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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Ahmet Maslakcı, Harun Sesen and Lütfi Sürücü

Globalisation has made higher education increasingly multicultural. Although multicultural university students' attitudes and interactions with different cultures affect…

Abstract

Purpose

Globalisation has made higher education increasingly multicultural. Although multicultural university students' attitudes and interactions with different cultures affect their academic success as well as entrepreneurial intentions, only a few studies have analysed this topic. Therefore, this study examined the assumption that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationship between attitudes towards multiculturalism and entrepreneurial intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A model was proposed and empirically tested 564 university students in Northern Cyprus. Data were analysed using SPSS 23 and AMOS 18 using the PROCESS Macro and Bootstrap methods.

Findings

The results indicated that improving university students' attitudes towards multiculturalism will have a beneficial effect on their entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, PsyCap is a mediator variable on the relationship between multicultural attitudes and entrepreneurial intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the literature by theoretically and empirically examining how attitudes towards multiculturalism and PsyCap impact university students' entrepreneurial intentions. Its limitations can be overcome through future research.

Practical implications

The study's findings are valid in two areas: (1) assisting policymakers, researchers and academics to better understand the critical influence of university students' attitudes towards multiculturalism on their entrepreneurial intentions, particularly since this topic had not been extensively studied; (2) advancing theoretical discussions by examining the positive effects of internal factors such as PsyCap in terms of multicultural attitudes and entrepreneurial intentions.

Social implications

The study provides empirical evidence that academics and university administrators should pay attention to multicultural attitudes to increase university students' entrepreneurial intentions. Hence, it focused on the relationship between multicultural society, entrepreneurial intentions, and PsyCap.

Originality/value

Attitudes towards multiculturalism influence students' entrepreneurial intentions through PsyCap. The context of cultural values and multiculturalism determines the premises of entrepreneurial intentions. This study is unique and innovative as it brings a new focus to academic literature.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 63 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2017

Anna Maija Vuorio, Kaisu Puumalainen and Katharina Fellnhofer

The role of entrepreneurship has changed to include issues beyond economic growth. This has turned attention toward the drivers of entrepreneurial intentions across…

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7203

Abstract

Purpose

The role of entrepreneurship has changed to include issues beyond economic growth. This has turned attention toward the drivers of entrepreneurial intentions across entrepreneurship types, particularly in sustainable entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers of entrepreneurial intentions in sustainable entrepreneurship. In particular, the paper aims to extend the existing intention models to include work values and attitudes toward sustainability, thereby bringing the model into the context of sustainable entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative research design, data were collected in three European countries through anonymous questionnaires. The data consist of responses from 393 university students.

Findings

The results show that attitude toward sustainability and perceived entrepreneurial desirability enhance sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, adding sustainability into the regression equation adds explanation power, hence suggesting that the theory of planned behavior needs to be adapted when applied to sustainable entrepreneurship. Attitudes toward sustainability are positively impacted by altruism, while perceived entrepreneurial desirability is driven by intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on one particular type of entrepreneurship and one particular age group.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by applying the entrepreneurial intention model to sustainable entrepreneurship. The results imply that it may be the time to consider the variance in entrepreneurial opportunities in intention models as well as the need to address the conflict between work values. The results show that sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial intentions are driven by attitudes toward sustainability and perceived entrepreneurial desirability. These two attitudes are driven by altruism and extrinsic rewards, and, especially, extrinsic reward plays an opposite role in both drivers of sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial intentions.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Kuo-Pin Yang, Hsin-Hua Hsiung and Yu-Jen Chiu

The purpose of this paper is to extend the attitudinal approach to entrepreneurial intentions by using a structural analysis to explore overlooked personal values as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the attitudinal approach to entrepreneurial intentions by using a structural analysis to explore overlooked personal values as the antecedents of entrepreneurial attitude. Based on the widely adopted value system proposed by Schwartz, this study argues that while one cluster of personal values is positively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude that leads to entrepreneurial intention, another cluster of personal values is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire responses obtained from a sample of 276 MBA were analyzed using structural equation models to examine the influences of values on entrepreneurial intentions via entrepreneurial attitude.

