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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Ayça I˙zmirliog˘lu

The presence of child labour in the world and Turkey is an undeniable social fact. There are various regulations regarding the protection of children both in international…

Abstract

The presence of child labour in the world and Turkey is an undeniable social fact. There are various regulations regarding the protection of children both in international documents and in our national legislation. However, in the context of the street economy, some legal regulations, especially the occupational health and safety of children working on the street, remain incapable in terms of implementation. In this study, child labour regulations of various international organisations, including the International Labor Organization relating to child labour will be examined first, and then the existing regulations on child labour in Turkey in our working legislation will be analysed and explained. A number of actions that children working on the street who are street vendors tend to take, such as shining shoes, selling handkerchiefs, and begging, will be discussed in detail and the legal dimension will be examined. In addition, some legal changes will be addressed, such as the lack of a uniform regulation on the minimum working age and the confusion of child labour and child labour concepts. Finally, in the pandemic process that affects the whole world, the measures that are thought to be useful in terms of protecting children working on the street from the COVID-19 epidemic will be tried to be explained in the context of occupational health and safety law.

Details

A New Social Street Economy: An Effect of The COVID-19 Pandemic
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-124-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2022

Ibrahim Karatas and Abdulkadir Budak

The study is aimed to compare the prediction success of basic machine learning and ensemble machine learning models and accordingly create novel prediction models by…

Abstract

Purpose

The study is aimed to compare the prediction success of basic machine learning and ensemble machine learning models and accordingly create novel prediction models by combining machine learning models to increase the prediction success in construction labor productivity prediction models.

Design/methodology/approach

Categorical and numerical data used in prediction models in many studies in the literature for the prediction of construction labor productivity were made ready for analysis by preprocessing. The Python programming language was used to develop machine learning models. As a result of many variation trials, the models were combined and the proposed novel voting and stacking meta-ensemble machine learning models were constituted. Finally, the models were compared to Target and Taylor diagram.

Findings

Meta-ensemble models have been developed for labor productivity prediction by combining machine learning models. Voting ensemble by combining et, gbm, xgboost, lightgbm, catboost and mlp models and stacking ensemble by combining et, gbm, xgboost, catboost and mlp models were created and finally the Et model as meta-learner was selected. Considering the prediction success, it has been determined that the voting and stacking meta-ensemble algorithms have higher prediction success than other machine learning algorithms. Model evaluation metrics, namely MAE, MSE, RMSE and R2, were selected to measure the prediction success. For the voting meta-ensemble algorithm, the values of the model evaluation metrics MAE, MSE, RMSE and R2 are 0.0499, 0.0045, 0.0671 and 0.7886, respectively. For the stacking meta-ensemble algorithm, the values of the model evaluation metrics MAE, MSE, RMSE and R2 are 0.0469, 0.0043, 0.0658 and 0.7967, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows the comparison between machine learning algorithms and created novel meta-ensemble machine learning algorithms to predict the labor productivity of construction formwork activity. The practitioners and project planners can use this model as reliable and accurate tool for predicting the labor productivity of construction formwork activity prior to construction planning.

Originality/value

The study provides insight into the application of ensemble machine learning algorithms in predicting construction labor productivity. Additionally, novel meta-ensemble algorithms have been used and proposed. Therefore, it is hoped that predicting the labor productivity of construction formwork activity with high accuracy will make a great contribution to construction project management.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2022

Luis Cárdenas and Paloma Villanueva

This study aims to analyse the institutional changes in the Spanish labour market in the light of the measures introduced to support workers during the COVID-19 crisis…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the institutional changes in the Spanish labour market in the light of the measures introduced to support workers during the COVID-19 crisis. Applying the theoretical framework the authors’ hypothesis is that the labour policy response to the crisis provoked by COVID-19 in Spain has ranged from strategy of preservation of the social democratic coalition to the anti-bourgeois bloc coalition with a greater presence of social pacts and the support of the social partners.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining the institutional theory of liberalisation trajectories, the four ideal-typical reform strategies and the social pacts literature, the authors analyse the change in the labour market policy orientation during the COVID-19 economic crisis in Spain.

