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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Rajesh Siriyala, A. Gopala Krishna, P. Rama Murthy Raju and M. Duraiselvam

Since, wear is the one of the most commonly encountered industrial problems leading to frequent replacement of components there is a need to develop metal matrix…

Abstract

Purpose

Since, wear is the one of the most commonly encountered industrial problems leading to frequent replacement of components there is a need to develop metal matrix composites (MMCs) for achieving better wear properties. The purpose of this paper is to fabricate aluminum MMCs to improve the dry sliding wear characteristics. An effective multi-response optimization approach called the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the sets of optimal parameters in dry sliding wear process.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work investigates the dry sliding wear behavior of graphite reinforced aluminum composites produced by the molten metal mixing method by means of a pin-on-disc type wear set up. Dry sliding wear tests were carried on graphite reinforced MMCs and its matrix alloy sliding against a steel counter face. Different contact stress, reinforcement percentage, sliding distance and sliding velocity were selected as the control variables and the response selected was wear volume loss (WVL) and coefficient of friction (COF) to evaluate the dry sliding performance. An L25 orthogonal array was employed for the experimental design. Optimization of dry sliding performance of the graphite reinforced MMCs was performed using PCA.

Findings

Based on the PCA, the optimum level parameters for overall principal component (PC) of WVL and COF have been identified. Moreover, analysis of variance was performed to know the impact of individual factors on overall PC of WVL and COF. The results indicated that the reinforcement percentage was found to be most effective factor among the other control parameters on dry sliding wear followed by sliding distance, sliding velocity and contact stress. Finally the wear surface morphology of the composites has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

Practical implications

Various manufacturing techniques are available for processing of MMCs. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In particular, some techniques are significantly expensive compared to others. Generally the manufacturer prefers the low cost technique. Therefore stir casting technique which was used in this paper for manufacturing of Aluminum MMCs is the best alternative for processing of MMCs in the present commercial sectors. Since the most important criteria of a dry sliding wear behavior is to provide lower WVL and COF, this study has intended to prove the application of PCA technique for solving multi objective optimization problem in wear applications like piston rings, piston rods, cylinder heads and brake rotors, etc.

Originality/value

Application of multi-response optimization technique for evaluation of tribological characteristics for Aluminum MMCs made up of graphite particulates is a first-of-its-kind approach in literature. Hence PCA method can be successfully used for multi-response optimization of dry sliding wear process.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Mohammad Mohsen Peiravi, Javad Alinejad, D.D. Ganji and Soroush Maddah

The purpose of this study is investigating the effect of using multi-phase nanofluids, Rayleigh number and baffle arrangement simultaneously on the heat transfer rate and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is investigating the effect of using multi-phase nanofluids, Rayleigh number and baffle arrangement simultaneously on the heat transfer rate and Predict the optimal arrangement type of baffles in the differentiation of Rayleigh number in a 3D enclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

Simulations were performed on the base of the L25 Taguchi orthogonal array, and each test was conducted under different height and baffle arrangement. The multi-phase thermal lattice Boltzmann based on the D3Q19 method was used for modeling fluid flow and temperature fields.

Findings

Streamlines, isotherms, nanofluid volume fraction distribution and Nusselt number along the wall surface for 104 < Ra < 108 have been demonstrated. Signal-to-noise ratios have been analyzed to predict optimal conditions of maximize and minimize the heat transfer rate. The results show that by choosing the appropriate height and arrangement of the baffles, the average Nusselt number can be changed by more than 57 per cent.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is surveying three-dimensional and two-phase simulation for nanofluid. Also using the Taguchi method for Predicting the optimal arrangement type of baffles in a multi-part enclosure. Finally statistical analysis of the results by using of two maximum and minimum target Function heat transfer rates.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Mohd Muqeem, Ahmad Faizan Sherwani, Mukhtar Ahmad and Zahid Akhtar Khan

Diesel engine can produce power more efficiently with lower exhaust emissions when operated at optimum input parameter settings. To achieve this goal, the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Diesel engine can produce power more efficiently with lower exhaust emissions when operated at optimum input parameter settings. To achieve this goal, the purpose of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of diesel engine which will lead to optimum performance and exhaust emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the goal of improving diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions, four input parameters were considered in the study. Five different levels of each input parameter were taken. Four response variables under no load, half load and full load conditions were recorded. Experiments were performed in random manner according to selected Taguchi L25 orthogonal array. The data were analyzed using grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis. Analysis of S/N ratio was performed to obtain the optimum combination of input parameters. The grey relational grade at optimum setting of the input parameters was obtained by regression analysis.

