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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2013

Niels Ketelhöhn and Enrique Ogliastri

The purpose of this article is to summarize the basic literature and concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship, emphasizing the relevant studies for Latin America. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to summarize the basic literature and concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship, emphasizing the relevant studies for Latin America. The authors aim to assess the role of Latin America in the world innovative activity utilizing the production of USPTO patents.

Design/methodology/approac

To achieve the first objective, the authors review and summarize the relevant literature for innovation and entrepreneurship in Latin America. They also introduce each of the papers included in the current special issue of Academia. To achieve the second objective, the authors use the production of USPTO patents by Latin American residents, and examine those levels to the rest of the world.

Findings

The authors find Latin America to be a marginal contributor to the world innovative activity. Although the region represented 8.7 per cent of world GDP in 2011, it only generated 0.19 per cent of the world patents registered at the USPTO between 2008 and 2012, and only 0.17 per cent of all patents registered since 1976. However, countries such as Costa Rica and Uruguay have larger levels of patent production by 100,000 inhabitants with 7.05 and 4.72 for 1976-2012.

Originality/value

This introduction introduces work that continues the intense discussion on innovation and entrepreneurship in Latin America. It is to the extent of the authors' knowledge, one of the first attempts to measure the level of innovation at the regional level, and compare the performance of different countries. This special edition has implications for individuals, firms and governments striving to introduce new products, services and processes in a region that has historically confronted important barriers to innovation.

Resumen

En esta introducción presentamos algunos conceptos básicos sobre innovación y empresariado, y hacemos énfasis en la literatura que ha estudiado estos fenómenos en América Latina. Evaluamos, además, el papel de América Latina en la actividad innovadora mundial, utilizando la producción de patentes registradas en la Oficina de Patentes y Marcas de Estados Unidos (USPTO), y encontramos que América Latina desempeña un papel marginal con relación a otros centros mundiales de innovación. Finalmente, se presentan los artículos de este número de la revista Academia. Esta edición especial tiene implicaciones prácticas para individuos, empresas y gobiernos, que quieran introducir nuevos productos, servicios, y procesos desde una región que históricamente ha tenido que enfrentar barreras a la innovación.

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Dr Edgar E. Blanco and Dr Ely Laureano Paiva

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2630

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Abstract

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From Human to Post Human Security in Latin America: Examples and Reflections from Across the Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-253-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Rafael D'Almeida Martins and Leila da Costa Ferreira

Environmental studies have developed slowly within social sciences in Latin America. This paper seeks to assess and systematize the contribution of social sciences in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental studies have developed slowly within social sciences in Latin America. This paper seeks to assess and systematize the contribution of social sciences in the research on the human dimensions of global environmental change (HDGEC) in the region outlining its state of the art and process of development.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken is the organization of a manual compilation and systematic review of publications on topics related to the HDGEC in order to investigate major research topics covering the period between 2001 and 2008.

Findings

Although it is possible to identify an emergent body of the literature and scholarship in the region, the involvement of Latin American social science in the HDGEC research is still timid and tentative and not yet institutionalized. The evidence from this compilation has shown that this literature is fragmented bringing difficulties for the homogenization of criteria for analysis and assessment.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the very few attempts to assess and analyze the research on HDGEC in Latin America through an international perspective. It provides an overview of its development building upon the progress of environmental studies in the region and looks to its challenges ahead in order to call for more involvement of social sciences in these research activities.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Constanza Bianchi

This paper aims to explore how firms from a Latin American market internationalise using the resource-based view of the firm as a theoretical foundation. Specifically, it…

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2210

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how firms from a Latin American market internationalise using the resource-based view of the firm as a theoretical foundation. Specifically, it examines the internationalisation process of three Chilean companies that have become relevant international players.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on interviews with company managers, as well as industry data and corporate reports, this paper provides insights into the successful internationalisation process of emerging market firms.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that specific capabilities and resources, such as belonging to a family conglomerate, domestic and foreign partnerships and networks, innovation and market orientation, and an experienced management team, are required for emerging market firms to internationalise and improve their performance in foreign markets.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few to address the internationalisation process of Chilean companies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Judith Mariscal

This paper aims to offer an analysis of the market structure in the mobile telephony market in Latin America and its impact on its development. Given the importance of

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1830

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer an analysis of the market structure in the mobile telephony market in Latin America and its impact on its development. Given the importance of mobile services as a mean of ICT access to low income groups, the objective behind this analysis is to understand how the trend in market structure may impact the use of mobiles by low‐income sectors of the population in Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the process of consolidation that the region experiences today in the mobile market and identifies the effect this concentration has had on mobile welfare indicators such as penetration. It examines the links between variables associated with market concentration and known to influence mobile penetration such as tariffs, pricing strategies and spectrum allocation.

