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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2011

Sei-Ching Joanna Sin

This chapter introduces the Person-in-Environment (PIE) framework, a research design and a nationwide empirical study, developed by the author, to measure the relative…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the Person-in-Environment (PIE) framework, a research design and a nationwide empirical study, developed by the author, to measure the relative impacts of socio-structural and personal factors on individual-level information behaviours (IB) and outcomes. The IB field needs to tackle two questions: (1) In a particular situation, how much of an individual's IB is influenced by personal characteristics? and (2) How much of this behaviour is shaped by one's environment, such as socio-structural barriers? PIE is a beginning effort to address this agency–structure debate, which is a topic that confronts many social scientists. This chapter first outlines IB research relevant to agency–structure integration. It then presents six principles of the PIE framework. Personal characteristics (e.g. cognitive and affective factors) and socio-structural factors (e.g. information resources distribution) are conceptualised as interrelated. Thus, these need to be tested simultaneously. Previously, it was difficult to link individual- and societal-level datasets because their units of observation often vary. To overcome these methodological challenges, this author purposed a research design that employs secondary analysis, geographic information systems techniques and structural equation modelling. An empirical study of the library usage by 13,000 American 12th graders is presented to demonstrate PIE's applicability. Discussions on the future directions of PIE studies conclude the chapter. The PIE framework can contribute to conceptual and methodological development in IB research. It also offers scholars and policymakers a way to empirically assess the contributions of information services on an individual's life, while taking personal differences into account.

Details

New Directions in Information Behaviour
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-171-8

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2005

Jennifer Kahle, Robert Pinsker and Robin Pennington

The belief-adjustment model has been an integral part of accounting research in belief revision, especially in the examination of order effects. Hogarth and Einhorn…

Abstract

The belief-adjustment model has been an integral part of accounting research in belief revision, especially in the examination of order effects. Hogarth and Einhorn ((1992) Cognitive Psychology, 24, 1–55) created the belief-adjustment model to serve as a theoretical framework for studying individuals’ decision-making processes. The model examines several aspects of decision-making, such as encoding, response mode, and task factors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive examination of the accounting studies that have used the theoretical framework of the belief-adjustment model in auditing, tax, and financial accounting contexts. Roberts’ ((1998) Journal of the American Taxation Association, 20, 78–121) model of tax accountants’ decision-making is used as a guideline to organize the research into categories. By using Roberts’ categorization, we can better sort out the mixed results of some prior studies and also expand the review to include a more comprehensive look at the model and its application to accounting. While many variables have been examined with respect to their effect on accounting professionals’ belief revisions, most studies examine them in isolation and do not consider the interaction effects that these variables may have. Our framework also identifies areas of the belief-adjustment model that need further research.

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Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-218-4

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Muhammad Qamar Zia, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Adnan Bashir and Aamir Feroz Shamsi

Organizations are facing pressure to reduce costs of training and enhancing the role of self-development that is self-driven and contextual in nature as a means to…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations are facing pressure to reduce costs of training and enhancing the role of self-development that is self-driven and contextual in nature as a means to supplement employee development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of individual and situational factors on self-development as well as the moderating role of situational factors. Individual factors are referred to personal characteristics, i.e. learning goal orientation and proactive personality, while situational factors are environmental conditions, including job autonomy and empowering environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 280 middle managers of the banking sector. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was conducted to validate the model.

Findings

The study findings revealed a significant direct relationship of individual (learning goal orientation and proactive personality) and situational (empowering environment and job autonomy) factors with self-development. The study also found only a significant moderating effect of empowering environment in relation to learning goal orientation and self-development, correspondingly job autonomy moderates the relationship of proactive personality and self-development.

Practical implications

The study concludes with offering some implication for organization to focus on self-development activities by providing an empowering environment and job autonomy to its employees, which will result to minimize the overall cost of training. Organizations should also identify the individual factors that lead to self-development like proactive personality and learning goal orientation.

Originality/value

This study gives new insight on the predictors of self-development and their interaction. This study may be a pioneer to empirically validate a theoretical model about the interaction of situational factors between individual factors and self-development. Furthermore, it contributes and advances our knowledge by demonstrating how individual and situational factors are influencing middle mangers’ self-development in workplace.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 44 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Michael Dickmann and Jean-Luc Cerdin

The purpose of this paper is to explore what attracts individuals to live in a South East Asian city. It uses a boundaryless career approach that is interested in how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore what attracts individuals to live in a South East Asian city. It uses a boundaryless career approach that is interested in how people cross-traditional career boundaries, including those related to country and location barriers. Going beyond an individual and organizational view, a more extensive model of location decisions is developed that incorporates broad macro-factor career drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale qualitative study explored individual, organizational, political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, ecological, legal, natural and general drivers to live in the city. The authors interviewed 43 individuals who had moved to the city from abroad, were born in the city and still lived there or who were born in the city but had moved to another foreign city.

Findings

Many macro-contextual factors – i.e. day-to-day regulatory stability and transparency, economic growth, friendliness and meritocracy, safety and a good, clean environment – were seen as attractive by all three groups. People who had left the city raised some specific criticism regarding the vibrancy, freedom and creativity of thought.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on highly skilled individuals who most often had experience in living in different cities to get more reflective views. However, this restricted the generalizability. The findings nuance the understanding of boundaryless careers.