Findings

Results of the current research work give the optimum input parameter settings for no load, half load and full load conditions of diesel engine. Engine produces power more efficiently with low exhaust emissions when operated at these optimum settings.

Practical implications

In view of the compliance to the stringent air pollution norms of the nations and fast depleting fossil fuels, it is of the utmost importance to design and operate the engine in the optimum range of its input parameters so that it produces more power with low exhaust emissions. This paper aims at optimizing input parameters of diesel engine to improve performance and exhaust emissions. Results of the study presented in this paper are significantly useful for diesel engine-related researchers and professionals.

Originality/value

From the literature review, it appears that only few researchers have conducted studies pertaining to the optimization of the input parameters of diesel engine to improve performance or exhaust emissions. Although few studies related to the optimization of compression ratio, fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure and air pressure have been reported, no work related to optimization of temperature and pressure of turbocharged air has been reported. Therefore, the main focus of the current research work is on optimizing the charge air temperature and pressure with respect to performance and exhaust emissions.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Víctor Giménez, Diego Prior and Jorge R. Keith

This paper aims to investigate the efficiency implications of belonging to a strategic hospital alliance (SHA) and measuring the effects over capacity utilization of such…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the efficiency implications of belonging to a strategic hospital alliance (SHA) and measuring the effects over capacity utilization of such agreements in a Mexican healthcare context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the nonparametric methodology used, which supports both objectives. Technological gaps ratios are calculated by using DEA-metafrontier approach to compare efficiency between SHA members and a hospital’s control group. Also, hospital capacity utilization ratios are used as the maximum rate of output possible from fixed inputs in a frontier setting using directional distance functions. Data were collected from an alliance called Consorcio Mexicano de Hospitales in México, which has 29 general private hospitals and a group of 47 hospitals with same characteristics from a database made by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía for year 2014.

Findings

The results indicate that efficiency is better at hospitals that belong to an alliance; it also shows an improvement of installed capacity management for hospital alliances in México.

Originality/value

The results can be useful for both private health organization managers and regulators themselves to adopt management practices that may end up having a favorable impact on cost and prices containment. Additionally, there are no previous studies neither in Mexico nor in Latin America that analyze the impact of strategic hospitality alliances on the efficiency and utilization of the capacity of private hospitals.

Propósito

Este documento tiene como objetivo investigar las implicaciones de pertenecer a una alianza hospitalaria estratégica (AHE) en la eficiencia, así como cuantificar los efectos sobre la utilización de la capacidad de dichos acuerdos en el contexto mexicano de atención médica.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA) es la metodología no paramétrica utilizada para lograr ambos objetivos. Las brechas tecnológicas se estiman empleando meta-fronteras calculadas mediante modelos DEA, comparando la eficiencia entre los miembros de la AHE y un grupo de control de hospitales. El nivel de utilización de la capacidad hospitalaria se calcula, utilizando funciones direccionales de distancia, a partir del máximo output alcanzable a partir de la dotación de inputs fijos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la alianza Consorcio Mexicano de Hospitales en México, integrada por 29 hospitales privados generales, y de un grupo de 47 hospitales con las mismas características obtenidos de una base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía para el año 2014.

Resultados

adosLos resultados indican que los niveles de eficiencia son superiores en los hospitales pertenecientes a la alianza, así como una mejor gestión de la capacidad instalada en la alianza hospitalaria en México.

Originalidad/valor

Los resultados pueden ser útiles tanto para los administradores de las organizaciones de salud privadas como para los reguladores, de forma que puedan adoptar prácticas de gestión con un impacto favorable en la contención de costos y precios. Asimismo, no existen estudios previos ni en México ni en América Latina que analicen el impacto de las alianzas estratégicas hospitalarias en la eficiencia y la utilización de la capacidad de los hospitales privados.