Findings

The results of this study demonstrate that personal values of self-direction, stimulation, achievement, and universalism are all positively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude, which together constitute a comfort zone for entrepreneurship, whereas values in the opposite end of the circumplex including benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, and power are negatively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude. The values that discourage the formation of an entrepreneurial attitude also counter the positive effect of entrepreneurial attitude on intention, making the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and intention contingent upon value conflicts.

Originality/value

This study regards entrepreneurship as a career development and contributes to the entrepreneurship study by differentiating the influences of a vital construct, i.e., personal values, which should not be regarded as a universalism. The value circumplex with a comfort and discomfort zone developed by this study can serve as a platform to help build the view on entrepreneurial intentions in terms of personal values.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Brian T. McCann

To contribute to the knowledge of factors that shape entrepreneurial beliefs, the purpose of this paper is to theorize and empirically test how individuals’ general…

Abstract

Purpose

To contribute to the knowledge of factors that shape entrepreneurial beliefs, the purpose of this paper is to theorize and empirically test how individuals’ general attitudes toward entrepreneurship based on exposure to others’ prior entrepreneurial activities are related to beliefs surrounding current entrepreneurial opportunities. Positive attitudes based on prior exposure can lead to bias in the beliefs about current opportunities being evaluated, suggesting that positive affect can be a negative influence in the entrepreneurial process.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics I, a nationally representative, longitudinal data set of US adults in the process of starting businesses. Regression analyses demonstrate how general attitudes are associated with beliefs about level of future sales, probability of venture survival, and levels of financial, competitive, and operational uncertainty.

Findings

Nascent entrepreneurs with more positive general attitudes toward entrepreneurship form more optimistic estimates of the financial performance and survival likelihood of their future ventures. They also estimate lower levels of environmental uncertainty.

Originality/value

This research extends understanding of the impact of prior exposure to entrepreneurship in the entrepreneurial process. It also contributes to increasing understanding of the determinants of entrepreneurial beliefs and extends prior work that has considered cognitive determinants (knowledge and motivation) to consider emotional determinants (affect-infused attitudes), consistent with the heightened recent interest in the role of emotion in entrepreneurship. This research provides a different perspective on the role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. While prior work addressing affect in entrepreneurship has explored the positive aspects of affect, the present study suggests that affect may not have a uniformly positive influence.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2008

Michael L. Harris and Shanan G. Gibson

This paper aims to examine the entrepreneurial attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in the Small Business Institute® (SBI) program at multiple universities in the…

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4483

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the entrepreneurial attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in the Small Business Institute® (SBI) program at multiple universities in the USA. Research has encouraged a continuous study and refinement of the entrepreneurial profile, particularly for young adults. Past studies have linked certain personality constructs and entrepreneurship, and shown a connection between entrepreneurial intentions and past business experience.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 216 students completed the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO) survey. The EAO provides a composite score based on four attitude subscales: achievement in business; innovation in business; perceived personal control of business outcomes; and perceived self‐esteem in business. In addition, participants were asked to provide demographic information and past entrepreneurial experience.

Findings

Results indicated that the majority of students possessed entrepreneurial attitudes. Furthermore, both student characteristics and entrepreneurial experience were found to be associated with certain entrepreneurial attitudes. Specifically, male students scored higher on both personal control and innovation, and students with family business experience had more developed entrepreneurial attitudes.

Practical implications

The SBI and other similar training/education programs provide the opportunity for direct entrepreneurial exposure. Their ability to impact attitudes toward entrepreneurship provides a venue for career opportunities. Further discussion centers on the relationship between entrepreneurial attitudes and degree of past experience.