Findings

The results do not identify a strong association between market concentrations and pricing, which appears to contradict standard textbook reasoning. However, there appears to be a strong correlation between prices and radio spectrum allocation; countries that have a very low spectrum allocation are the ones that have the highest prices.

Originality/value

The value of this analysis lies in the identification of a straightforward regulatory policy suggestion that supports results form other empirical studies; regulators need to allocate more spectrum in order to promote competition.

Details

info, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Jose Satsumi Lopez-Morales, Karla Maria Nava-Aguirre and Antonio Huerta-Estevez

Latin America has not been exempted from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, this study aims to identify the actions of 50 main multilatinas to face the pandemic.

Abstract

Purpose

Latin America has not been exempted from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, this study aims to identify the actions of 50 main multilatinas to face the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative content analysis was conducted on newspapers published in Latin America and corporate websites from March 2020 to April 2020, during which the multilatinas took their first actions toward the pandemic.

Findings

Results identified 106 actions taken by multilatinas in social, operational, philanthropic and financial areas. This paper analyzes the results, discuss the implications for business theories and develops three theoretical propositions.

Practical implications

First, this study can serve as a reference for business decision-makers as it offers guidance in taking actions during a pandemic. Second, it highlights the importance of the speed of responses to unforeseen challenges. The study recommends that business managers include in their contingency plans procedures for addressing unforeseen situations, such as the pandemic, with a focus on increasing their response capacity.

Originality/value

The importance of this study lies in understanding multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) initial actions taken during unexpected disasters and rare events. This study fills two important gaps in the business literature that have not been addressed in the Latin American context, namely, the actions taken by MNEs facing a public health disaster and how MNEs cope with disastrous and rare events.

Propósito

América Latina no ha estado exenta de los efectos de la pandemia de COVID-19. Por lo tanto, este estudio tiene por objetivo identificar las acciones de las 50 principales multilatinas para enfrentar la pandemia.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Una técnica cualitativa de análisis de contenido fue llevada a cabo en periódicos publicados en América Latina y páginas web corporativas entre marzo y abril de 2020, durante los cuáles las multilatinas tomaron sus primeras acciones hacia la pandemia.

Hallazgos

Los resultados identificaron 106 acciones tomadas por las multilatinas en las áreas sociales, operacionales, filantrópicas y financieras. Además, se analizan los resultados, discuten las implicaciones para las teorías de negocios, y se desarrollan tres proposiciones teóricas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Primero, este estudio puede servir como referente para los tomadores de decisiones ya que ofrece una guía de acciones tomadas durante la pandemia. Segundo, se muestra la importancia de la velocidad de respuesta a retos imprevistos. El estudio recomienda que los gerentes incluyan en sus planes de contingencia planes y procedimientos para abordar situaciones imprevistas, tales como la pandemia, enfocados en incrementar su capacidad de respuesta.

Originalidad

La importancia de este estudio recae en el entendimiento de las acciones tomadas por las empresas multinacionales durante desastres inesperados y eventos raros. Este estudio cubre dos huecos importantes en la literatura que no han sido abordados en el contexto de América Latina: las acciones tomadas por las multinacionales encarando un desastre de salud pública y como las multinacionales afronta los eventos raros y desastres.

Objetivo

A América Latina não está isenta dos efeitos da pandemia COVID-19. Portanto, este estudo tem como objetivo identificar as ações das 50 principais multilatinas para o enfrentamento da pandemia.

Design/metodologia/abordagem

Uma análise qualitativa de conteúdo foi realizada em jornais publicados na América Latina e sites corporativos de março de 2020 a abril de 2020, período em que as multilatinas realizaram suas primeiras ações em relação à pandemia.

Resultados

Os resultados identificaram 106 ações realizadas pelas multilatinas nas áreas social, operacional, filantrópica e financeira. Analisamos os resultados, discutimos as implicações para as teorias de negócios e desenvolvemos três proposições teóricas.

Implicações práticas

primeiro, este estudo pode servir como uma referência para os tomadores de decisão de negócios, pois oferece orientação na tomada de medidas durante uma pandemia. Em segundo lugar, destaca a importância da velocidade de resposta a desafios imprevistos. O estudo recomenda que os gestores de negócios incluam em seus planos de contingência procedimentos para enfrentar situações imprevistas, como a pandemia, com foco no aumento de sua capacidade de resposta.

