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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1966

AT an international exhibition in Moscow during September a pavilion covering 6,500 sq. ft. displayed equipment designed to improve the organization of work. The unusual…

Abstract

AT an international exhibition in Moscow during September a pavilion covering 6,500 sq. ft. displayed equipment designed to improve the organization of work. The unusual thing is that the equipment was office machinery and systems exhibited by the Business Equipment Trade Association of this country and five of its member firms. Until now the U.S.S.R. has been a negligible market for such goods, but the Soviet Union has now declared its intention to increase the automation of clerical work through installing modern equipment of the sort favoured by western countries. The report of a delegation of the Association's members put this point so strongly that, as a ‘joint under‐taking’ with the British Board of Trade, it was thought justifiable to attack this burgeoning market.

Details

Work Study, vol. 15 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Cheng Sun, Meng Zhen and Yu Shao

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating…

Abstract

Rural residential energy consumption accounts for 46.6% of total building-related energy consumption of China. In Northeast China, energy consumption for space heating represents a significant proportion of total rural residential energy consumption and has reached 100 million tce (tons of standard coal equivalent), or more than 60% of total household energy consumption. In terms of energy consumption per square meter of gross floor area, rural residential energy consumption for heating is more than that of cities (20kgce/m2). However, the average indoor temperature of most rural residence is below 10°C, much less than that in cities (18°C). Hence, it is an important task for Chinese energy saving and emission reduction to reduce rural residential energy consumption, while enhancing indoor thermal comfort at the same time.

Restricted by local technology and low economic level, rural residences currently have poor thermal insulation resulting in severe heat loss. This paper reports on research aimed at developing design strategies for improving thermal insulation properties of rural residences with appropriate technology. A field survey was conducted in six counties in severe cold areas of Northeast China, addressing the aspects of indoor and outdoor temperature, humidity, internal and external surface temperature of building envelop enclosure, and so on.

The survey data show the following:

1. Modern (after 2000) brick-cement rural residences perform much better than the traditional adobe clay houses and Tatou houses (a regional type of rural residence in Northeast China – see figure A) in overall thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort;

2. Among the traditional residential house types, adobe clay houses have better heat stability and thermal storage capacity than Tatou houses;

3. Applying an internal or external thermal insulation layer can greatly improve rural residential thermal insulation properties, and is an economical and efficient solution in rural areas;

4. In terms of roofing materials, tiled roofs show much better thermal insulation properties than thatch roofs;

5. Adopting passive solar techniques can form a transition space (greenhouse) against frigid temperatures, resulting in interior temperatures 5.91°C higher than the outside surroundings. It is evident that local passive solar room design offers significant heat preservation effects and lower cost ($12/m2), embodies the ecological wisdom of rural residents, and is therefore important to popularize.

The above experimental results can provide guidance in energy conservation design for both self-built residences and rural residences designed by architects. In addition, the results can also provide experimental data for energy-saving studies for rural residences in China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Sheryl Staub-French, Angelique Pilon, Erik Poirier, Azadeh Fallahi, Mohamed Kasbar, Francisco Calderon, Zahra Teshnizi and Thomas Froese

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction process innovations that enabled the successful delivery of the hybrid mass timber high-rise building in Canada…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction process innovations that enabled the successful delivery of the hybrid mass timber high-rise building in Canada, the Brock Commons Tallwood House at the University of British Columbia. It is one of a set of papers examining the project, including companion papers that describe innovations in the mass timber design process and the impact of these innovations on construction performance. The focus of this paper is on innovation in the construction phase and its relationship to innovations implemented in previous project phases.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method, longitudinal case study approach was used in this research project to investigate and document the Tallwood House project over a three-year period. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques were used. Members of the research team observed prefabrication and construction, conducted periodic interviews and reviewed project artefacts.

Findings

The research identified three innovation “clusters,” including the use of innovative tools, techniques and strategies in the design and construction processes and the role they played in delivering the project. The “clusters” were further characterized according to the type of “connectivity” they afforded, either facilitation, operationalization or materialization. These two perspectives support a compounding view on innovation and help to understand how it can flow throughout a project’s life cycle and across its supply chain. Three process-based innovations were initiated during the design phase, integrated design process, building information modeling and virtual design and construction and flowed through to the construction phase. These were seen to enable the creation of connections that were crucial to the overall success of the project. These innovations were operationalized and enacted through the construction phase as design for manufacturing and assembly and prefabrication, staged construction and just-in-time delivery, integration of safety and risk management and a rigorous quality control and quality assurance process. Finally, a full-scale mock-up was produced for practice and constructability assessment, materializing the radical product innovation that was the mass timber structure. These strategies are used together for a synergistic and integrated approach to increase productivity, expedite the construction schedule and develop an innovative building product.

