiled roofs show much better thermal insulation properties than thatch roofs;

5. Adopting passive solar techniques can form a transition space (greenhouse) against frigid temperatures, resulting in interior temperatures 5.91°C higher than the outside surroundings. It is evident that local passive solar room design offers significant heat preservation effects and lower cost ($12/m2), embodies the ecological wisdom of rural residents, and is therefore important to popularize.

The above experimental results can provide guidance in energy conservation design for both self-built residences and rural residences designed by architects. In addition, the results can also provide experimental data for energy-saving studies for rural residences in China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2017

Teng Shao, Hong Jin and Lihua Zhao

According to the survey and measurement on rural housing in the Northeast severe cold regions of China, this paper analyzed the existing situation and problems of current…

Abstract

According to the survey and measurement on rural housing in the Northeast severe cold regions of China, this paper analyzed the existing situation and problems of current rural housing in terms of integral development, functional layout, envelop structure, interior thermal environment, heating system and energy utilization etc.. Based on the climatic features of severe cold regions, as well as rural financial and technical conditions, living and production mode, residential construction characteristics and existing resource status etc., the feasible approaches of achieving building energy saving has been proposed, thus acting as a guidance for new rural housing design in severe cold regions.

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Open House International, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1991

Hsioh‐yu Hou

The agricultural resources of China vary with its differentgeographic regions. China is divided into six geographic regions and theclimate, flora and fauna of each are…

Abstract

The agricultural resources of China vary with its different geographic regions. China is divided into six geographic regions and the climate, flora and fauna of each are described, together with the ecological relationship between them. Suggestions are given of how best to exploit, utilise and protect these resources.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 8/9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Jet-Chau Wen, Shao-Yang Huang, Chia-Chen Hsu and Kou-Chiang Chang

Taiwan is located between the world's largest landmass, the continent of Asia, and its largest ocean, the Pacific Ocean. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the island of

Abstract

Taiwan is located between the world's largest landmass, the continent of Asia, and its largest ocean, the Pacific Ocean. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the island of Taiwan, giving it a subtropical and tropical oceanic climate. High temperatures and rainfall and strong winds characterize the climate. Because of Taiwan's position in the Asian monsoon region, its climate is greatly influenced by monsoons as well as by its own complicated topography. The annual mean temperatures in the lowlands are 22–25°C, and the monthly mean temperature exceeds 20°C for eight months starting with April each year. The period from June to August is the hottest season with mean temperatures of 27–29°C. Temperatures are cooler between November and March; in most places, the coldest monthly mean temperature is above 15°C. The climate is mild rather than cold and temperatures only fall dramatically when a cold front affects the region. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands of Taiwan is in the range of 1,600–2,500mm. Due to the influences of topography and the monsoon climate, the rainfall differs greatly with different areas and seasons. In mountainous areas, average rainfall may exceed 4,000mm/yr. Rainfall is generally higher in mountainous areas than in lowland areas, higher in the east than in the west, and higher on windward slopes than on the leeward side. The northeast monsoon prevails during the winter; this is the rainy season in the north though rainfall is not intense. But the same winter period is the dry season in the south. During the summer, the southwest monsoon prevails, often giving rise to convective thunderstorms and bringing intense and copious rainfall. With added downpours brought by typhoons, this season often accounts for over 50% of annual rainfall in the south so that central and southern regions often suffer greatly. Relative humidity on the island of Taiwan, surrounded by ocean, is high, usually measuring in the range of 78–85%. In the north, relative humidity is higher during winter than during summer. The situation in the south is the opposite. Over the past 100 years, the rainfall in the north has increased, while the rainfall in the south has decreased. The trend is not as consistent as that of the temperature change (Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan), 2002).

Details

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-485-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2016

Shoko Yamada

This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and…

Abstract

This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and Thailand. It will also examine the roles played by regional bodies such as the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and ASPBAE (the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education) as the horizontal channels influencing aid policies in respective countries. Together with the analysis of the national and organizational policies, the regional process of building consensus on the post-2015 agenda is examined, with a particular focus on the Asia-Pacific Regional Education Conference (APREC) held in August 2014.

