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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2004

Although delivery of goods is vitally important for residents and industries in urban areas, the presence and operations of goods transport vehicles in urban areas are…

Abstract

Although delivery of goods is vitally important for residents and industries in urban areas, the presence and operations of goods transport vehicles in urban areas are often regarded more as a nuisance than an essential service. Relatively little has been done by many governments to facilitate the essential flows of goods in urban areas and to reduce the adverse impacts of urban goods transport on the communities being served. This has resulted in increasing problems associated with goods delivery including competition with passenger transport for access to road infrastructure and space for parking/delivery facilities. How should OECD countries deal with the difficult challenges they face in this area?

This report analyses measures taken in many cities in the OECD area and provides recommendations for dealing with these challenges.

Details

Logistics Systems for Sustainable Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044260-0

Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2009

Hari Srinivas, Rajib Shaw and Anshu Sharma

Cities and urban areas are increasingly becoming the settlement of choice for a majority of humans.Many of the global environmental problems that we are now facing have…

Abstract

Cities and urban areas are increasingly becoming the settlement of choice for a majority of humans.

Many of the global environmental problems that we are now facing have their precedence and causes in the cities and urban areas we live in.

Lessons in understanding urban risk are now emerging – urban hazards and risk are predominantly human-induced, and exacerbate natural events. Various economic, social, and economic aspects compound the risks that urban residents face.

Urban lifestyles and resource consumptions can be directly or indirectly attributed to the many environmental consequences that we are seeing – both within the city, as well as the entire hinterland or urban watershed that it is located in.

Details

Urban Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-907-3

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2009

Hari Srinivas, Rajib Shaw and Anshu Sharma

Urbanization is a complex dynamic process playing out over multiple scales of space and time. It is both a social phenomenon and a physical transformation of landscape…

Abstract

Urbanization is a complex dynamic process playing out over multiple scales of space and time. It is both a social phenomenon and a physical transformation of landscape that is now clearly at the forefront of defining current and future trends of development. The key challenge for effective urban risk reduction and mitigation will be to identify the points of intersection for urban vulnerability and risk reduction in order to localize and contextualize the components, so that it can be customized to the unique needs of each urban area. This requires a critical revisit to the way we look at cities and urban areas, and is a useful starting point to contextualize the urban risk management components presented earlier. Taken together these points of intersection put cities in a unique position to generate both the problem and the solution. The concentration of politico-economic decision-making processes in cities of Asia, particularly capital mega cities, provide greater opportunities to meet the urban vulnerability challenge. For effective urban risk reduction, there is a need to strike a balance between natural and built environments and between ecological and economic objectives.

Details

Urban Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-907-3

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2022

Anna Klingmann

This study aims to investigate whether the correlation between Saudi Arabia’s social and economic reforms, urban megaprojects and sustainable urbanism can lead to an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether the correlation between Saudi Arabia’s social and economic reforms, urban megaprojects and sustainable urbanism can lead to an increased quality of life (QoL) in the capital, create a comprehensive lifestyle setup for Riyadh’s residents while also aiming to attract foreign investment.

Design/methodology/approach

This research examines five government-sponsored mega-destinations and their master plans against the objectives of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030’s Quality of Life Program. Furthermore, the author analyzed to what extent the proposed projects fulfill global mandates of sustainable urban development and how they might help raise the QoL for Riyadh’s residents. The author’s methodology rests primarily on detailed policy evaluation proposed by Vision 2030, literature research and data collected from proposed urban development plans. In parallel, the author conducted informal conversations with people living in affected areas and architectural offices who are involved in the design of the five megaprojects. After collecting the data for each project, the author compared the QoL Program criteria to the data of the proposed megaprojects to examine to what extent the proposed designs implement the QoL criteria of Vision 2030. In the last step, the author evaluated whether and how the proposed plans adhere to globally established guidelines of sustainable urban revitalization by studying possible overlaps and contingencies on an urban level.

