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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Zinaida N. Kozenko, Yuri A. Kozenko, Konstantin Y. Kozenko and Galina N. Zvereva

The purpose of the chapter is to determine common regularities and peculiarities of the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems in view of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to determine common regularities and peculiarities of the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems in view of developed and developing countries.

Methodology

The methodology of this research includes the developed author’s conceptual model of conflict of socio-economic system as an analog of the model of economic cycle. As crisis is a manifestation/example of economic conflict, this model could be used for studying it. Also, the method of comparative analysis is used for comparing the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems from various categories. The objects of the research are selections of countries according to classification of the International Monetary Fund – leading developed countries (advanced economies) and emerging market and developing economies. The studied indicator is annual growth rate of GDP in constant prices.

Conclusions

Modeling and analysis of the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems of developed and developing countries are performed, with crisis considered as a wave of economic cycle. Apart from common regularities of the 2008 crisis in socio-economic systems – vivid and short negative reaction and double wave of crisis – we determined peculiarities of influence of this crisis on economies of developed and developing countries. These peculiarities are connected to the fact that the 2008 crisis was deeper in developed countries than in developing countries, but the crisis was developing according to the optimistic scenario (long waves) and was overcome in 2012. In developed countries, the crisis was developing according to the pessimistic scenario (short waves), and negative reaction renewed in 2012, with another one expected in 2021.

Originality/value

It is substantiated that insufficiently intensive and successful management of crisis in developing countries will probably become a cause of increase of differentiation of countries in the global economic system, which is expressed in growth of underrun of developing countries from developed countries.

Details

“Conflict-Free” Socio-Economic Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-994-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Fernando Angulo-Ruiz, Albena Pergelova and William X. Wei

This research aims to assess variations of motivations when studying international location decisions. In particular, this study aims to assess the influence of diverse…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to assess variations of motivations when studying international location decisions. In particular, this study aims to assess the influence of diverse motivations – seeking technology, seeking brand assets, seeking markets, seeking resources and escaping institutional constraints – as determinants of the international location choice of emerging market multinational enterprises (EM MNEs) entering least developed, emerging, and developed countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a set of hypotheses based on the ownership–location–internalization framework and complement it with an institutional perspective. The conceptual model posits that the different internationalization motivations (seeking technology, seeking brand assets, seeking markets, seeking resources and escaping institutional constraints) will impact the location choice of EM MNEs in developed economies, emerging markets or least developed countries. This study uses the 2013 survey data collected by the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade and the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. The final sample of analysis of this research includes 693 observations.

Findings

After controlling for several variables, two-stage Heckman regressions show there is a variation of motivations when EM MNEs enter least developed countries, emerging markets and developed economies. EM MNEs are motivated to enter least developed countries to seek markets and resources. Conversely, those firms enter developed countries in their search for technological assets and to escape institutional constraints at home. While the present study findings show a clear difference in the motivations that lead to location choice in least developed vs developed countries, the results are not as clear for location in other emerging countries.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers empirical support for the importance of motivations as crucial determinants of location choice.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed quantitative study on the internationalization location choice of EM MNEs based on their motivations. Though theoretical models underscore the importance of motivations, we know very little about how, in practice, motivations drive location choice. This study contributes to the international location choice literature a deeper understanding of how diverse motivations drive choices of expansion into developed economies, emerging markets or least developed countries.

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

José A.D. Machuca, Juan A. Marin-Garcia and Rafaela Alfalla-Luque

This paper analyzes whether the Triple-A supply chain (SC)–competitive advantage (CA) relationship is influenced by the country context and considers the case of emerging…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes whether the Triple-A supply chain (SC)–competitive advantage (CA) relationship is influenced by the country context and considers the case of emerging vs developed countries. Any differences in the importance of the three Triple-A SC dimensions (agility, adaptability and alignment) and a potential synergy effect among them when pursuing CA are also analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method is applied to an international multiple informant sample of 304 manufacturing plants in nine developed and five emerging countries.

Findings

A significant positive relationship is found between the Triple-A SC and CA in the full sample and in the two separate samples of emerging and developed countries, which is more intense in the emerging countries. For the same samples, it is also concluded that (1) there are no significant differences in the importance of SC adaptability (SC-Ad), SC agility (SC-Ag) and SC alignment (SC-Al) as levers in the Triple-A SC–CA relationship and (2) a synergy effect among the Triple-A SC dimensions when pursuing CA is not supported.