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Ajay Kumar Singal and Faisal Mohammad Ahsan

Emerging economy firms seek strategic assets through cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) to upgrade their capabilities. The paper explores the relation between emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging economy firms seek strategic assets through cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) to upgrade their capabilities. The paper explores the relation between emerging economy firms' investments in CBAs and subsequent investments in domestic R&D. It investigates the underlying mechanism that links a firm's decision to pursue CBAs and the outcomes from the CBAs. The main idea behind the study is that firms have higher possibility of creating value from cross-border acquisitions when they simultaneously invest in domestic R&D though both investments are constrained by financial and managerial resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested on a panel data set of 296 Indian firms over a period of 13 years (2003–2015). The authors use a two-stage Heckman procedure for testing their hypotheses. In the first stage, a probit model predicts the probability of a firm being a cross-border acquirer. The second stage model is estimated by a pooled-data GLS (generalized least squares) regression technique.

Findings

The authors find a nonlinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship between firm's investments in CBAs and domestic R&D. This suggests a complementary relation between investments in CBAs and a firm's domestic R&D at lower levels of investments in CBAs. At higher levels of investments in CBAs, CBA investments begin to substitute for firm's domestic R&D investments. For firms with higher international product-market experience and those operating in the hi-tech industry, the relationship between investments in CBAs and domestic R&D is complementary even at higher levels of CBA investments.

Originality/value

The study highlights the role of an emerging market firm's investment in domestic R&D as a link between the decision to invest in CBAs and related outcomes thereof. Emerging market firms face resource constraints while pursuing simultaneous investments in CBAs and R&D, but investment in R&D is essential for realizing the acquisition objectives. The authors also establish the significance of industry context and experiential learning in deciding the allocation of resources between CBAs and internal R&D.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Laurence Ferry, Guanming He and Chang Yang

The authors investigate how executive pay and its gap with employee pay influence the performance of Thailand tourism listed companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate how executive pay and its gap with employee pay influence the performance of Thailand tourism listed companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors manually collect data on the executives' and employees' remunerations for Thailand tourism listed companies and use the data for the authors’ OLS regression analysis. To check the robustness of the results to potential endogeneity issues, the authors employ the two-stage least-squares regression analysis and the impact threshold for a confounding variable approach.

Findings

The authors find that short-term executive compensation enhances firm performance, and that long-term executive compensation reduces the likelihood of unfavorable corporate performance. The authors also find that the gap in short-term pay between executives and employees has an inverted-U relation with firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that higher executive pay relative to employee pay could encourage executives to work hard to improve corporate performance, but that too large a pay gap between executives and employees could impair employees' morale and harm firm performance.

Practical implications

It is important for tourism companies to not only pay executives well but also avoid too large a pay gap between executives and employees.

Social implications

This study implies the important role of compensation design in contributing to employee engagement and good performance for tourism firms.

Originality/value

This study sheds light on agency problems between executives and employees in tourism companies and provides new evidence and insights on compensation research in the tourism sector in emerging markets.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Rexford Abaidoo and Elvis Kwame Agyapong

This study examines how specific micro-level macroeconomic indicators influence corporate performance volatility among US corporate bodies in the short run.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how specific micro-level macroeconomic indicators influence corporate performance volatility among US corporate bodies in the short run.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs error correction autoregressive distributed lagged (ARDL) model (ECM) to examine how micro-level variables influence volatility associated with corporate performance in the short run.

Findings

This paper finds that disaggregated or micro-level variables examined, tend to exhibit features that are not readily apparent from the aggregate variable from which such variables are derived. For instance, reported empirical estimate suggests that, growth in expenditures on services and nondurable goods tend to lower volatility associated with corporate performance, whereas government expenditures and expenditures on durable goods rather worsens volatility associated with corporate performance, all things being equal. Additionally, presented empirical estimates further provide evidence suggesting that macroeconomic uncertainty and inflation uncertainty significantly moderate or influence the extent to which disaggregated variables impact corporate performance volatility.