Originalidad

La importancia de este estudio recae en el entendimiento de las acciones ocorres for las empresas multinacionais durante desastres inesperados y eventos raros. Este estudio cubre dos huecos importantes na literatura que não foi público no contexto da América Latina: las acciones por las multinacionales encarando um desastre de salud e como las multinacionales afronta los eventos raros y desastres.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Maria Rita Blanco and Miguel Angel Sastre Castillo

This study investigates the influence of experience – organisational tenure, international experience and springboard role – upon Chief Executive Officers’ (CEOs) time to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the influence of experience – organisational tenure, international experience and springboard role – upon Chief Executive Officers’ (CEOs) time to the top and the time taken by CEOs to reach that position. As work and careers are embedded in economic and institutional environments, although prior Western career studies have explored this relationship, this study aims to determine the suitability of experience as a human capital attribute to explain CEO career success in Latin American firms.

Design/methodology/approach

169 Latin American firms were considered (America Economia, 2014). Biographical data about CEOs were manually collected and systematically crosschecked, and multiple hierarchical regressions were employed.

Findings

Organisational tenure and lifetime experience were found to reduce the time to the top. International experience delays the time to the top. International assignments closer to HQ do not exert an influence on time to the top. In multilatinas, promoted CEOs who have held Corporate springboard roles get faster to the top than those having held Divisional positions. Findings offer partial support to the human capital theory experience in Latin America, stressing the relevance of cultural, socio-economic and institutional factors.

Practical implications

The identification of career success predictors may enhance the career decision-making processes of individuals and organisations.

Originality/value

This study contributes to human capital and career literature, being the first one to explore the relationship between experience and time to the top in CEOs working for Latin American firms.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Lidia Heller and Patricia Gabaldon

Through an analysis of 15 Latin American countries, the purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of several institutional variables (economic, regulatory, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Through an analysis of 15 Latin American countries, the purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of several institutional variables (economic, regulatory, and cultural), which affect women’s careers towards being members of boards of directors in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on primary and secondary information, the authors carry out multivariate analyses to understand the institutional reasons affecting the reduced presence of women on boards of directors in the region.

Findings

Their findings reveal differences within the region, the importance of protecting women’s professional careers in the labour market, and the effect of cultural dimensions, such as masculinity and power distance.

Research limitations and implications

The analysis provides an updated cross-section of the institutional and cultural conditions of the 15 countries, considering the limitations to developing data in the region.

Practical implications

Latin America has witnessed important changes in the dynamics of the labour market over recent decades: women’s participation in the labour force is on the increase, and corporate strategy is evolving towards the incorporation of practices and initiatives to manage the diversity of their talents. However, the presence of women in leadership positions is a pending subject. This study, in part, reveals the institutional origin of gender inequality on boards of directors in the region. The analysis provides essential tools for public policy and for companies to help promote female leadership in the region.

Originality/value

Recent debate and research on the scarce participation of women on corporative boards of directors have revealed a growing interest in analysing the causes of such issues despite the progress recorded in terms of gender equity in most societies. Studies on the topic in Latin America are scarce and the aim of this paper is to help to fill part of this gap.

Propósito

El presente trabajo explora en quince países de América Latina la importancia de distintas variables institucionales (económicas regulatorias y culturales) que afectan a las carreras de las mujeres hacia los consejos de administración en la región.

Metodología

A partir de información primaria y secundaria, los autores desarrollan diversos análisis multivariantes para entender las razones institucionales que afectan tras la reducida presencia de mujeres en los consejos de la región.

Resultados

Los resultados de los análisis realizados muestran las diferencias dentro de la región así como la importancia de de analizar las carreras profesionales de las mujeres en el mercado de trabajo y el efecto de las dimensiones culturales como la masculinidad y la distancia al poder.

Limitaciones

El análisis muestra un corte transversal de la realidad institutional y cultural de los 15 países lo más actual posible, teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones en el desarrollo de datos en la región.

Implicaciones prácticas

En América Latina, se han producido cambios importantes en la dinámica del mercado laboral en las últimas décadas: las tasas de participación de mujeres en la fuerza de trabajo están en aumento y las estrategias empresariales van evolucionando hacia la incorporación de prácticas e iniciativas que tienden a gestionar la diversidad de sus talentos. Sin embargo la presencia de mujeres en puestos de liderazgo empresarial es una asignatura pendiente. El presente trabajo muestra en parte el origen institucional de las desigualdades de género en los consejos de administración en la región. Este análisis provee de herramientas esenciales para la política púlica y las empresas en la búsqueda de la promoción del liderazgo femenino en la región.