Findings

In comparison to the Great Recession labour policy response, short-time work schemes and new benefits have characterised the 2020 labour policy strategy. Then, the labour policy response has oscillated between, on the one hand, a strategy of preservation of the social democratic coalition, which is characterised by measures to protect workers on the margins of the labour market without affecting the discretionary power of employers. On the other hand, a strategy of the anti-bourgeois bloc coalition, reflected in the employment safeguard clause that attempts to limit both external numerical flexibility and the increase in unemployment. Finally, the authors have analysed whether the labour policies after the COVID-19 crisis constitute a new round of social pacts in Spain and how this took place. They conclude that the main measures approved in the area of employment protection have been supported by social pacts and the social partners (trade unions and employers), as reflected in the signing of the Social Agreement in Defence of Employment (ASDE).

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is a significant contribution as it is the first article to point out that the labour policy represents a change in the trajectory of liberalisation, limiting the discretionary power of employers and re-regulating the labour market. The main measure of (re)regulation has been to safeguard employment and to avoid objective or unfair dismissals, which is the traditional form of adjustment. In other words, internal numerical flexibility has been promoted over external flexibility, thus significantly modifying the orientation of labour policy. Finally, the authors have found that social pacts have allowed for greater institutional coherence between legal changes and the behaviour of employers and workers.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Serena Masino, Nadia Laura von Jacobi and Mavis Akuffobea-Essilfie

This paper aims to investigate the governance of labour standards in the less-studied yet rapidly globalising Ghanaian construction sector. While incorporation into…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the governance of labour standards in the less-studied yet rapidly globalising Ghanaian construction sector. While incorporation into international production networks generates several opportunities for workers, the drivers of adverse incorporation originate at multiple levels of analysis. The study offers an investigation into such drivers and their interconnections.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilise a multi-scalar framework and mixed methods of analysis. Both the qualitative and multi-level quantitative analyses rely on a primary dataset collected among 30 firms and 304 respondents, through semi-structured interviews.

Findings

A composite yet unbalanced labour standards governance configuration emerges, where the absence of social governance combined with a weak role of the State leaves labour standards subject to the variegated landscape of firms' embeddedness in the sector.

Originality/value

The construction industry is acquiring ever-increasing relevance in the economic trajectory of Ghana as well as that of several other African economies, not least for its large employment generation potential. Research on the governance of labour standards in the sector is, however, largely missing. The authors argue that labour incorporation dynamics represent a complex under-investigated regulatory challenge as well as a policy-making priority. The analysis is one of the first to offer a reconstruction of the governance landscape determining the challenges workers face in the Ghanaian construction sector, from both a qualitative and quantitative perspective.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Jingfu Lu, Chuhong Wang and Luan Jiang

This study explores labor relations management behaviors of administrators and Party organizations in resource-based state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in China based on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores labor relations management behaviors of administrators and Party organizations in resource-based state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in China based on social exchange theory and embeddedness theory. It builds up a process model for managing collective labor conflicts in resource-based SOEs in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative case study is conducted using two resource-based SOEs with similar backgrounds but differing in effectiveness of the management of collective labor conflicts. Data are collected from interviews, archival sources and a one-month participatory investigation.

Findings

The administrators and Party organizations of resource-based SOEs manage collective labor conflicts by means of human resource practices (HRPs) and Party organizations' boundary-spanning behaviors (PBSBs), respectively; foremen and unions perform a mediation role, especially under circumstances where administrators employ high-performance HRPs and PBSBs are closely integrated with the production process. The marketization of the “new danwei system” exerts a “provocation effect” but does not necessarily lead to collective labor conflicts. The root cause of conflicts lies in the inherent defects of specific HRPs and PBSBs, as well as the absence of the Simmelian tie in the social exchange interaction of actors.