Originality/value

The paper provides an examination of entrepreneurial attitudes that focuses on both demographics and past experiences for a unique educational program that helps promote entrepreneurship as a viable career option.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 50 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Erich J. Schwarz, Malgorzata A. Wdowiak, Daniela A. Almer‐Jarz and Robert J. Breitenecker

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of…

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6682

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of intention, it aims to develop a model of entrepreneurial intent that incorporates both human and environmental factors. Specifically, the proposed model aims to focus on three constructs to predict the entrepreneurial intent, i.e. general attitudes (toward money, change, and competiveness), the attitude toward entrepreneurship, and the perception of the university environment and regional start‐up infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

In June 2005, 35,040 students of medicine, law, and technical, natural, social and business science from seven universities in Austria (electronic survey) were contacted. The response rate was 8.10 per cent. A total of 2,124 cases were considered in the final analysis. A multiple linear regression model with attitudes, perceptions of environment conditions, and selected control variables (age, gender, field of study) was estimated to test the hypotheses.

Findings

With the exception of the attitude toward competitiveness, all other paths regarding general and specific attitudes are significant. Pertaining to the environment conditions, only significant effects of the university on students' interest in business founding were detected. Other environment factors have no impact on entrepreneurial intention among students in Austria. In addition to that, significant differences in entrepreneurial intent regarding age, gender and field of study were found. Despite variation in the intent level between students of different fields of study, any significant differences in the effects of predictor variables on the entrepreneurial intent among the investigated student population were not discovered.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should place more emphasis on interaction between personal and environmental factors. Besides, students' social networks (family and friends) should be included in the analysis of entrepreneurial career decision. Practical implications – The universities in Austria should more extensively address entrepreneurship education to students of other subjects than business sciences. An important component of entrepreneurial training is a social learning process. In this respect, inviting successful entrepreneurs (role models) to the lectures or enabling students small business experience via interaction with local entrepreneurs can be viewed as supportive actions. Developing entrepreneurial skills as crucial life capacities should be the main target of all university faculties.

Originality/value

The paper lays the foundation for a better understanding of the “intent preconditions” in the context of new venture creation, particularly in the context of Austrian students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Matthias Pepin and Etienne St-Jean

Many countries around the world have now introduced entrepreneurship into their curricula and educational practices, starting at the elementary school level. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries around the world have now introduced entrepreneurship into their curricula and educational practices, starting at the elementary school level. However, recent studies show the relative (un)effectiveness of K-12 enterprise education on diverse learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to report on a research aimed at assessing the impacts of enterprise education on students’ entrepreneurial attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a quasi-experiment between May and June 2017 to assess the entrepreneurial potential of students at Elementary Cycle 3 (10–12 years) in Quebec, Canada. Relying on attitude theory, the authors used Athayde’s Attitudes toward Enterprise for Young People test, which assesses students’ entrepreneurial potential through four entrepreneurial attitudes (leadership, creativity, achievement and personal control). The experimental group consisted of 11 classes which had conducted an entrepreneurial project during the 2016–2017 school year (n = 208 students), while the 7 classes of the control group had not (n=151 students).

Findings

At first glance, data showed no difference between the two groups. Further investigation showed that private and Freinet (public) schools’ students, both from the control group, show significantly higher leadership scores than those of the experimental group. In-depth analyses also show that increasing the number of entrepreneurial projects significantly impacted three of the four attitudes assessed, although negligibly.

Research limitations/implications

Taken together, those results question the relevance of single entrepreneurial activities in developing students’ entrepreneurial attitudes. They also suggest the positive impact of a progressive, constructivist pedagogy in developing such entrepreneurial attitudes. Moreover, the paper raises several factors likely to impact students’ entrepreneurial attitudes for further research.

Originality/value

K-12 enterprise education remains an understudied context, largely crossed by unproven statements. This research contributes to understand and give direction to educational initiatives targeting the development of young students’ entrepreneurial attitudes.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2021

Cong Doanh Duong

The purpose of this research is to integrate the prediction from entrepreneurship education with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to build a conceptual framework and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to integrate the prediction from entrepreneurship education with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to build a conceptual framework and estimate the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention over and above key predictors from an extended TPB model. Also, the moderating impacts of educational fields in the paths from entrepreneurial education, attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control to entrepreneurial intention are tested in this study.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a sample of 559 university students who received entrepreneurship education at 12 universities from Vietnam. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to test the validity and reliability of all variables and regression analyses were used to estimate coefficient paths. Then, bootstrapping method with the PROCESS approach was utilized to test the indirect correlations.

