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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Antonio Contarini and Arjen Meijer

The environmental performance of several flat roof systems with different materials and insulation thicknesses is compared using life cycle assessment (LCA), with the aim…

Abstract

Purpose

The environmental performance of several flat roof systems with different materials and insulation thicknesses is compared using life cycle assessment (LCA), with the aim to determine the roofing materials with the highest environmental performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The calculations were carried out for an existing apartment block with a 300 m² flat roof. Five insulation materials with three different heat resistances each, five types of waterproof layers, three covering layers, and a green roof are assessed using LCA. Foreground data including maintenance are obtained from roofing companies, and background data are taken from Ecoinvent. ReCiPe is used as impact method. Energy losses through the roof are calculated using the energy software EPA-W.

Findings

Improving the insulation from 2.5 to 5 m²K/W leads to reductions of the damage scores from about 10 to 40 per cent. Polyisocyanurate and expanded polystyrene were found to have the lowest environmental damage, although the differences are small. Regarding the other layers, PVC mechanically fixed, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) mechanically fixed, EPDM glued and PVC with gravel ballast were found to have the lowest environmental damage of the materials assessed.

Practical implications

The outcomes of this study will aid building owners and construction and maintenance companies to choose renovation options for flat roofs with the lowest impact on the environment.

Originality/value

A smart choice of materials for a roofing system, with enough consideration of other aspects such as practical applicability, can thus significantly improve the environmental performance of the roof of a building.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2018

Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh, Abdul Kadir Bin Marsono and Emad Kasra Kermanshahi

The purpose of this study is to describe life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluation for single story building house in Malaysia. Two objective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluation for single story building house in Malaysia. Two objective functions, namely, LCA and LCC, were evaluated for each design and a total of 20 alternatives were analyzed. Two wall schemes that have been adopted from two different recent studies toward mitigation of climate change require clarification in both life cycle objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

For this strategic life cycle assessment, Simapro 8.3 tool has been chosen over a 50-year life span. LCC analysis was also used to determine not only the most energy-efficient strategy, but also the most economically feasible one. A present value (PV)-based economic analysis takes LCC into account.

Findings

The results will appear in present value and LC carbon footprint saving, both individually and in combination with each other. Result of life cycle management shows that timber wall−wooden post and beam covered by steel stud (W5) and wood truss with concrete roof tiles (R1) released less carbon emission to atmosphere and have lower life cycle cost over their life span. W5R1 releases 35 per cent less CO2 emission than the second best choice and costs 25 per cent less.

Originality/value

The indicator assessed was global warming, and as the focus was on GHG emissions, the focus of this study was mainly in the context of Malaysian construction, although the principles apply universally. The result would support the adoption of sustainable building for building sector.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

John W. Murray

This paper was delivered by the author at a conference on ‘Building Defects in Commercial Property’, organised by Henry Stewart Conference Studies on 7th February, 1985.

Abstract

This paper was delivered by the author at a conference on ‘Building Defects in Commercial Property’, organised by Henry Stewart Conference Studies on 7th February, 1985.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1967

Viscount Dilhorne, Reid, Hodson, Guest and Pearson

January 20, 1967 Building — Safety regulations — “Edge of the roof” — Asbestos roof — Construction — Adjustment of badly laid sheet —Fall of workman through opening in roof

Abstract

January 20, 1967 Building — Safety regulations — “Edge of the roof” — Asbestos roof — Construction — Adjustment of badly laid sheet —Fall of workman through opening in roof — Whether fall from edge — Applicability of regulation — Subcontractors' failure to comply with statutory requirements — Injury to subcontractors' employee — Liability of contractor — Whether contractor “undertaking” operations — Whether work “performed” by contractor — Building (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations, 1948 (S. I. 1948 No. 1145), regs. 4, 31(1), (3).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Cheng Sun, Meng Zhen and Yu Shao

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating…

Abstract

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating represents a significant proportion of total rural residential energy consumption and has reached 100 million tce (tons of standard coal equivalent), or more than 60% of total household energy consumption. In terms of energy consumption per square meter of gross floor area, rural residential energy consumption for heating is more than that of cities (20kgce/m2). However, the average indoor temperature of most rural residence is below 10°C, much less than that in cities (18°C). Hence, it is an important task for Chinese energy saving and emission reduction to reduce rural residential energy consumption, while enhancing indoor thermal comfort at the same time.