Originality/value

Compared to related studies in the reviewed literature, this study rather examines volatility associated with corporate performance instead of the corporate performance indicator itself. Additionally, this paper also examines how disaggregated variable instead of aggregate variables impact such volatility. Finally, the moderating role of key macroeconomic conditions in such a relationship is also examined.

Details

Journal of Money and Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2596

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2021

J. François Outreville

The purpose of this paper is to present a new methodology to estimate the migration of grades of top rated restaurant and the default rate over time.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new methodology to estimate the migration of grades of top rated restaurant and the default rate over time.

Design/methodology/approach

To demonstrate how to develop migration matrices the empirical results are based on the real number of top-rated French restaurants in Gault-Millau in a specific year and how they migrate from one grade to another over the period 1974–2010.

Findings

The purpose of the empirical analysis is only to illustrate the methodology. It is shown that migration rates are relatively stable over time.

Research limitations/implications

Results are presented only to illustrate the methodology. Further analysis could provide a sound basis to compare the rating systems from one guide to another.

Originality/value

This research note explores the notion of migration rate by developing an alternative way of measuring how restaurants survive over time.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Ying Li, Yung-Ho Chiu, Tai-Yu Lin and Hongyi Cen

As more women are now being appointed to senior and top management positions and invited to sit on boards of directors, they are now directly participating in strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

As more women are now being appointed to senior and top management positions and invited to sit on boards of directors, they are now directly participating in strategic company decision-making. As female directors have been found to provide new ideas, increase company competitiveness, efficiency and performance and bring a greater number of external resources to a company than male directors, this paper aims to put female directors as a variable into the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and statistical models to explore the effect of female directors on operating performances. The DEA first quantified and measured the company efficiencies, after which the statistical model analyzed the correlations between the variables to specifically identify the impact of female decision makers on the operating efficiencies in state-owned and private enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel two-stage, meta-hybrid dynamic DEA was developed to explore Chinese cultural media company efficiencies under optimal input and output resource allocations, after which Tobit Regression was applied to determine the effect of female executives on these efficiencies.

Findings

From 2012 to 2016, the overall efficiencies in Chinese state-owned cultural media enterprises were better than in the private cultural media enterprises. The overall technology gaps (TGs) in the state-owned cultural media enterprises were better than in the private cultural media enterprises.

Originality/value

Previous research has tended to focus on the causal relationships between female senior executives and business performances; however, there have been few studies on the relationships between female executives and company performance from an efficiency perspective (optimal resource allocation). This paper, therefore, is the first to develop a novel two-stage, meta-hybrid dynamic DEA to examine Chinese cultural media enterprise efficiencies, and the first to apply Tobit Regression to assess the effect of female executives on those efficiencies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Mina Sami and Wael Abdallah

The paper uses firm level data for the top listed firms in New York exchange stock over the period 2000–2017. The analysis is mainly based on 237 firms that already…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper uses firm level data for the top listed firms in New York exchange stock over the period 2000–2017. The analysis is mainly based on 237 firms that already experienced losses at the end of the fiscal year. The study aims to use the properties of the dynamic panel data, specifically the methodology proposed by Arenllo and Bond (1991), to fulfill the objectives of the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on the dividend policy management of the firms when they experience a loss at the end of the fiscal year. The objective is to examine how such a policy management affects the sustainability of the firm (measured by the future sales and total factor productivity[TFP]) and the wealth of its shareholders (measured by the Stock Returns).

Findings

The results show that the distressed firms that distribute dividends at the end of the loss period are able to maintain sustainability and to reach more favorable wealth situation of their shareholders relative to the firms who abstain to pay; the dividend policy during periods of loss is still able to send positive signals about the firm in the market; and the dividend policy can be considered as a predictive indicator for a sustainable firm whose shareholders can also predict their capital gains.

Originality/value

Agreed upon the literature that the firms during the period of crisis are likely to change their dividend policy, this study offers robust evidence that the dividend policy of distressed firms affects their sustainability (measured by sales and TFP) and the wealth status of their shareholders (measured by the Stock Returns).

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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