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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2022

Ana Gabriela Víquez-Paniagua, Juan Carlos Leiva and Ronald Mora-Esquivel

The aim of this study is to examine the influence of locus of control, the university environment and the social environment on the entrepreneurial attitude of female Latin…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the influence of locus of control, the university environment and the social environment on the entrepreneurial attitude of female Latin American university students.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies a quan–qual design. The quan section analyzes the data of 10,781 female university students from 11 Latin American countries included in the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students Survey 2018. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied. The qual section applies in-depth interviews for sequential methodological triangulation analysis.

Findings

The evidence indicates that locus of control, the university environment and the social environment positively impact the entrepreneurial attitude of female Latin American university students. The most influential factor was locus of control.

Originality/value

This empirical study focuses on female university students and their propensity for business venturing and determines the main influences on their entrepreneurial attitudes.

Objetivo

Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar la influencia del locus de control, el entorno universitario y el entorno social en la actitud emprendedora de las estudiantes universitarias latinoamericanas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio aplica un diseño quan–qual. La sección quan analiza los datos de 10.781 estudiantes universitarias latinoamericanas de once países, incluidas en la Encuesta Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students Survey 2018. Se aplicó un análisis de regresión jerárquica múltiple. La sección cualitativa aplica entrevistas en profundidad para un análisis de triangulación metodológica secuencial.

Resultados

La evidencia indica que el locus de control, el entorno universitario y el entorno social impactan positivamente en la actitud emprendedora de las estudiantes universitarias latinoamericanas. El factor más influyente fue el locus de control.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio empírico se centra en las estudiantes universitarias y su propensión a emprender y determina las principales influencias de su actitud emprendedora.

Objetivo

Este estudo tem como objetivo examinar a influência do locus de controle, ambiente universitário e ambiente social na atitude empreendedora de estudantes universitárias latino-americanas.

Desenho/metodologia/abordagem

O estudo aplica um desenho Quan-qual. A seção Quan analisa os dados de 10.781 universitárias latino-americanas de onze países, incluídas na Pesquisa GUESSS, 2018. Foi aplicada uma análise de regressão múltipla hierárquica. A seção qual aplica entrevistas em profundidade para uma análise de triangulação metodológica sequencial.

Resultados

As evidências indicam que o locus de controle, o ambiente universitário e o ambiente social impactam positivamente a atitude empreendedora das universitárias latino-americanas. O fator mais influente foi um locus de controle.

Originalidade/valor

Este estudo empírico centra-se nas estudantes universitárias e na sua propensão para um empreendimento empresarial e determina as principais influências da sua atitude empreendedora.

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2020

Suyen Alonso-Ubieta, Ronald Mora-Esquivel and Juan Carlos Leiva

Building on the resource-based view theory, this paper aims to evaluate the role of innovation on competitiveness and competitive efficiency among Costa Rican small and…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the resource-based view theory, this paper aims to evaluate the role of innovation on competitiveness and competitive efficiency among Costa Rican small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sample of 231 Costa Rican small and medium-size firms for 2019. The authors compute a competitiveness index that includes four pillars: innovation, strategy, markets and human capital. To estimate competitive efficiency, the authors use a non-parametric model, namely, data envelopment analysis, with a single constant input.

Findings

The results confirm that competitive and efficient SMEs present a more homogenous distribution of resources and capabilities. The innovation pillar is positively correlated with competitive efficiency. A positive correlation exists between market experience (business age) and innovation and between innovation and business size in terms of the number of employees.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the understanding on how SME managers’ decision-making processes affect resource allocation within the business, and on how SMEs can introduce strategic actions based on improvements of those resources that will likely have a greater impact on competitive efficiency.

Originality/value

This study contributes to better grasping how the configuration of resources and capabilities, in which innovation plays a decisive role, and contributes to shape the competitive efficiency of small and medium-sized businesses in a developing economy.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Tomás Vargas-Halabí, Ronald Mora-Esquivel and Berman Siles

Few models have attempted to explain intrapreneurial behavior from the perspective of competencies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute along this line by…

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Abstract

Purpose

Few models have attempted to explain intrapreneurial behavior from the perspective of competencies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute along this line by developing and validating a scale to measure intrapreneurial competencies for a Costa Rican organizational context.

Design/methodology/approach

A three stage process was followed. The first stage considered literature review, expert judgment, cognitive interviews, and back-translation. In the second stage, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 543 university professionals who worked mainly in private organizations in Costa Rica. The third stage led to evaluate of the proposed scale’s psychometric properties, including, exploratory factor analysis procedure performing by SPSS 19; confirmatory factor analysis procedures by means of structural equation modeling using EQS 6.2 version and finally, a linear regression model to obtain evidence of external criterion-related validity, performed by SPSS 19.