Research limitations/implications

The present study brings new evidence to the previous research on Triple-A SC and its relationship with CA in different country contexts. For managers, this work (1) shows that Triple A should be considered in the design of global SCs irrespective of the country context and (2) offers a first approach for determining the Triple-A SC levers that must be taken into consideration when pursuing a CA.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to Triple-A SC theory development. It is the first research study that analyzes the effect of the country context on the Triple-A SC–CA relationship and the importance of each of the Triple-A SC dimensions and their possible synergy effect when pursuing CA using a multiinformant international sample taken from different country contexts.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Aparna Bhatia and Binny Makkar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of various determinants at the country level, the industry level, the firm level and the corporate governance (CG…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of various determinants at the country level, the industry level, the firm level and the corporate governance (CG) level on the extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in the group of developing and developed nations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set comprises 310 companies listed on stock exchanges of developing and developed markets (Brazil – IBrX 100, 42 companies; Russia – Broad Market Index; 48 companies; India – Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) 100, 50 companies; China – Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) 180, 27 companies; South Africa – The Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE)/Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) All Share index, 49 companies; the USA – New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) 100, 47 companies; and the UK – London Stock Exchange (LSE) 100, 47 companies). CSR disclosure is measured through CSR disclosure index. Five separate regression models are run to investigate the impact of the factors that affect the extent of CSR disclosure.

Findings

The findings reveal that CSR disclosure is influenced by factors both at micro and macro levels. Governance environment, globalization and income inequality are found to be significant determinants of CSR disclosure for developing countries. International listing significantly influences CSR disclosure in the developed countries. The results also exhibit that board with large proportion of independent directors, high presence of CSR committee and environmental sensitive industries are more likely to engage in CSR disclosure practices in developing as well as in developed nations.

Research limitations/implications

This study implicates that varied factors – at country level, industry level, firm level and CG level – need assessment to know their impact differently in countries at different stages of economic development. However, longitudinal study covering longer period would lead to better generalization of results.

Practical implications

The findings of this present study implicate that managers must evaluate country’s political, social and economic forces and not just rely on company-level indicators affecting disclosure. Policymakers in emerging nations must emphasize on improving country governance features to enhance CSR disclosure of companies. Developing countries must respect and conform to rules and regulations while going global. More endeavors should be made to raise awareness about the benefits of CSR disclosure on reducing income inequality among companies listed on stock exchanges of developing countries. Emerging nations should follow developed nations in assuming responsibility toward stakeholders in foreign markets. This study also recommends regulatory bodies in both developing and developed countries to frame stringent policies regarding CG for improving CSR disclosure by companies.

Originality/value

This study overcomes the limitations of prior literature by considering both country- and company-specific determinants in prominent group of developing (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and developed (the USA and the UK) countries.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Lia Zarantonello, Silvia Grappi, Marcello Formisano and Josko Brakus

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) – conceptualized as consisting of brand awareness, perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) – conceptualized as consisting of brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, perceived value and brand loyalty – and market share for different brand types (global versus local) in different country groups (developed versus emerging).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper combines consumer–survey-based data, experts' coding and retail panel data of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) brands in 29 countries.

Findings

In developed countries, the relationship between each CBBE component (except for brand associations) with market share is stronger for local than global brands. In emerging countries, the relationship between each CBBE component with market share is stronger for global than local brands.

Research limitations/implications

This paper contributes to better understanding the relationships between CBBE and market share by showing how CBBE components relate to market share for different brand types (global and local) in different country groups (developed and emerging). Limitations arise from constraints related to existing datasets (e.g. limited number of variables and type of product categories considered).

Practical implications

This paper offers insights to managers working in multinational FMCG companies, as it suggests which CBBE components relate more strongly to the global or local brands' market shares in different countries.

Originality/value

This paper analyzes the relationship between CBBE and market share by focusing on different brand types (global versus local) in different country groups (developed versus emerging). It does so by using a company dataset and showing correspondence with conceptualizations and measures of brand equity from the academic literature. It also considers a large set of 29 countries, extending research beyond national boundaries.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Fakhri Baghirov, Ye Zhang and Noor Hazarina Hashim

This study aims to investigate the adoption and performance of Facebook fan pages (FFPs) among global airline companies in developed, least developed and developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the adoption and performance of Facebook fan pages (FFPs) among global airline companies in developed, least developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Diffusion of innovations theory has been applied as the underlying theory in this study. By using content analysis, data were collected from the official FFPs of global airlines.