Findings

The analysis reveals that although each case study project targets one or more specific lifestyle domains, the projects combined fulfill all lifestyle categories specified in Saudi Arabia’s QoL program. In addition, each project contributes measures to improve livability in the categories of urban design and environment, infrastructure and transport, social engagement and safety while also providing a range of economic and educational opportunities for different demographics. In terms of sustainable development criteria, the analysis demonstrates that all case studies provide ample measures to enhance Riyadh’s mobility by providing greenways for pedestrians and cyclists, which connect to public transport. Furthermore, when strategically combined as a series of urban layers, the projects demonstrate potential to form urban synergies among different lifestyle domains that could positively affect existing and proposed neighborhoods, particularly when extended through an inclusive, participatory planning framework, which, in turn, could significantly raise the QoL for a broad socioeconomic demographic.

Research limitations/implications

This research reveals the complex role of megaprojects as change agents for socioeconomic reforms, as signifiers of livability and as planning frameworks to implement sustainable urbanism in Saudi Arabia’s capital, while also creating a lifestyle infrastructure for Riyadh’s residents.

Practical implications

With their sensitive approach to climate, ecologically driven landscape projects and regionalist architecture inspired by the traditional Arab city, these case study projects may serve as an example to other countries in hot arid zones on sustainably revitalizing their urban environments.

Social implications

This study demonstrates how social and economic reforms intertwine with sustainable urban planning and placemaking to create a comprehensive lifestyle setup for Riyadh’s residents that has not previously existed. On the planning side, this includes creating a massive public infrastructure that encourages walkability and residents’ active participation in recreational, cultural, entertainment and sports activities. However, as the analysis has also revealed, while offering a large number of public facilities, the projects do not embrace a mixed-income project model, which would allow low-income families to live within a market-rate environment. In addition, one of the projects entails the displacement of benefit low-income and migrant communities. Although the government has a separate program that specifically aims at providing affordable housing in other areas of the city, these model destinations primarily target luxury tourists and affluent Saudis, potentially cementing existing socio-spatial divides in the city. Consequently, the megaprojects demonstrate Saudi Arabia’s conflicted response to the logic of entrepreneurial neoliberalism: on the one side, progressive attempts to promote an egalitarian approach to urban livability; on the other, strategic efforts to use megaprojects as spectacular showcases in the global marketplace.

Originality/value

The correlation between Saudi Arabia’s socioeconomic reforms, megaprojects and sustainable urbanism in Riyadh has not been previously explored. Compared to Western countries’ cities, few attempts have been made to investigate the role of livability in the context of emerging countries’ fast-growing urban areas. This paper presents a considerable case study in Saudi Arabia that ties into a more extensive debate on cultural globalization where cities, particularly in the developing world, use megaprojects as change agents to reconstruct their urban territories according to standardized livability indices to elevate their image in the global marketplace.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Haiyue Fu, Shuchang Zhao and Chuan Liao

This paper aims to promote urban–rural synergy in carbon reduction and achieve the dual carbon goal, reconstruct the low-carbon urban–rural spatial pattern and explore…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to promote urban–rural synergy in carbon reduction and achieve the dual carbon goal, reconstruct the low-carbon urban–rural spatial pattern and explore planning strategies for carbon mitigation in urban agglomerations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose the idea of land governance zoning based on low-carbon scenario simulation, using the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) urban agglomeration as the empirical research area. Specifically, the authors analyze its spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of carbon balance over the past two decades and simulate the land use pattern under the scenario of low-carbon emission in 2030. Furthermore, the authors create spatial zoning rules combined with land use transition characteristics to classify the urban agglomeration into carbon sink restoration zone, carbon sink protection zone, carbon control development zone and carbon transition agriculture zone and put forward corresponding targeted governance principals.

Findings

The study findings classify the BTH urban agglomeration into carbon sink restoration zone, carbon sink protection zone, carbon control development zone and carbon transition agriculture zone, which account for 28.1%, 17.2%, 20.1% and 34.6% of the total area, respectively. The carbon sink restoration zone and carbon sink protection zone are mainly distributed in the northern and western parts and Bohai Rim region. The carbon transition agriculture zone and carbon control development zone are mainly distributed in the southeastern plain and Zhangjiakou.