Originality/value

First, this study develops a new construct of PBSBs for enterprises' Party organizations and explores its underlying mechanisms, which enriches the range of actors studied in the context of Chinese labor relations; Second, the authors develop a new dimension called “exemplification” building on the existing three-dimensional structure of boundary-spanning behaviors, which expands boundary-spanning theory. Third, the findings that Simmelian tie structure could better maintain the stability of labor relationship in the mediation process of labor-capital conflict management enrich the social exchange theory from the perspective of structure. Finally, this study deepens the existing research on HRPs by proposing a new explanation for disputes.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Wenlong Han

To realise the shared development of the digital economy, people need to transcend the capital logic and advocate the logic of cooperative development, i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

To realise the shared development of the digital economy, people need to transcend the capital logic and advocate the logic of cooperative development, i.e. “co-construction, benefit-sharing and co-governance”. This study aims to discuss the aforementioned statement.

Design/methodology/approach

Platform economy is a new economic form produced by the transformation of the social production patterns in the era of digital capitalism. In the neo-imperialist stage, a new stage of capitalist development, capital logic promotes the global expansion of the platform economy and influences its development process, organisational form, contradictions and dilemmas and internal transcendence. Having the spatiotemporal chain of capital circulation repaired, the globalisation of the platform economy is reshaping how the means of production are combined with labour, affecting the local changes in the general relations of production and “international relations of production”.

Findings

In the accumulation of digital capitalism, the social contradictions and fundamental contradictions in the capitalist world have been further intensified, making exploitation, income distribution gap, monopoly and other problems increasingly severe. The imbalance and inequality in the global development of the digital economy are increasingly prominent.

Originality/value

Regarding the global governance of the digital economy, China, as a major responsible country, will strive to encourage all countries to co-build a community with a shared future in cyberspace. In the new international development pattern of digital economy globalisation, China must take effective measures to actively safeguard its national security and development interests to meet specific challenges.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2022

Edward Elder, Jennifer Lees-Marshment and Neil Thomas Bendle

This paper aims to identify both the traditional and novel forms of marketing behind New Zealand Prime Minster Jacinda Ardern’s landslide victory in the 2020 New Zealand…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify both the traditional and novel forms of marketing behind New Zealand Prime Minster Jacinda Ardern’s landslide victory in the 2020 New Zealand General Election during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

This research analysed both qualitative and quantitative data, including over 70 primary sources, the perspectives of practitioners, polling and data from surveys with over 450,000 respondents. The qualitative data was analysed interpretively against established theoretical concepts, whereas the quantitative data was analysed through descriptive statistics.

Findings

This research found that COVID-19 drastically changed what the public prioritised, allowing Ardern and Labour to position themselves as guardians of government stability, while camouflaging previous delivery failures. Labour also used a more emergent market-oriented and “polite” populist political marketing strategy.

Research limitations/implications

While the survey data used is not a perfect sample of the population, it is the largest public opinion survey in New Zealand and, given its convergence with other sources, provides valuable insights into political marketing during a crisis more broadly.

Practical implications

This research reinforces marketing’s most important aspect; the market should drive action. How decision makers respond to the market should depend on the environment. Thus, up-to-date market research becomes even more important during a crisis, as the environment changes rapidly. This leaves prior assumptions obsolete and implies strategy needs to be adaptive. Additionally, greater public attention provides governing leaders with the opportunity to present a more well-rounded leadership image.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research to look at marketing while in government and election campaigning in the context of successful management of a global pandemic.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Kesavan Manoharan, Pujitha Dissanayake, Chintha Pathirana, Dharsana Deegahawature and Renuka Silva

Sources highlight that lack of systematic labour training components results in low performance and productivity of labour, which leads the construction industry of many…

Abstract

Purpose

Sources highlight that lack of systematic labour training components results in low performance and productivity of labour, which leads the construction industry of many countries to face various challenges. This study aims to quantify the variations in the performance and productivity levels of labour in building construction projects through the applications of effective work-based training components.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review and a series of experts’ discussions with action-oriented communication approaches were conducted to develop a set of practices related to labour training, performance assessment and productivity measurements within a framework. The developed practices were applied to around 100 labourers working on nine building construction projects through a construction supervisory training programme.

