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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Sonam Wangdi, Cathleen LeGrand, Phuntsho Norbu and Sonam Rinzin

This paper aims to outline the history of libraries in Bhutan, to describe the current state of library development and to recommend priority areas for library enhancement.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline the history of libraries in Bhutan, to describe the current state of library development and to recommend priority areas for library enhancement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have worked extensively as library professionals in Bhutan and share factual details derived from their personal experience. They review the published literature, particularly the fieldwork of two scholars who studied Bhutan’s libraries and library workers. The authors use their own experience to interpret those findings and make suggestions for future development.

Findings

The paper briefly traces the evolution of print culture and the history of libraries, exploring monastic, school, college, public and national libraries. The paper examines government policies regarding education and libraries and discusses the acknowledgment of the value of libraries and the lack of actual support.

Originality/value

There is limited study of the history of reading culture or libraries in Bhutan. The authors document their first-hand experiences and efforts to implement systems for library resource sharing and professional development. The authors hope that this record will serve to illuminate past effort, to describe the unique information environment in Bhutan and to guide future decision-making. The authors recommend many future avenues for study, including reading habits, information-seeking behavior and attitudes toward libraries and librarians.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 13 October 2020

In the 1990s, Beijing offered a ‘package solution’ whereby Bhutan would relinquish control of land abutting certain areas of the Bhutan-China border in return for…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB256829

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Peter Ninnes, T.W. Maxwell, Wangchuck Rabten and Karchung Karchung

The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan was a signatory to the Jomtien Education for All agreement. Pursuing EFA in Bhutan presents a number of unique geographical, systemic…

Abstract

The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan was a signatory to the Jomtien Education for All agreement. Pursuing EFA in Bhutan presents a number of unique geographical, systemic, linguistic and other challenges, and the Royal Government of Bhutan has adopted multigrade school development as one major strategy in moving towards EFA. This adoption can be considered a form of policy borrowing. In this chapter we explore how multigrade schooling has been enhanced and expanded in Bhutan to achieve EFA goals, and in particular, the conditions under which multigrade teaching has become an accepted and important form of educational delivery in Bhutan. We trace the development of multigrade teaching to a set of partly planned and partly coincidental events and contexts. We review the geographical setting of Bhutan, local and global political events, teacher training issues, teacher upgrade programmes, contemporary discourses of education, development and modernization, and local initiatives to promote and strengthen multigrade teaching as a key strategy in providing access to school for children in remote areas. We also identify a number of challenges facing multigrade teaching, including the linguistic context, local reservations about the desirability of multigrade classes and resource issues.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

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Abstract

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Evolving Leadership for Collective Wellbeing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-878-1

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 13 April 2018

Bhutan's political and economic outlook.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB232046

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Deborah Blackman, Janine O'Flynn and D.P. Mishra

This is a theoretical paper, which aims to consider the role of strategic human resource management (SHRM) in the development of “gross national happiness” (GNH) in Bhutan.

Abstract

Purpose

This is a theoretical paper, which aims to consider the role of strategic human resource management (SHRM) in the development of “gross national happiness” (GNH) in Bhutan.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper initially examines the question of what is strategic capacity building and its importance for developing nations. It then considers the story of Bhutan where the idea of GNH forms the development philosophy and approach to attaining the long‐term visions and goals for the country. Different models and structures for SHRM in Bhutan are discussed in order to determine whether it can be applied to a nation effectively and, if so, whether it will enable the attainment of GNH and the performance desired by the government.

Findings

A link between SHRM and the achievement of Bhutan's 2020 vision is identified as, if Bhutan is to achieve its national capacity, it must identify the capabilities that it needs and then the strategies to support such developments. All four of Ulrich's HRM types will be required and this will need careful management, as there is a tendency to move towards one or other within an organization. Bhutan is going through a period of extensive change and the values will be changing. What is recognized here is that not only must the SHRM develop appropriate people management strategies, it must also acknowledge its crucial role in the recognition and maintenance of appropriate value sets.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework is currently limited to a theoretical application for Bhutan because, it is argued, that an appropriate model of SHRM will support the desired attainments, but that to do so the specific values of Bhutan will need to be identified and integrated into policy development.

Practical implications

The role of SHRM in supporting or driving change is considered and a potential framework for SHRM in Bhutan is proposed. There is potential to apply these ideas more widely.

Originality/value

This paper identifies a role for SHRM in the attainment of GNH for Bhutan, which is important in helping Bhutan to achieve its national capability.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Dharmendra Dhakal, Gyan Pradhan and Kamal P. Upadhyaya

The purpose of this paper is to examine the economic development strategies of Nepal and Bhutan to understand the economic factors that have contributed to economic growth.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the economic development strategies of Nepal and Bhutan to understand the economic factors that have contributed to economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

After a brief discussion of each country's modern history, their economies are examined together with their development strategies during the past half century. Standard economic growth models for Nepal and Bhutan are developed and estimated. To ensure the stationarity of the data series, tests of unit root are conducted. Further, a cointegration test is conducted and an appropriate error‐correction model is developed.