Practical implications

The research expands the normally used attraction factors and develops a broader framework of city attractiveness drivers. The emerging picture can be used by the city administration to manage its global attractiveness while increasing non-regulatory “stickiness” to retain talent.

Social implications

The research has social implications with respect to cross-border boundaryless careers and talent acquisition, management and retention strategies.

Originality/value

The research expands the macro-contextual discussion and goes beyond the dominant focus on individuals and organizations when investigating boundaryless careers. The study uses an innovative method as it does not only interview foreign expatriates but also two further, more neglected groups: local citizens and individuals who had left the city. It develops an extended model of boundaryless location drivers and develops some exemplary propositions.

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Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2015

Fumihiko Isada, Han-Ching Lin and Yuriko Isada

The purpose of this study is to develop empirically an international comparison of the extent of student entrepreneurship and the factors influencing it. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop empirically an international comparison of the extent of student entrepreneurship and the factors influencing it. This study explores the factors responsible for the richness of entrepreneurship in Taiwan through a comparison with entrepreneurship in Japan. Looking at factors that determine the extent of entrepreneurship, the discussion builds on previous studies based on individual traits and those that are based on environments, such as a social system or climate. This study focuses on the individual and the environment.

Design/methodology/approach

After identifying pertinent issues through a survey of relevant studies, a comparative study of Taiwan and Japan was undertaken. A questionnaire survey was distributed to around 20-year-old university students. Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether there is cause–effect relationship between environmental and individual factors and university students’ entrepreneurship, and to assess the significant differences between entrepreneurship in Taiwan and Japan. In addition, a qualitative case study of university politics related to entrepreneurship in Taiwan was conducted to complement the quantitative analysis.

Findings

Results of the study by country indicate that the environmental factors and individual factors that influence entrepreneurship differ.

Originality/value

The reciprocal complementarity of the environmental factors and the individual factors or the likelihood of co-evolution cyclic dynamism is demonstrated.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

EunHa Jeong, SooCheong (Shawn) Jang, Carl Behnke, James Anderson and Jonathon Day

The purpose of this study is to explore the dimensions of restaurant customers’ engagement or disengagement with healthy eating in terms of individual and environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the dimensions of restaurant customers’ engagement or disengagement with healthy eating in terms of individual and environmental factors to develop a scale. The results identified the underlying constructs of customers’ individual motives for and perceived barriers to healthy eating, as well as environmental elements of restaurants that encourage or discourage healthy eating.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop an appropriate set of measures to assess factors influencing customers’ healthy eating behaviors at restaurants, the current study undertook the five steps of scale development suggested by Churchill (1979): specifying the domain of constructs, generating a pool of initial measurement items, assessing content adequacy, administering questionnaires (an online survey method) and purifying and finalizing the measurement (via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using 410 samples and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using 423 samples).

Findings

The results revealed ten individual factors (health, body image, weight control, feeling better, unappealing food, cost perception, lack of knowledge, state of mind (stress), lack of self-control and negative influences) and five environmental factors (healthy indications, social impact, availability of healthy menu, price policy and unhealthy indications) influencing customers’ healthy eating behaviors at restaurants.

Originality/value

This study developed an appropriate set of measures to assess individual and environmental factors influencing restaurant customers’ healthy eating behaviors, along with identifying underlying sub-constructs. The reliability and validity of the scale and the factor structure are presented and potential applications and theoretical contributions of the scale are provided as well.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Matthew O'Connor

This review aims to compile an interdisciplinary inventory of factors affecting individual performance in team environments.

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to compile an interdisciplinary inventory of factors affecting individual performance in team environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Research focusing on the performance of the individual within a team from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, business, and library science was analyzed and synthesized. Five online aggregators and a combination of keyword/subject terms were used to locate the research originating primarily from journal literature.

Findings

After exploring the research, 12 different performance factors emerged in two primary categories: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic factors included collective efficacy, social rewards and sanctions, social dilemmas, social loafing, future interdependence, and social identity. Intrinsic factors included individual identity, desire to achieve, member role differences, team size, individual status attainment, and member commitment.

Originality/value

There is a substantial amount of research concerning team motivation and production, but there is an apparent dearth related to individual performance factors. This review provides valuable insight for library administrators currently working with teams in their organizations or for those considering it.

Details

Library Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2008

Mark D. Agars, James C. Kaufman and Tiffany R. Locke

Organizational creativity and innovation are inherently complex phenomena, and subject to a myriad of broad contextual and social influences. As the evidence grows for the…

Abstract

Organizational creativity and innovation are inherently complex phenomena, and subject to a myriad of broad contextual and social influences. As the evidence grows for the link between innovation and organizational effectiveness and, ultimately, organizational survival, there is no doubting the need for theoretical and practical advances in our understanding. The complex nature of these constructs, however, requires that such efforts utilize a multi-level lens. This chapter discusses key aspects of creativity and innovation in organizations, including fundamental construct definition issues, which underscore the need for a multi-level perspective. It also reviews extant theoretical perspectives for their contributions to a multi-level understanding, and the research in two key areas of social influence – group factors and leadership – that have received substantial attention in the organizational literature. The review and discussion of these areas reveal not only numerous advances, but also substantial limitations that must be resolved through more complex and comprehensive (i.e., multi-level) approaches. The chapter concludes with several recommendations intended to guide and inform future work in the organizational creativity and innovation field.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-553-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Ricardo Madureira

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…

Abstract

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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