Originalidad/Valor

Recientes debates e investigaciones sobre la escasa incorporación de mujeres en los consejos directivos en las corporaciones, han evidenciado el creciente interés por analizar las causas de estas cuestiones a pesar de los avances registrados en términos de equidad de género en la mayoría de las sociedades. Sin embargo, hay una escasez de estudios en esta área en América Latina. El presente artículo busca llenar en parte ese hueco.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Luis Antonio Orozco and José Luis Villaveces

The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the effect of heterogeneity in inter‐organizational collaboration networks on international high‐quality scientific…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the effect of heterogeneity in inter‐organizational collaboration networks on international high‐quality scientific performance of the most reputed business management schools in Latin America according to AméricaEconomía ranking.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from the debate between advantages and disadvantages of heterogeneity in scientific performance framed in the debate between organizational population ecology and organizational institutionalism theories, this research explores the relationship between heterogeneity, reputation and the most important features for doing research. Using a binomial negative regression, the paper evaluates the partial effect of those variables in the count of scientific production.

Findings

There is an isomorphical tendency from the most reputed schools to establish heterogeneous networks, showing empirical evidence to normative proposals from Latin America, specially formulated in the light of Sabato triangle. Also there are differentiations between schools in aspects like human capital, double‐degree agreements, and schools’ trajectories.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to choose a wider sample of schools and to include Latin American journals. The study of diversity (between researchers) and its relationship with heterogeneity (between organizations) is also needed.

Practical implications

The research shows that elite business management schools in Latin America that present better performance also present high levels of heterogeneity in their inter‐organizational collaboration. Therefore, the promotion of heterogeneity could enhance scientific performance and improve techno‐economical networks.

Social implications

This research hopes to aim the research policy design to be able to steer and promote heterogeneity that could improve the relationship between producers and users of knowledge.

Originality/value

The relationships between reputation, heterogeneity, and scientific performance in administration in Latin America had not been addressed empirically. The worth of this research is the empirical confirmation to the advantages of heterogeneity, rather than intellectual capital features of schools, in research collaboration that contribute to the debate about heterogeneity and performance.

Propósito

Evaluar empíricamente el efecto de la heterogeneidad de las redes de colaboración interorganizacionales en el desempeño científico de alta calidad internacional en las escuelas de administración y negocios más reputadas en América Latina de acuerdo con el escalafón de AméricaEconomía.

Metodología

Con base en el debate que concierne a las ventajas y desventajas de la heterogeneidad en el desempeño científico enmarcado dentro del debate entre las teorías de la ecología de poblaciones y el institucionalismo organizacional, esta investigación explora la relación entre la heterogeneidad, la reputación y las características más importantes que pertenecen a la investigación. Usando la regresión binomial negativa, el artículo evalúa los efectos parciales de las variables en el conteo de la producción científica.

Resultados

Hay una tendencia isomórfica de las escuelas más reputadas por establecer redes heterogéneas, mostrando evidencia empírica para las propuestas normativas de América Latina, especialmente formuladas a la luz del triángulo de Sabato. También hay diferencias entre las escuelas en términos del capital humano, los convenios de doble titulación, y la trayectoria de las escuelas.

Limitaciones de la investigación

Es necesario escoger una muestra más amplia de escuela e incluir a las revistas de América Latina. El estudio de la diversidad (entre investigadores) y su relación con la heterogeneidad (entre organizaciones) también es requerida.

Implicaciones

La investigación muestra que las escuelas de administración en América Latina que presentan mejor desempeño también presentan altos niveles de heterogeneidad en su colaboración interorganizacional. Por lo tanto, la promoción de la heterogeneidad podría añadir al desempeño científico y mejorar las redes tecno‐económicas.

Implicaciones sociales

Esta investigación espera impulsar el diseño de políticas de investigación y a su vez promover la heterogeneidad que pueda mejorar la relación entre los productores y usuarios de conocimiento.

Originalidad/valor

La relación entre reputación, heterogeneidad y desempeño científico en administración en América Latina no ha sido abordada empíricamente. El valor de esta investigación es la confirmación empírica de las ventajas de la heterogeneidad, en vez de otras características de las escuelas, en la colaboración científica que contribuye al debate sobre heterogeneidad y desempeño.

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