Findings

The results of the estimations reveal that domestic capital has been a significant source of economic growth in Nepal whereas foreign aid has not had any appreciable effect on growth. In the case of Bhutan, foreign assistance has been a significant source of growth while domestic capital has not.

Research limitations/implications

Bhutan and Nepal also differ in terms of non‐economic factors such as culture, language, politics, and religion. These factors may also help to explain the difference in economic performance of these countries. While important, these issues are beyond the scope this paper and indicate directions for further research.

Originality/value

It is one of the first attempts to compare the economic growth strategies of Nepal and Bhutan. It may provide useful insight to policymakers and others interested in economic growth in Nepal, Bhutan and other developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Tashi Dendup, Yun Zhao and I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra

The differences in the distribution of factors associated with under-five mortality (UFM) can help explain the rural-urban inequities in UFM. The determinants contributing…

Abstract

Purpose

The differences in the distribution of factors associated with under-five mortality (UFM) can help explain the rural-urban inequities in UFM. The determinants contributing to UFM in rural and urban areas have not been previously explored in Bhutan. This study examined the factors associated with UFM in rural and urban Bhutan and the role of the factors in explaining UFM disparity.

Design/methodology/approach

The dataset of 6,398 single births (4,999 in rural and 1,399 in urban areas) from the 2012 Bhutan National Health Survey was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis accounting for the complex survey design was performed to investigate the determinants.

Findings

The UFM rate was 2.75 times higher in rural than in urban Bhutan. In rural communities, children of younger mothers, born in households without safe sanitation and electricity, and central and eastern regions had increased UFM odds. Whereas, children born to working mothers and educated fathers, and born in households with non-working household heads had lower UFM odds in urban areas. A higher number of births and smaller household size was associated with an increased UFM odds irrespective of rural-urban residence. Environmental factors were attributable for the largest portion of rural UFM disadvantage.

Originality/value

This study helps to understand the rural-urban differences in the factors influencing UFM in Bhutan. The findings suggest that policies aimed to improve environmental and socioeconomic conditions, women empowerment, and those aimed to enhance health utilization can help reduce the rural-urban child survival disparity and accelerate the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal target.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Harsha Meenawat and Benjamin K. Sovacool

Bhutan is the smallest country in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region and one of the least developed countries in Asia. The most imminent threat to the country related to…

Abstract

Bhutan is the smallest country in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region and one of the least developed countries in Asia. The most imminent threat to the country related to climate change is that of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) – floods resulting from a breach in the moraine dam walls of glacial lakes that can release millions of cubic liters of water within seconds. Given the topography of the country and the stark differences in altitudes between the northern mountains and south-central plains, a GLOF event could devastate downstream communities.

The Royal Government of Bhutan (RGOB), with help from other countries and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), has undertaken several projects to prepare the country for GLOF events, recurring floods, and landslides. These projects are creating an adaptation model for the country, and based on the implementation of the pilot projects, the activities would be replicated in other parts of the country. The pilot projects are aimed at developing three broad types of resilience: infrastructural, institutional, and community resilience. The modeling of the glaciers and glacial lake system has provided the authorities with measures for structural mitigation that can help delay a major catastrophe, reduce risk, and increase infrastructural resilience. The use of modeling techniques, glacial surveys, and the development of hazard zoning maps is only one side of the coin – only half the story. It has been coupled with the development of institutional resilience to manage disaster events and community resilience to cope with and adapt to changing circumstances.

Three conclusions are established in this chapter. First, numerous climate change impacts are affecting the least developed countries in the region, and Bhutan is a pertinent example of countries and communities already at risk to a changing global climate. Second, it is important to choose the “right” models that can actually provide benefits to communities at risk. The projects in Bhutan demonstrate that adaptation activities work best when they blend different forms of resilience. Third, there are numerous barriers to successful implementation of adaptation projects. These barriers remind us that no matter how great the benefits of adaptation may be in specific communities, accomplishing those benefits in practice will take time, effort, and targeted public policy intervention.

Details

Climate Change Modeling For Local Adaptation In The Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-487-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Jigme Nidup

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Non-Indian foreign aid on economic growth. In addition, this paper also investigates the importance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Non-Indian foreign aid on economic growth. In addition, this paper also investigates the importance of governance, policy and democratic institution in fostering economic growth. Planned development activities in Bhutan are mostly funded through external assistance, particularly from India. Bhutan also receives assistance from other bilateral and multilateral countries besides India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts the autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration using time-series data from 1982 to 2012. To ensure stationarity of data, the unit root test is conducted. Necessary diagnostic tests are also performed to confirm that the model does not violate regression assumptions.

Findings

Findings indicate that Non-Indian foreign aid, governance and democracy are detrimental to economic growth. Policy and investment is found insignificant determinant. However, labour force and technology are found fostering economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

Less number of observations restrained detailed analysis like the use of interactive terms between aid and governance, aid and policy to see its actual impact. Data on Indian aid could not be sourced from any documents. Those available were found only for few years restricting time series analysis.

Originality/value

This study explored the impact of various determinants on economic growth in Bhutan. These findings provide useful insights for policymakers in Bhutan to make necessary decisions. The analysis also suggests future ground for research to those scholars and researchers.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

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