Restricted by local technology and low economic level, rural residences currently have poor thermal insulation resulting in severe heat loss. This paper reports on research aimed at developing design strategies for improving thermal insulation properties of rural residences with appropriate technology. A field survey was conducted in six counties in severe cold areas of Northeast China, addressing the aspects of indoor and outdoor temperature, humidity, internal and external surface temperature of building envelop enclosure, and so on.

The survey data show the following:

1. Modern (after 2000) brick-cement rural residences perform much better than the traditional adobe clay houses and Tatou houses (a regional type of rural residence in Northeast China – see figure A) in overall thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort;

2. Among the traditional residential house types, adobe clay houses have better heat stability and thermal storage capacity than Tatou houses;

3. Applying an internal or external thermal insulation layer can greatly improve rural residential thermal insulation properties, and is an economical and efficient solution in rural areas;

4. In terms of roofing materials, tiled roofs show much better thermal insulation properties than thatch roofs;

5. Adopting passive solar techniques can form a transition space (greenhouse) against frigid temperatures, resulting in interior temperatures 5.91°C higher than the outside surroundings. It is evident that local passive solar room design offers significant heat preservation effects and lower cost ($12/m2), embodies the ecological wisdom of rural residents, and is therefore important to popularize.

The above experimental results can provide guidance in energy conservation design for both self-built residences and rural residences designed by architects. In addition, the results can also provide experimental data for energy-saving studies for rural residences in China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Paola Lassandro and Teresa Cosola

This paper aims to increase the resilience of building systems, especially roofs, in relation to climate changes. The focus is on Mediterranean cities, where, often, there…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to increase the resilience of building systems, especially roofs, in relation to climate changes. The focus is on Mediterranean cities, where, often, there is no regulation about these issues. Therefore, it is necessary to define resilience indicators through comparative studies of adaptive roof solutions to mitigate overheating in summer.

Design/methodology/approach

Through software simulations and data comparison, a specific methodological approach is used to analyze the resilience levels of different roof solutions (phase change materials, aerogel, green and cool roof), starting from energy efficiency as a prerequisite of resilience. Moreover, a case study of a historic existing building in a southern Italian town is examined.

Findings

The findings show the best strategies for building systems, especially for roofs, to decrease urban heat island effects according to the defined resilience indicators against overheating mitigation.

Research limitations/implications

Other building systems, such as facades, also have to be investigated in relation to climate change mitigation.

Practical implications

The implementation of resilient solutions that can also affect neighborhood for urban heat island mitigation.

Social implications

Because of resilience indicators definition, it is easier to introduce economic incentives according to reference thresholds and to increase community involvement.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new approach for the evaluation of technological solutions for a building from a resilience point of view, which has energy efficiency as pre-condition.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Brit Anak Kayan

Sustainability encapsulates economic, environmental and societal domains. In order to conform to these domains, the efficiency of maintenance and repair of heritage…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainability encapsulates economic, environmental and societal domains. In order to conform to these domains, the efficiency of maintenance and repair of heritage buildings is no exception. Emergently, environmental considerations for sustainable heritage buildings repair have become increasingly important. The purpose of this paper is to present a decision-making process based on “Green Maintenance Model” – an appraisal approach based on life cycle assessment (LCA) of paint repair options for heritage buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Calculation procedures of Green Maintenance model within selected boundaries of LCA enable evaluation of carbon emissions, in terms of embodied carbon expenditure, expended from paint repair for heritage buildings during maintenance phase.

Findings

“Green Maintenance” model could be understood as a carbon LCA of paint repair and has been recognized in reducing carbon emissions. Significantly, the model underpins decision-making for repair options for heritage buildings.