Originality/value

This paper details an in-depth investigation into the diffusion dynamics of multiple systemic innovations for the construction process of a unique building project, the tools and techniques used by the construction manager and team, and the challenges, solutions and lessons learned.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Dong Zhou, Xu Jia, Chuan Lv and Le Kang

Maintainability, as an intrinsic property that shows how well a product can be maintained, should be strictly controlled in the design stage. Maintenance space is an…

Abstract

Purpose

Maintainability, as an intrinsic property that shows how well a product can be maintained, should be strictly controlled in the design stage. Maintenance space is an important aspect of maintainability and should be verified in the design stage. Methods to verify maintenance space based on expert knowledge or vision cone have been proposed. However, no proper quantitative solutions have been proposed yet to verify maintenance space in the design stage. This paper aims to provide a new method to evaluate quantitatively the maintenance space in a virtual environment by using the swept volume (SV).

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated platform for quantitatively evaluating maintenance space in a virtual environment is designed. Virtual reality technology and digital prototype are used to overcome the shortage of physical prototypes in the design stage. SVs are applied to represent the movement of the hand along the entire maintenance process. Maintenance operations are divided into three basic types. Each type of basic operation refers to two quantitative indexes, namely the surface area and the volume of the SV of the maintenance personnel. Data on the indexes are gathered and calculated to evaluate maintenance space.

Findings

The proposed methodology can evaluate feasibly and efficiently the maintenance space determined by the layout design of product components in the design stage.

Practical implications

Application of the proposed method can help designers reduce the shortness of maintenance space and improve the design layout of products.

Originality/value

A method to evaluate maintenance space that employs a quantitative combination of virtual environment and swept volume is pressed.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

John Dadzie, Goran Runeson and Grace Ding

Estimates show that close to 90% of the buildings we will need in 2050 are already built and occupied. The increase in the existing building stock has affected energy…

Abstract

Purpose

Estimates show that close to 90% of the buildings we will need in 2050 are already built and occupied. The increase in the existing building stock has affected energy consumption thereby negatively impacting the environment. The purpose of this paper is to assess determinants of sustainable upgrade of existing buildings through the adoption and application of sustainable technologies. The study also ranks sustainable technologies adopted by the professionals who participated in the survey with an in-built case study.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of the overall methodology, a detailed literature review on the nature and characteristics of sustainable upgrade and the sustainable technologies adopted was undertaken. A survey questionnaire with an in-built case study was designed to examine all the sustainable technologies adopted to improve energy consumption in Australia. The survey was administered to sustainability consultants, architects, quantity surveyors, facility managers and engineers in Australia.

Findings

The results show a total of 24 technologies which are mostly adopted to improve energy consumption in existing buildings. A factor analysis shows the main components as: lighting and automation, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HAVC) systems and equipment, envelope, renewable energy and passive technologies.

Originality/value

The findings bridge the gap in the literature on the adoption and application of sustainable technologies to upgrade existing buildings. The technologies can be adopted to reduce the excessive energy consumption patterns in existing buildings.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Sui‐Pheng Low, Junying Liu and John Lim

Where buildability is concerned, the six total building performance (TBP) mandates are seldom taken into consideration.. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

Where buildability is concerned, the six total building performance (TBP) mandates are seldom taken into consideration.. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between buildability and the two TBP mandates of thermal performance and building integrity performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A real life case study of a worker dormitories building project was used as the base model for analysis. A breakdown of the buildability scores for the project was first noted. Thereafter, the TBP guidelines relating to thermal performance and building integrity performance were incorporated into the base model and the buildability scores were recomputed.

Findings

Following the thermal performance guidelines, a negative relationship with buildability was observed. However, a positive result was established between the building integrity performance guidelines and buildability. The different relationships occurred due to the different aspects of the base model that needed to be changed to conform to the guidelines for both mandates.