Research limitations/implications

The authors suggest restoring and rebuilding ecosystems mainly in the northwest and east parts to increase the number of carbon sinks and the stability of the ecosystem. Besides, measures should be taken to promote collaborative emission reduction work between cities and optimize industrial and energy structures within cities such as Beijing, Langfang, Tianjin and Baoding. Furthermore, the authors recommend promoting sustainable intensification of agriculture and carefully balance between both economic development and ecological protection in Zhangjiakou and plain area.

Originality/value

The authors propose a zoning method based on the optimization of land use towards low-carbon development by combining “top-down” and “bottom-up” strategies and provide targeted governance suggestions for each region. This study provides policy implications to implement the regional low-carbon economic transition under the “double carbon” target in urban agglomerations in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Ibtissem Hallal and Tayeb Sahnoune

This study aims to identify the challenges of new urban housing zones in Algeria that have permitted the emergence of many habitat neighbourhoods deprived of all services…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the challenges of new urban housing zones in Algeria that have permitted the emergence of many habitat neighbourhoods deprived of all services. The objective is to promote social interaction by departing from the zoning and introducing the notion of urban mix.

Design/methodology/approach

This study tries to catch different elements that contribute to promote the degree of social interaction. This step ultimately has led to the need to improve the quality conditions of the living environment and focus the analysis on urban mix advantages. The latter aims to organize space by balancing functional, social and spatial magnitudes. Different methods have been adopted to assess each dimension. Starting with the assessment of the functional mix, the functional mix coefficient (C.Mix f) was calculated in a quantitative approach, and attendance rates of various targeted functions were determined in a second qualitative one. However, regarding the social mix, several evaluation criteria were selected. Finally, the spatial mix was evaluated via three modes of occupation; mix on the islet, mix on the parcel and mix on the building.

Findings

The results of this research confirm that urban mix is imperative to counteract problems generated by zoning. It also concludes that urban mix can be assessed through a grid of indicators. The case study of Ayouf-Jijel revealed that it benefits from good coverage of amenities and businesses; the authors also found that most indicators present some qualitative rather than quantitative deficiencies. This concerns the location of businesses in collective and individual housing. This phenomenon is scattered in the neighbourhood’s development.

Originality/value

The objective of this paper is to contribute to the argument on how to develop neighbourhoods in a city in general and particular to the city of Jijel through the urban mix by taking into account several indicators under three measurements: functional, social and spatial. In addition, the paper contributes to discuss new methods for the evaluation and implementation of urban mix. Finally, this paper reveals an opportunity to rethink neighbourhoods regarding new approaches and reflections of cosmopolite development versus zoning.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Job Momoh, Benachir Medjdoub, Obas John Ebohon, Olubisi Ige, Bert Ediale Young and Jin Ruoyu

Sustainable urbanism is the study of both cities and the practices to build them, which focusses on promoting their long-term viability by reducing consumption, waste and…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable urbanism is the study of both cities and the practices to build them, which focusses on promoting their long-term viability by reducing consumption, waste and harmful impacts on people and place while enhancing the overall well-being of both people and place. This paper analyses the implications of adopting sustainable urbanism principles and developing resilient places with Abuja as the area of focus to tackle the highlighted issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on qualitative research which is centred on an extensive literature review and archival retrieval of historical documents. This includes the emergence of urbanism, sustainable urbanism definition and current issues surrounding its adaptation. The paper also focusses on a case study area in the capital city of Abuja, Nigeria which is currently undergoing massive urban development. Interviews are conducted with academics (13), practitioners (12) and government officials (10) making a total of 35 participants.

Findings

The main findings will create an understanding of the definition of sustainability and sustainable urbanism with a special focus on Abuja city. It was realised from the interviews that sustainable urbanism in broad terms encompasses economic, social, and environmental sustainability, and that these dimensions vary across different contexts even in the developing world. Also, sustainability can be achieved through deploying the right combination of measures, policies, assessment tools, sustainability assessment, good governance, and training/education and incentives.