Practical implications

It must be emphasized that the calculation procedures of Green Maintenance model is not limited to heritage buildings and can be applied to any repair types, materials used and building forms. More importantly, this model practically supports environmentally focused conservation and promotes sustainable repair approach.

Social implications

The implementation of Green Maintenance model highlights the efficiency of repairs options that may be adopted.

Originality/value

Green Maintenance shows that generated environmental maintenance impact from repair options relays the “true” embodied carbon expenditure contextualized within the longevity of repair and its embodied carbon. This will consequently allow rationale in appraisal of repair options.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Philipp Kölsch

The surface temperature of the sub-roof beneath the ventilation layer and the tiles is one of the most important factors for the hygrothermal performance of pitched roofs

Abstract

Purpose

The surface temperature of the sub-roof beneath the ventilation layer and the tiles is one of the most important factors for the hygrothermal performance of pitched roofs. The air layer between tiles and sub-roof and the air exchange with the outdoor air influence the heat transfer and therefore affect the moisture level inside the roof construction. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides the results of a research project performed at Fraunhofer-Institute for Building Physics, based on field test results. The investigations analyze the thermal behavior of different vented and ventilated roof constructions.

Findings

It was found that for a detailed model with roof cladding and ventilated air layer normally too many parameters are unknown. For that reason a simplified approach was set up, especially to consider the radiation exchange between the tiles and the underlay as well as the effects of the ventilation.

Originality/value

Now, effective surface transfer parameters can substitute both cladding and air layer in the simulation, while the approach still provides a high accordance with the measured values. The paper provides characteristic values for different roofing situations to simulate ventilated roofs by means of hygrothermal simulation in a simplified way.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Subaskar Charles, Herath Vidyaratne and Damithri Gayashini Melagoda

Green roofs are acknowledged as a method to substitute greenery washed out by the urbanization. They provide many ecological and sustainable benefits of greenery; reduce…

Abstract

Purpose

Green roofs are acknowledged as a method to substitute greenery washed out by the urbanization. They provide many ecological and sustainable benefits of greenery; reduce the adverse effects of high-rise building constructions. Though this concept is more popular across many countries over the past few decades, still, implementation of this technology in Sri Lanka is new and scant. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the potential of green roofs in high-rise buildings in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collection was conducted through expert interviews and questionnaire survey. Expert interviews were carried out to validate the prospects and restraints identified through literature review to the Sri Lankan context and analyzed using content analysis. Questionnaire survey identified the most significant prospects and restraints using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Purposive sampling was used to select participants.

Findings

Reduction of air pollution, aesthetical appearance, thermal benefits and energy savings, reduction of an urban heat island effect, the addition of points in the green rating system are the top most significant prospects that need to be highlighted in promoting green roof systems in Sri Lankan high rises. Less space allocation on rooftops, lack of technical competence and lack of awareness and research are restraints that need most effective elimination strategies to encourage green roof systems.

Originality/value

The first identified and quantified prospects and restraints for green roof system in Sri Lankan high-rise buildings can be utilized by the government, donors, multi-lateral agencies to promote the sustainable development in Sri Lanka and this knowledge could be used in different scale awareness programs. The value of this paper is such that the paper discusses the links of green roofs with the other facets of sustainability. The new legal reforms and amendments in Sri Lanka could potentially be pending with findings of this study.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1966

L.J. Willmer, L.J. Davies and L.J. Russell

May 25, 1966 Building — Safety regulations — “Edge of the roof” — Asbestos roof — Construction — Removal of badly laid sheet — Fall of workman through opening in roof

Abstract

May 25, 1966 Building — Safety regulations — “Edge of the roof” — Asbestos roof — Construction — Removal of badly laid sheet — Fall of workman through opening in roof — Whether fall from edge — Applicability of regulation — Sub contractors' failure to comply with statutory requirements — Injury to sub contractor's employee — Liability of contractor — Employee's breach of regulations — Whether co‐extensive with employer's breach — Building (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations, 1948 (S.I. 1948 No. 1145), reg. 31(1).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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