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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Mark Eshwar Lokanan

The purpose of this paper is to present an argument for the use of cognitive interviews to be use in financial crime investigations. In particular, the paper argues that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an argument for the use of cognitive interviews to be use in financial crime investigations. In particular, the paper argues that the components of cognitive interview make it useful for financial crime investigators to gather and collate information on financial criminality.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper chronicles the literature on cognitive interviews to critically evaluate its usefulness in previous studies.

Findings

A critical examination of the literature shows that cognitive interviews were successfully used in a variety of circumstances. Despite its difficulties, the empirical evidence reveals that cognitive interview fared well in laboratory studies across different (and vulnerable) population groups.

Practical implications

There is evidence to suggest that cognitive interviews can be an effective technique to interview witnesses of financial crimes. The fact that white-collar criminals, more often than not, comes from a “gentleman background” and are not accustomed to the role of “criminal suspect,” makes cognitive interview techniques a useful tool for fraud investigators.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first paper of its kind to conduct a thorough literature review and apply cognitive interview techniques to financial crime investigation.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

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E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Jenny Condie

Interview data is often the cornerstone of qualitative field studies, yet problems with getting sufficient, rich, reliable data in a cost effective manner can inhibit the…

Abstract

Purpose

Interview data is often the cornerstone of qualitative field studies, yet problems with getting sufficient, rich, reliable data in a cost effective manner can inhibit the progress of field study research. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a novel interview method, the cognitive interview, in an exploratory field study of management accounting change where in‐depth access was impractical.

Design/methodology/approach

The cognitive interview was developed by cognitive psychologists for use in police witness interviewing. It has been found to substantially improve the amount of information that subjects recall while maintaining or slightly improving accuracy levels.

Findings

The cognitive interview was found to be effective at gathering rich, detailed data despite the restriction of conducting only one or two interviews at each company. The cognitive interview uncovered information that did not fit with the participants' initial account of events. The structure of the cognitive interview often led participants to provide narrative accounts, allowing narrative analysis techniques such as genre analysis to be used. Asking participants to retell their accounts in reverse order may allow researchers to discern the schema (mental template) that the participant was using to organise their memories of the change process.

Originality/value

In its first known use for business research, the cognitive interview was effective at moving beyond the rationalized accounts that participants often provide initially. Researchers who conduct interviews to collect data may find this of particular interest.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Elin Brandi Sørensen and Søren Askegaard

This paper seeks to provide a discourse‐based critique of the laddering interviewing technique, and to make academics as well as practitioners aware of some of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide a discourse‐based critique of the laddering interviewing technique, and to make academics as well as practitioners aware of some of the limitations in applying this particular consumer interviewing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first describes the laddering interviewing technique, which traditionally has been conceptualised within a cognitively‐oriented perspective, i.e. the laddering interview is seen as a cognitive task. Then a critical discussion of some of the problems inherent in this view follows. After this, an alternative conceptualisation of the laddering interview is proposed, namely, that it is a discursive event. On the basis of insights from Wittgenstein and Austin it is suggested that the laddering interview is a room for social actions where both interviewer and interviewee are “doing things with words”. An example of applying the discursive approach to a sample sequence from a laddering interview is also provided. Finally, it seeks to evaluate the laddering interviewing technique in terms of its capacity to tap into “the voices in the marketplace”.

Findings

Finds that the laddering interviewing technique has its raison d'être as a quick and structured way of tapping into the voices and institutionalised rationales of the consumers in the marketplace. However, it is also found that the laddering interviewing technique “locks” the interviewee into one particular consumer identity; it prompts only answers that are valid with perfect strangers; it prevents the interviewee from unfolding his arguments fully; and it has a constant focus on personal preferences excluding the possible dissociations from other consumers – all of this making the data less rich and varied.

Originality/value

The unique value of this paper is that it sums up and provides a theoretically‐based critique of the laddering interviewing technique. It is believed that this critique will lead to a more appropriate appreciation of what is going on in a laddering interview and of the utterances that the consumers make in such an interview.

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Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Fiona Cocker, Angela Martin and Kristy Sanderson

The economic impact of ill‐health in employed individuals is largely experienced via absenteeism‐related and presenteeism‐related productivity loss. Using cognitive

Abstract

Purpose

The economic impact of ill‐health in employed individuals is largely experienced via absenteeism‐related and presenteeism‐related productivity loss. Using cognitive interviewing, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate a recently published interview method by which managers determine key job characteristics and their relationship to the cost of acute and chronic illness‐related absenteeism and presenteeism in the workplace: the team production approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Managers (n=20) from various industries in Australia completed the team production interview by telephone. Quantitative items measured replaceability, team production, time sensitivity of output and illness‐related absenteeism and presenteeism costs. Concurrent verbal probes followed five items which assessed the productivity impact of illness‐related presenteeism, identified as cognitively challenging.

Findings

Content analysis of interview outputs examined cognitive processes underlying managers’ responses and revealed difficulties understanding and quantifying chronic illness and presenteeism. Difficulties were categorised as misunderstanding of key concepts/terminology, inability to provide answers due to lack of knowledge, difficulty applying questions/scenarios to employees/workplaces and miscellaneous problems.