Findings

This study provides evidence of five sub-dimensions of employee attributes, i.e., “opportunity promoter”, “proactivity”, “flexibility”, “drive”, and “risk taking” that constitute a higher-level construct called intrapreneurial competencies. The scale provided evidence of convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity – the latter, using an employee innovative behavior scale.

Originality/value

The model offers a first step to continue studies that aim at developing a robust model of intrapreneurial competencies. This potential predictive capacity of an instrument of this nature would be useful for the business sector, particularly as a diagnostic instrument to strengthen processes of staff development in areas that promote the development of innovation and the creation of new businesses for the company.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Juan Carlos Leiva, Ronald Mora-Esquivel, Catherine Krauss-Delorme, Adriana Bonomo-Odizzio and Martín Solís-Salazar

This paper analyses how contextual factors at universities (entrepreneurship education and program learning) and cognitive variables (perceived behavioral control, implementation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses how contextual factors at universities (entrepreneurship education and program learning) and cognitive variables (perceived behavioral control, implementation intentions, and attitude) influence entrepreneurial intentions among Latin American university students.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The empirical analysis employs a multilevel (hierarchical) linear model with a sample size of 9012 university students taken in 2018 from nine Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Panamá, and Uruguay.

Findings

Overall, the university context and cognitive variables contribute to explaining entrepreneurial intentions in university students. Whereas program learning constitutes a variable that directly and indirectly explains entrepreneurial intentions among university students, attending entrepreneurship courses negatively influences their entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

A central premise of this study is that the entrepreneurial process in university students is a multilevel phenomenon, given that university context and cognitive variables are key factors in entrepreneurial intentions. The findings support this premise and contribute to the existing literature on entrepreneurship in emerging economies. Nevertheless, the results reveal a more nuanced picture regarding the role of university context on the entrepreneurial intentions of students.

Propósito

Este artículo analiza cómo las variables del contexto universitario (educación emprendedora y aprendizaje adquirido) y las variables cognitivas (control de conducta percibido, intenciones de implementación y actitud) influyen en la intención emprendedora de los estudiantes universitarios latinoamericanos.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

El análisis empírico es por medio de un modelo lineal multinivel (jerárquico) con una muestra de 9012 estudiantes universitarios de nueve países latinoamericanos, a saber: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Panamá, y Uruguay.

Resultados

En general, el contexto universitario y las variables cognitivas contribuyen a explicar la intención empresarial de los estudiantes universitarios. Mientras que el aprendizaje adquirido (program learning) constituye una variable que explica la intención emprendedora de los estudiantes universitarios directa e indirectamente, matricular cursos de emprendimiento influye negativamente en su intención emprendedora.

Originalidad/valor

Una premisa central en este estudio es que el proceso emprendedor de los estudiantes universitarios es un fenómeno multinivel, resultando el contexto universitario y las variables cognitivas factores clave para explicar la intención emprendedora. Nuestros resultados apoyan esta premisa y contribuyen a la literatura sobre emprendimiento en países emergentes. No obstante, nuestros resultados revelan una imagen más matizada del papel del contexto universitario en la intención empresarial de los estudiantes universitarios.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 April 2024

Allan Pérez-Orozco, Juan Carlos Leiva and Ronald Mora-Esquivel

This study explores the mediating role of marketing management in the relationship between online presence and product innovation among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the mediating role of marketing management in the relationship between online presence and product innovation among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises 205 Costa Rican SMEs collected by the Global Competitiveness Project during the first half of 2019. The data were analyzed using a two-stage modeling strategy for ordinary regression models to analyze mediation effects.

Findings

Marketing management as a strategic resource or capability accounts for the relationship between online presence and product innovation performance in SMEs, meaning that online presence resources require complementary organizational capabilities in marketing management to enhance product innovation.

Originality/value

This study, grounded in the resource-based view theory, contributes to the innovation field by identifying marketing management capabilities as an intermediate strategic interaction between online presence and product innovation performance in SMEs. Thus, managers should recognize the advantages of integrating marketing management principles and tactics into online presence tools to realize the value of their products by tailoring them to their client’s needs.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Esteban Lafuente, Angela Solano, Juan Carlos Leiva and Ronald Mora-Esquivel

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between organisational learning capabilities (OLCs) and innovation performance (IP) in organisational contexts where…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between organisational learning capabilities (OLCs) and innovation performance (IP) in organisational contexts where knowledge creation and exploitation are the business’ main source of competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The study hypotheses are tested on a unique sample of 74 high-performance businesses operating in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) industries and non-knowledge intensive sectors in 2016. The study employs a sequential deductive triangulation analysis (QUAN → qual) based on linear regression models and qualitative interviews.