Originality/value

By reviewing the selected studies which explore a wide range of disciplines and research areas, and conducting this qualitative research, this paper shares insights into how sustainability and sustainability urbanism can be achieved in the development of urban spaces in Abuja environs.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2022

Goran Ivo Marinovic

Informal dwellings describe makeshift lodgings made from temporary materials, such as plastic, corrugated iron, sheeting, packing cases, or wood. These units allow…

Abstract

Purpose

Informal dwellings describe makeshift lodgings made from temporary materials, such as plastic, corrugated iron, sheeting, packing cases, or wood. These units allow low-income groups to informally occupy land and create their habitable space in a phased manner. This article focuses on elements of the urban morphology, such as density, accessibility, and operating assortment of informally built areas in the southern region of Montenegro.

Design/methodology/approach

The author examines the urban morphologies of four urban areas, whose informality is traditionally viewed as markers of decline and despair. Using observations, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews, the investigator maps dwellings in Ulcinj, Budva, Tivat, and Herceg Novi neighbourhoods. The researcher interrogated participants about land distribution during the construction of sheds, buildings' outline and orientation toward the street, and activities performed in their dwellings, such as living, working, and accommodating relatives and guests. This methodology tests the hypothesis, formulated as a deeper understanding of urban morphology for examining the interweaving of informally built settlements with the rest of the city.

Findings

A cartographic investigation is used to reframe customary rights of low-income populations to land inclusion and their place in the city. The results clearly show that the location and lifestyle are designed to obfuscate the vulnerable populations from the public view, disconnected from policymaking, and ignored by urban planning projects. However, the interviewees' destinations orientation away from the downtowns represents the possibility of reconfiguring existing urban planning practices. For creating alternative urbanisation, the orientation of less visible neighbourhoods presents a model for building regulations embedded in social forces and cultural habits of all social and ethnic groups.

Research limitations/implications

This study did not address the implementation of social hosing policies and the logistical limitations of realising them by the local and national governments. During firework, the author encountered dwellers outside four studied low-income neighbourhoods in the south region of Montenegro. Mapping morphological elements of these generally small clusters of informal built units are left for future research. Future studies could examine how informality is performed in Montenegro by moderate and high-income groups as an assemblage of different power relationships and urban practices.

Practical implications

The argument is based on counter urbanism as the orientation and destination of less visible neighbourhoods for creating building regulations embedded in social forces and cultural habits of all social and ethnic groups. This study showed that the urban morphology of informality in the coastal cities of Montenegro lays the ground for alternative urban planning practices based on the different interconnection of districts. The outcome is a strong link between different social and ethical groups through self-building practices.

Social implications

In coastal cities of Montenegro, Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian live with other low-income groups in unsanitary settlements characterised by poor living conditions, low-quality illegally built housing, no plumbing or sewage systems, and overcrowded urban areas. Mapping morphological elements of less visible urban areas propose shifting from top-down urban planning policies to a participatory model of developing urban areas.

Originality/value

The assemblage of informally built urban areas legitimise place in the city that goes against the housing market's dominant logic and exceeds alternative logics of building production. This article outlined the urban morphologies of four urban areas for turning the image of informality away from decline and despair to lessons of urban interconnection. By creating different maps, the author presented a diverse orientation of four case studies based on density, accessibility, and operating assortment.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 July 2022

Luíza Costa Caldas and Tania Pereira Christopoulos

The study aims to investigate urban agriculture in the city of São Paulo from the perspective of social capital. The specific objectives are (1) to identify the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate urban agriculture in the city of São Paulo from the perspective of social capital. The specific objectives are (1) to identify the effects of social capital on urban agriculture and (2) to investigate social capital formation (its sources and challenges imposed onto its development).

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, a review of the literature was carried out in order to understand the main concepts used in the field of study. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out with people from urban agriculture initiatives, and they were analyzed under the lens of social capital.

Findings

Aspects of social capital were recognized and organized in a framework including sources, effects and challenges. The first deals with consummatory or instrumental sources that generate social capital. The second deals with the following effects: generation of human capital, citizenship, engagement, access and mobilization of resources, and access to information. The third deals with the challenges to its formation related to homophily and the perception of benefits from this form of capital.

Originality/value

Urban agriculture plays an increasingly important role in relieving the pressure generated by the food production system, being part of the solution to food security and sustainability issues. Many researchers recognize important social aspects acting on the dynamics of the movement and the effects of activities on the generation of social capital. The contribution of this work is to deepen the understanding of this type of capital in the context of urban agriculture.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

Keywords

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