Practical implications

Interview modifications are proposed to address concerns of managers. These changes aim to minimise measurement error in future applications of the instrument and improve valuation of chronic illness and presenteeism in the workforce.

Social implications

Improved understanding of chronic illness and presenteeism could enhance estimation of productivity loss recoverable via health management/promotion strategies and may increase managers’ willingness to implement such programs. Development of valuation methods in a manner acceptable to and informed by business leaders/employers ensures findings have “real‐world” value.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first use of cognitive interviewing to identify sources of response error in a productivity evaluation method.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Aiman El Asam and Muthanna Samara

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Cognitive Interview (CI) and its usefulness in improving recall among Arab children. Totally, 64 Arab children (9-12 years old…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Cognitive Interview (CI) and its usefulness in improving recall among Arab children. Totally, 64 Arab children (9-12 years old) took part in this study; they viewed a short video scene followed by the CI or a Structured Interview (control).

Design/methodology/approach

The study measured for recall of correct, incorrect, confabulated details and accuracy level. Using the interview type, delay type (2-4, 7-10 and 14-16 days) and age group (9-10 and 11-12 years) a MANCOVA test showed that the CI group produced significantly more correct, incorrect and confabulated details compared to the control.

Findings

Delay had a significant effect on recall of correct detail while the older group of children produced significantly more correct details, higher accuracy and fewer incorrect and confabulated details. Although the CI is a potentially transferable method to be used with Arab children, careful consideration should be given to its difficulty along with cultural issues.

Originality/value

This is the first study to consider CI among Arab sample of children. Most research have looked at western cultures, hence this study was needed to extend knowledge and test if the CI is transferable to a different culture.

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Sanne van Can, Olivier Dodier, Henry Otgaar and Fanny Verkampt

The purpose of this paper is to examine the beneficial effect of a modified cognitive interview (MCI) on adolescents’ testimonies in case of a negative emotional event…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the beneficial effect of a modified cognitive interview (MCI) on adolescents’ testimonies in case of a negative emotional event. Furthermore, the authors were interested in assessing the impact of a MCI on within-statement consistency.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 37 adolescents (12-15 years) watched a emotionally negative video and were interviewed, seven days later, with a MCI or a structured (control) interview (SI).

Findings

Results showed that adolescents interviewed with the MCI reported significantly more correct and tended to report more incorrect information than those interviewed with the SI. Nonetheless, this rise in incorrect details did not impair the accuracy of statements gathered with the MCI (vs SI). Moreover, consistent, reminiscent, and forgotten information within a statement was positively linked to overall accuracy. In conclusion, testimonies gathered with the MCI might be perceived as more complete and detailed than the ones gathered with the SI.

Practical implications

The improvement of interview techniques helps solving criminal cases.

Originality/value

The innovative aspect of this work is that the benefits of the cognitive interview (CI) and the absence of an effect of inconsistency on accuracy are now also seen among adolescents.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Céline Launay and Jacques Py

As eyewitnesses provide the most valuable information for criminal investigations, it is important to further develop and test techniques for collecting eyewitness…

Abstract

Purpose

As eyewitnesses provide the most valuable information for criminal investigations, it is important to further develop and test techniques for collecting eyewitness testimony so that they meet the major objective of a police interview: obtaining details pertaining to criminal actions. The purpose of this paper is to test a new instruction – the re-enactment investigative instruction – formulated to collect the most fine-grained details of a criminal event as accurately as possible. It leads the interviewee to decompose all directly recollected actions into the most minimal actions so that the event can be accurately re-enacted.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 40 participants individually viewed a video depicting a robbery, were randomly assigned to a re-enactment or structured interview (SI) group and then interviewed face-to-face. Each interview was comprised of two free recall phases and a questioning phase. Manipulation of the re-enactment instruction took place in the second free recall phase of the re-enactment interviews (RIs).

Findings

The RI elicited more correct information compared to the SI (d=1.14), and slightly but not significantly less incorrect information (d=0.09). Participants in the RI condition reported significantly more details pertaining to general and specific actions.

Practical implications

The re-enactment instruction shows the potential to increase witness recall in a way that promotes recall of both additional correct information and investigative-relevant information.

Originality/value

The instruction provides witnesses a retrieval strategy that facilitates overcoming both the gap between memory availability and accessibility and the gap between memory availability and output regulation, eliciting more details with no significant increase of errors.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Rusli Ahmad and Nur Azman Ali

This article explores raters' understanding on the decision‐making process in the public service performance appraisal system (PAS) by looking at the cognitive processing…

Abstract

This article explores raters' understanding on the decision‐making process in the public service performance appraisal system (PAS) by looking at the cognitive processing models (CPM) steps involved. Presents the results of semi‐structured cognitive mapping interviews undertaken with novice raters in the Malaysia public service (MPS) context. Interviews were conducted using cognitive mapping protocol. The resultant causal cognitive maps explored findings from CPM applied in appraisal decision making. Explains the performance appraisal process and theoretical framework for the CPM. From the research findings, it is clear that raters recognised the CPM steps in their performance appraisal practice. The study also identifies individual differences in novice raters' CPM in terms of concepts and complexity. The findings are used to validate the CPM concepts suggested in related literature. Finally, the study discusses the implications of CPM in a broader context of performance appraisal decision‐making process.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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