Findings

The results indicate that OLCs positively impact IP. Additionally, the findings reveal that this relationship is stronger in organisations where knowledge creation and exploitation constitute the main source of competitive advantage, namely, KIBS firms.

Research limitations/implications

This paper offers insights into how the innovation outcomes of OLCs are heterogeneous across industries. This study contributes to a better understanding of the conditions under which the effects of developing learning-enhancing strategies occur in businesses operating in different industries.

Practical implications

Both knowledge generation and exploitation processes are critical for business success, and OLCs play a decisive role in this process. In this sense, the results suggest that managers need to turn their attention to the characteristics of business operations when considering the development of strategies aimed at enhancing OLCs.

Originality/value

The paper further explores the influence of OLCs on IP by analysing how organisational learning strategies interact with relevant organisational characteristics – that are linked here to the exploitation of knowledge-based resources – to yield superior IP.

Propósito

Este trabajo analiza la relación entre capacidades de aprendizaje organizativo y desempeño innovador en contextos organizacionales donde tanto la creación como la explotación de conocimiento constituyen la principal fuente de ventaja competitiva de las empresas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Para la verificación empírica de las hipótesis planteadas en este trabajo se emplea una base de datos del 2016 que incluye información de 74 empresas ‘gacela’ que operan en sectores de servicios intensivos en conocimiento (KIBS) y en industrias no intensivas en conocimiento. El estudio utiliza un análisis de triangulación secuencial deductiva (QUAN → qual) basado en modelos de regresión lineal y entrevistas en profundidad de corte cualitativo.

Resultados

Los resultados indican que las capacidades de aprendizaje organizativo impactan positivamente el desempeño innovador. Además, los resultados revelan que esta relación es más pronunciada en empresas – empresas KIBS – donde la creación y la explotación de conocimiento son la principal fuente de ventaja competitiva.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Este trabajo ofrece resultados sobre la heterogeneidad de los rendimientos de las capacidades de aprendizaje organizativo, en términos de innovación. Además, este estudio contribuye a un mejor entendimiento de las condiciones bajo las cuales la implantación de estrategias orientadas a mejorar el aprendizaje organizacional se materializa en un mayor desempeño innovador en empresas que operan en distintos sectores económicos.

Implicaciones prácticas

Tanto la creación como la explotación de conocimiento son procesos clave para el éxito empresarial, y las capacidades de aprendizaje organizativo juegan un papel fundamental en este proceso. En este sentido, los resultados del estudio sugieren que los directores y gestores de empresas deben tener en consideración las características de los procesos operativos de sus empresas a la hora de diseñar e implementar estrategias que buscan mejorar las capacidades de aprendizaje organizativo al interior de la empresa.

Originalidad/valor

Este trabajo investiga en profundidad el efecto de las capacidades de aprendizaje organizativo sobre el desempeño innovador mediante un análisis que busca explicar cómo las estrategias de aprendizaje organizativo interactúan con importantes características de la empresa – las cuales asociamos a la explotación de recursos basados en conocimiento – para generar mayores niveles de desempeño innovador dentro de la empresa.

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Esteban Lafuente, Suyen Alonso-Ubieta, Juan Carlos Leiva and Ronald Mora-Esquivel

This study evaluates the relationship between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and business competitiveness in four different contexts (i.e. France, Spain, Hungary and Costa Rica).

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluates the relationship between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and business competitiveness in four different contexts (i.e. France, Spain, Hungary and Costa Rica).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sample of 348 manufacturing and knowledge-intensive business service firms operating in four countries with different entrepreneurial ecosystems (France, Spain, Costa Rica and Hungary) for 2019. Firm competitiveness is computed via the “benefit-of-the-doubt” (BOD) method, and a multilevel model is employed to assess the connection between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and firm competitiveness.

Findings

The results of the multilevel model indicate that the entrepreneurial ecosystem is related to firm competitiveness, while the BOD results suggest that firms operating in settings with a more consolidated entrepreneurial ecosystem are better able to realize the outcomes of strategic choices linked to the exploitation of key resources and capabilities. Country-specific results suggest that “human capital” is the most relevant competitive pillar prioritized by all sampled businesses.

Originality/value

The proposed analysis of the connection between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and business competitiveness in different contexts contributes to the development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem frame by offering insights into how the properties of the entrepreneurial ecosystem (i.e. interactions among individuals, organizations and institutions) can produce economically meaningful effects on business performance.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2019

Martín Solís and Ronald Mora-Esquivel

This study aims to develop and validate a scale to measure innovative culture in work teams of the public sector (ICT).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop and validate a scale to measure innovative culture in work teams of the public sector (ICT).