The analysis reveals that the region has two faces: one is imaginary and the other is functional. There is a common trend across Asian donors to refer to their historical ties with regions and countries to which they provide assistance and their traditional notions of education and development. They highlight Asian features in contrast to conventional aid principles and approaches based on the Western value system, either apparently or in a muted manner. In this sense, the imagined community of Asia with common cultural roots is perceived by the policymakers across the board.

At the same time, administratively, the importance of the region as a stage between the national and global levels is recognized increasingly in the multilateral global governance structure. With this broadened participatory structure, as discussed in the chapter ‘Post-EFA Global Discourse: The Process of Shaping the Shared View of the ‘Education Community’’, the expected function of the region to transmit the norms and requests from the global level and to collect and summarize national voices has increased.

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Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Ning Wang, Haitao Zhang and Huizhong Xiong

In order to unravel the evolution of microstructure characteristics and the change of mechanical properties of bituminous mixture in the freezing and thawing environment…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to unravel the evolution of microstructure characteristics and the change of mechanical properties of bituminous mixture in the freezing and thawing environment in cold region, this study starts from macroscopic experiments and analyzes the changes in mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures before and after freezing and thawing in detail. On this basis, the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture under the action of external forces (before and after freezing and thawing) is simulated through the combination macroscopic and microscopic methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The climate in China exhibits high complexity and diversity, divided into five zones based on the temperature difference from south to north. Considering that the significant effect of geography and natural climate on the design, construction and maintenance of asphalt pavement, the criterion for the road construction at different areas should be highly different.

Findings

The results show that the mechanical properties of asphalt mixture greatly decrease due to the influence of freeze-thaw, and the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture (several representative particle sizes were selected through experiments) is obviously observed because of the action of external force. By analyzing the variation of several key particle sizes after freezing-thawing cycle, the gradation standard of asphalt mixture aggregate suitable for cold area was obtained. The research results have certain theoretical and practical value for the design and application of asphalt mixture in cold area.

Originality/value

The results show that the mechanical properties of asphalt mixture greatly decrease due to the influence of freeze-thaw, and the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture (several representative particle sizes were selected through experiments) is obviously observed because of the action of external force. By analyzing the variation of several key particle sizes after freezing-thawing cycle, the gradation standard of asphalt mixture aggregate suitable for cold area was obtained. The research results have certain theoretical and practical value for the design and application of asphalt mixture in cold area.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Abstract

Details

Chinese Railways in the Era of High-Speed
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-984-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Chunlan Li, Jun Wang, Min Liu, Desalegn Yayeh Ayal, Qian Gong, Richa Hu, Shan Yin and Yuhai Bao

Extreme high temperatures are a significant feature of global climate change and have become more frequent and intense in recent years. These pose a significant threat to…

Abstract

Purpose

Extreme high temperatures are a significant feature of global climate change and have become more frequent and intense in recent years. These pose a significant threat to both human health and economic activity, and thus are receiving increasing research attention. Understanding the hazards posed by extreme high temperatures are important for selecting intervention measures targeted at reducing socioeconomic and environmental damage.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, detrended fluctuation analysis is used to identify extreme high-temperature events, based on homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperatures from nine meteorological stations in a major grassland region, Hulunbuir, China, over the past 56 years.

Findings

Compared with the commonly used functions, Weibull distribution has been selected to simulate extreme high-temperature scenarios. It has been found that there was an increasing trend of extreme high temperature, and in addition, the probability of its indices increased significantly, with regional differences. The extreme high temperatures in four return periods exhibited an extreme low hazard in the central region of Hulunbuir, and increased from the center to the periphery. With the increased length of the return period, the area of high hazard and extreme high hazard increased. Topography and anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns may be the main factors influencing the occurrence of extreme high temperatures.

Originality/value

These results may contribute to a better insight in the hazard of extreme high temperatures, and facilitate the development of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with the adverse effects.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Abstract

Details

Social Conflict and Harmony: Tourism in China’s Multi-Ethnic Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-356-9

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