Practical implications

It appears that the incorporation of guidelines for any one of the six TBP mandates will yield different results depending on the situation. This was the case for both thermal performance and building integrity performance in the present study.

Originality/value

The paper establishes the relationship between the TBP mandates of thermal performance, building integrity performance and buildability for the first time, which is beneficial to building designers.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2007

Salvador Carmona and Mahmoud Ezzamel

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the growing literature on record‐keeping practices in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt with a particular focus on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the growing literature on record‐keeping practices in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt with a particular focus on processes of ancient accountability, and provide a research agenda for future work.

Design/methodology/approach

Analyzes the contributions of accounting historians in this area as well as the research conducted by Assyriologists and Egyptologists. Our analysis emphasizes the embeddeness of ancient processes of accounting and accountability in their wider contexts.

Findings

A framework is proposed comprising levels and spheres of accountability. The levels of accountability consist of: hierarchical; horizontal; and self, all entailing both accounting and non‐accounting elements. Furthermore, accountability is analyzed at three spheres: the individual‐state, the state‐individual, and the individual‐individual.

Originality/value

Further research in this area might examine issues such as the temporal dimension of accountability and whether more precise time measures than those reported in the extant literature were enforced in ancient economies; how the ancients dealt with differences between actual and expected measures; examination on the extent to which accountability exerted an impact on, and the role of accounting in, ordering the lives of individuals and communities; and examination of the trajectories of accounting and accountability across different historical episodes.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

IT IS an absurd paradox that whereas some firms have the legend ‘Work Study’ on the door, they set their rates along ratefixing lines. With wages soaring and little to…

Abstract

IT IS an absurd paradox that whereas some firms have the legend ‘Work Study’ on the door, they set their rates along ratefixing lines. With wages soaring and little to show by way of increased output, it is important to keep inflationary rates at bay. ‘Rates’ are intended to imply rates of output irrespective of the mode in which they are expressed. Standard minutes are intended to be earned and their establishment should, therefore, still be in accordance with the equitable principles of a good incentive system. And while it is quite understandable that some practitioners should tend to play safe by ‘loading’ the rate in order to avoid any subsequent shop floor conflict in regard to bonus earnings, the situation should never be allowed to degenerate into one which high bonus earnings—without reference to standards— are to be regarded as a condition precedent to greater effort.

Details

Work Study, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2012

Gail M. Munde

This chapter compares faculty self-assessment of teaching with student opinion of instruction in an online environment, in order to determine the level of agreement…

Abstract

This chapter compares faculty self-assessment of teaching with student opinion of instruction in an online environment, in order to determine the level of agreement between faculty self-assessment and student assessment, in areas of overall program strength and directions for individual and whole-group professional development. A faculty self-assessment of teaching inventory based on established guidelines was administered to participating faculty in the Master of Library Science program at East Carolina University, and scores were compared to students’ ratings of instruction for one academic year. Scores were corrected for bias, tabulated, and Pearson correlation and t-scores were calculated. The method used produced an effective benchmarking and diagnostic tool, and indicated directions for instructional improvement. Because the study was for the express purpose of internal, formative evaluation, model data tabulations are presented as examples only. Data from the actual study are not presented. Limitations of the study are that items on student evaluation of teaching surveys may not always lend themselves to concept mapping, and that data were collected only for one academic year in a single program. The chapter contributes a method that is replicable and scalable, demonstrates that data are relatively easy to acquire, and that procedures are simple to implement, requiring only basic statistical tests and measures for analysis. Results can be interpreted and understood without extensive knowledge of quantitative methods. There are few studies that compare students teaching evaluations with faculty self-evaluations, and none that specifically address it for library and information science education programs.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

V.‐W. Mitchell

A number of factors, including market competitiveness, the legalframework and increasing consumer expectations, are causing a focus oncustomer service of which complaint…

Abstract

A number of factors, including market competitiveness, the legal framework and increasing consumer expectations, are causing a focus on customer service of which complaint handling is a major part. Companies can accrue considerable advantages from taking complaint handling seriously, e.g. use of complaint data at strategic as well as operational level, reduced likelihood of legal proceedings, improved marketing intelligence, increased brand loyalty and internal marketing benefits. One of the most efficient ways of improving complaint handling is to computerize the process. Discusses some advantages of this and briefly describes one system already used by many companies.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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