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed research design was followed. An initial literature review and a qualitative study identify the possible dimensions that give content to the construct of the innovative culture. Subsequently, two quantitative studies are carried out to explore the measurement scale and provide evidence of its reliability and validity.

Findings

The results show that the ICT construct is composed of ten dimensions and likewise, exhibit internal consistency and evidence of validity.

Originality/value

This study attempts to provide an additional contribution to the conceptualization and measurement of innovative culture, through the development of a scale that consolidates the different dimensions proposed by the authors. Besides, the scale developed is the only one, as far as we know, that has been created to evaluate innovative culture in work teams.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address the effects of self-esteem and affective commitment on firm performance and whether these effects vary according to the gender and age of active entrepreneurial students.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a subsample from the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey (GUESSS) of entrepreneur students running their own businesses to perform a structural equation model (SEM) analysis to test the relationship between self-esteem (SE), affective commitment (AC) and firm performance (FP) moderated by the gender and age of entrepreneur students.

Findings

The results confirm that higher levels of entrepreneur SE are related to a higher assessment of AC and FP. A major effect of SE on AC was also observed among male respondents. Age was not related to an increase in AC. The effect of SE on AC and FP was lower among older students.

Originality/value

This study makes valuable contributions to the fields of entrepreneurship, psychology, gender and organizational behavior. This study presents empirical support for the theoretical framework using SEM, presenting initial insights into the mechanisms that shape AC in entrepreneurial students and its implications for FP.

Objetivo

Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la influencia del género, la edad y la autoestima (SE) de los emprendedores en el compromiso afectivo (AC) de los estudiantes universitarios con sus emprendimientos y cómo se relacionan con el desempeño subjetivo de la empresa (FP).

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Utilizamos los datos de la encuesta GUESSS de 2018 para realizar un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) para determinar los efectos directos del género, la edad y la SE en el AC, sus efectos directos e indirectos en el FP y los efectos directos y papel mediador del AC hacia el FP, para estudiantes emprendedores.

Resultados

Los resultados confirman que niveles más altos de SE están relacionados con niveles más altos de AC de los emprendedores a sus emprendimientos y una mayor evaluación de FP. Además, los hombres reportan niveles más altos de AC y FP que sus contrapartes femeninas, al tiempo que el género tiene un efecto importante en la relación del SE en el AC. La edad no está relacionada con el aumento del AC, pero el efecto de la SE sobre el AC disminuye con el incremento de la edad, y los valores de FP también se reducen para los estudiantes mayores en comparación con los estudiantes más jóvenes. Los niveles más altos de AC están relacionados con valores más altos de FP, y existe un efecto de mediación de AC para el género y SE sobre FP.

Originalidad/valor

este estudio proporciona valiosas contribuciones a los campos del emprendimiento, la psicología, el género y el comportamiento organizacional. Primero, presentamos un marco teórico que integra postulados de emprendimiento FP, AC, SE, edad y género. Luego, probamos empíricamente nuestro marco teórico utilizando SEM y presentamos resultados iniciales sobre los mecanismos que dan forma al AC en estudiantes emprendedores y sus implicaciones para el FP.

Objetivo

Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar a influência do gênero, da idade e da autoestima (SE) dos empreendedores no comprometimento afetivo (AC) dos universitários com seus empreendimentos e como eles se relacionam com o desempenho subjetivo da empresa (FP).

Design/metodologia/abordagem

Utilizamos dados da pesquisa GUESSS de 2018 para realizar uma modelagem de equações estruturais (SEM) para determinar os efeitos diretos de gênero, idade e SE na AC, seus efeitos diretos e indiretos no FP e os efeitos diretos e papel mediador do AC na FP, para estudantes empreendedores.

Resultados

Os resultados confirmam que níveis mais elevados de SE estão relacionados com níveis mais elevados de AC dos empreendedores para os seus empreendimentos e uma maior avaliação do FP. Além disso, os homens relatam níveis mais elevados de AC e FP do que as mulheres, embora tenham um efeito importante da SE na AC. A idade não está relacionada com o aumento da AC, mas o efeito do SE na AC diminui com o aumento da idade, e os valores de FP também diminuem para os alunos mais velhos em comparação com os alunos mais jovens. Níveis mais elevados de AC estão relacionados a valores mais elevados de FP, e há efeito mediador da AC para gênero e SE sobre FP.

Originalidade/Valor

Este estudo fornece contribuições valiosas para as áreas de empreendedorismo, psicologia, gênero e comportamento organizacional. Primeiro, apresentamos um quadro teórico que integra postulados de empreendedorismo em FP, AC, SE, idade e género. Em seguida, testamos empiricamente o nosso enquadramento teórico utilizando SEM e apresentamos resultados iniciais sobre os mecanismos que moldam o AC em estudantes empreendedores e as suas implicações para o FP.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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