Findings

The study presents the detailed patterns of the significant changes in labour performance and productivity levels. The majority of trained labourers have grown to perform the work process with some relevant theoretical and operational knowledge and skills. The overall results spotlight the significant behavioural changes that can be observed in workforce operations by improving labour performance, which resulted in implementing effective labour-rewarding practices within a framework.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study findings were limited to the Sri Lankan context, the proposed practices can be applied to the industry practices of the construction sector of other developing countries and the other developing industries in similar ways/scenarios.

Practical implications

The study outcomes contribute to uplifting the work qualities of labourers with life-long learning opportunities and unlocking the potential barriers for expanding the local labour supply while controlling the excessive inclination of the local firms towards foreign labour. This paper describes further implications and future scopes of the study elaborately.

Originality/value

The study provides generalised mechanisms and practices that transform the labour characteristics and add new attributes for strengthening the values of construction supervision practices to obtain well-improved work outputs. The study outcomes reinforce the chain relationships among the training elements, labour performance and productivity levels, leading to upgrading current planning and operational management practices, especially adding constructive mechanisms in resource levelling and productivity benchmarking practices.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2022

R.V.K. Vigneshwar and S. Shanmugapriya

Proper prediction of productivity can enable the enhanced estimation, realistic scheduling, and accurate cost forecasting of construction processes. Due to the existence…

Abstract

Purpose

Proper prediction of productivity can enable the enhanced estimation, realistic scheduling, and accurate cost forecasting of construction processes. Due to the existence of different labor sources (unionized and non-unionized), the prediction of productivity is still a significant problem in India. Moreover, the construction procurement processes and on-site performance are the predominant elements that can result in improved project outcomes. Thereby, the consideration of labor constraints and site conditions will play an important role in productivity improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the factors affecting construction site productivity. A total of 28 factors are grouped under 7 categories as follows: labor constraints, safety and quality procurements, material and equipment (ME), site management, project working condition, delay controls, construction methods and techniques, and external factors. Furthermore, by involving these factors, the questionnaire survey was conducted among Indian construction practitioners. As a result, 204 responses were received and the data were analyzed using a reliability test, relative importance index (RII), and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

The result of this study highlighted the importance of strategic construction management activities in terms of effective planning of ME, planning and realistic scheduling of construction activities, proper communication, information sharing, etc. Thus, this study provides a clear insight to the Indian construction practitioners in determining the effect of these site factors on the successful execution of their projects.

Originality/value

In this paper, the problem of construction productivity in India and its causes are explained effectively. This study examines the preference of labor contract, labor source, and most importantly, the factors affecting site productivity. Moreover, the other lagging issues regarding the management of construction activities are also described in detail.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Mara Mațcu, Adriana Zaiț, Rodica Ianole-Călin and Ioana Alexandra Horodnic

This paper aims to explore the prevalence of undeclared activities conducted on digital labour platforms, and then to discuss what policies are likely to be more effective…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the prevalence of undeclared activities conducted on digital labour platforms, and then to discuss what policies are likely to be more effective in order to prevent the growth of the informal activities on these platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

To depict the profile of the digital worker conducting undeclared activities, the sectors where undeclared activities are more prevalent and the effectiveness of deterrent policies, data are reported from 2019 Special Eurobarometer survey covering the European Union member states and the UK.

Findings

The finding is that 13% of undeclared activities are conducted on digital labour platforms. This practice is more common amongst men, those married or remarried, those living in small/middle towns, in sectors such as repairs/renovations, selling goods/services, assistance for dependant persons, gardening and help moving house. The higher the perceived sanction, the lower the likelihood of undertaking undeclared activities on digital labour platforms. Intriguing, a higher risk of detection is associated with a higher likelihood to use digital labour platform for undeclared activities.

Practical implications

The attitudes toward risk can be interpreted closer to the gaming context, and not to the working environment, looking at platform workers as being involved in a state versus individual game. Policy makers should consider improving the correspondence of laws and regulations between countries and offering operational assistance for suppliers and consumers.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to explore the prevalence of undeclared activities conducted on digital labour platforms and to outline the policy measures required to reduce this practice.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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