Findings

The study reveals that attitude toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control were positively and strongly associated with entrepreneurial intention, while the linkage between subjective norms and entrepreneurial intention was not significant. Also, the findings show that even though entrepreneurship education did not have a direct effect on entrepreneurial intention, it increased entrepreneurial intention via attitude toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control. In addition, this study finds that educational fields moderate the associations between predictors and entrepreneurial intention.

Practical implications

This study offers both universities and policymakers options to foster youths' entrepreneurial activities.

Originality/value

This study is expected to significantly contribute to entrepreneurship literature by enriching our understanding of the interesting and crucial linkages between entrepreneurship education, attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the current research reveals that for economic and business management students, the paths are driven from entrepreneurial education, attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control to intention to engage in entrepreneurial activities has become stronger when compared to students of majors in engineering and others.

Details

Education + Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Wassim J. Aloulou

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of personal background and entrepreneurial attitudes on entrepreneurial intentions of Saudi Freshmen students of Al Imam…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of personal background and entrepreneurial attitudes on entrepreneurial intentions of Saudi Freshmen students of Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University. After reviewing the literature and related theories on entrepreneurship, attitudes and intentions, this study provides a conceptual framework trying to identify the effects of most influential factors on individual’s intention to become an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a survey study developed from previous empirical studies, the paper aims to investigate the significant elements of intentions from a sample of 103 students randomly selected. This study is both descriptive and analytical using correlations and multiple regressions.

Findings

The findings show that significant correlations among variables were found. The achievement and innovation attitudes are significant elements to entrepreneurial intentions. Students scored quite high on them, but, moderate on personal control and self-esteem attitudes. Students might have a real intention for starting their own businesses later that could be sustained during their studies at university. Additionally, entrepreneurs among relatives and entrepreneurship training were also the other significant elements to intentions.

Research Limitations/implications

Implications for future research are described and some pragmatic recommendations are provided to promote students’ entrepreneurial initiatives and behaviors at university.

Social Implications

The exploratory analysis suggests the need to develop more the awareness of students to entrepreneurship as potential career choice to help them to be active in the society.

Originality/value

In this paper, the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation model is validated for a Saudi university considered as a specific context. Broader reflections about a freshman student entrepreneurship as refocused research agenda is also considered by undertaking some new research and developing a comprehensive and contextual framework.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Gary Packham, Paul Jones, Christopher Miller, David Pickernell and Brychan Thomas

This paper aims to examine the impact of enterprise education on entrepreneurial attitude within European higher education institutions (HEIs) in France, Germany and…

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5014

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of enterprise education on entrepreneurial attitude within European higher education institutions (HEIs) in France, Germany and Poland. The research seeks to consider whether differences between cultural and industrial heritage can influence entrepreneurial attitude and mediate the effectiveness of enterprise education.

Design/methodology/approach

Research argues that Europe requires more entrepreneurs willing to innovate and create new ventures to facilitate economic growth. This research builds on prior studies, which have examined the impact of enterprise education and training on business start‐up. In particular the study utilises the concept of entrepreneurial attitude to measure how enterprise education influences students' perceptions of, and motivations towards, entrepreneurship as a viable career option. The study contrasts and compares the impact of a short enterprise course on entrepreneurial attitude among undergraduate students in French, German and Polish HEIs. A quantitative methodology employed a research instrument utilising five‐point Likert arrays to contrast attitudes and opinions of students both prior to, and after, the delivery of the course.

Findings

Enterprise education has a positive impact on entrepreneurial attitude of French and Polish students. Conversely, the course had a negative impact on male German students. It was also found that while female students are more likely to perceive a greater benefit from the learning experience, the impact of enterprise education on entrepreneurial attitude is actually more significant for male students.

Practical implications

The research findings are of interest to academia and policy makers. The study suggests that entrepreneurial attitude among European students can be influenced by exposure to enterprise education. The results also indicate that gender, cultural and industrial heritage can moderate the impact of enterprise education.

Originality/value

The paper provides evidence that differences between gender, culture and regional settings need to be considered in the design and delivery of enterprise programmes if they are to have the desired impact on entrepreneurial intent and graduate entrepreneurship.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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