Findings

Results show no significant difference in FFP adoption among global airline companies in developed, least developed and developing countries. However, there is a significant difference in performance and timing of adoption of FFP between the countries. Airlines from developed countries adopted FFP three years earlier than developing countries and performed better than airlines from developing and least developed countries.

Research limitations/implications

Because FFP is studied with limited variables, future studies can expand to other social networking sites and explore more variables to get reliable results.

Practical implications

Academically, this study adds to internet and technology implementation literature. Finding of poor performance on FFP implementation among airlines in developing and least developed countries could draw attention to increased engagement with fans and improve FFP performance in the future. To successfully use Facebook, airline companies should establish a two-way communication and respond to their fans.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the difference in using FFPs among global airline companies in developed, least developed and developing countries.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2009

Tao (Tony) Gao and Talin E. Sarraf

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in…

Abstract

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in emerging markets. Favorable changes in the host government policies, market demand, firm strategy, and infrastructural conditions are hypothesized to influence the MNCs’ decision to increase resource commitments during a crisis. The hypotheses are tested with data collected in a survey of 82 MNCs during the recent Argentine financial crisis (late 2002). While all the above variables are considered by the respondents as generally important reasons for increasing resource commitments during a crisis, only favorable changes in government policies significantly influence MNCs’ decisions to change the level of resource commitments during the Argentine financial crisis. The research, managerial implications, and policy‐making implications are discussed.

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Mohsen Ali Murshid and Zurina Mohaidin

The purpose of this paper is to examine reported literature on the influence of medical representatives (MRs) and other promotional tools on drug prescribing behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine reported literature on the influence of medical representatives (MRs) and other promotional tools on drug prescribing behaviour, and to assess whether this effect is different in developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the literature was conducted across online databases from 2000 to 2016. Eligible studies addressed MRs and other promotion tools used to influence drug prescribing in developed and developing countries.

Findings

A total of 40 reviewed studies met the inclusion requirements. In total, 22 of the studies were conducted in developed countries and 18 in developing countries. Out of ten studies that examined the influence of MRs on drug prescribing in developed countries, eight found a positive influence, one found only moderate and one finds no influence. Analogous results were found in developing countries. Six out of ten studies on the influence of MRs conducted in developing countries found a positive effect, three found only moderate effects, while one finds no influence. The influence of promotion tools on prescribing varied in developed countries, five found positive influence, four reported a small effect and one found negative influence. In developing countries, the size of effect also varied, five studies found positive influence of promotion tools on drug prescribing behaviour, five found a negligible or small effect, and one found no association. However, marked differences were observed between two sectors. In the developed countries, MRs are valued as a source of information and can have an effect on prescribing, while it is unreliable in developing countries. Sample drugs are more generally seen as an important promotional tool for prescribing in developed countries than developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

The results derived from this review are based on studies with varying methodological consistency. The review provides the crucial information that will be valuable to researchers working on comparative analysis of marketing efforts in developing and developed countries.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few systematic reviews on the influence of MRs and other promotional tools on prescribing. It compares the influence of MRs and promotional efforts in both developed and developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2009

Nitin Pangarkar and Lin Yuan

In this study, we examine the location strategies (e.g., developing versus developed countries) of Chinese multinational firms (Pantzalis 2001). We argue that domestic…

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Abstract

In this study, we examine the location strategies (e.g., developing versus developed countries) of Chinese multinational firms (Pantzalis 2001). We argue that domestic firm‐specific ownership advantages of a firm, in the form of larger size and higher degree of diversification, will induce internationalization into developed countries rather than into developing countries. We also predict that internationalization into developed countries will help performance, but internationalization into developing countries will hurt performance. Based on an analysis of data on 154 Chinese‐listed MNCs from 1992 to 2002, we find support for our predictions.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Aparna Bhatia and Binny Makkar

This paper aims to examine and compare the nature and extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices of companies in developing (BRICS [Brazil…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare the nature and extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices of companies in developing (BRICS [Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa]) and developed (the USA and the UK) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis is conducted on the annual reports and websites of 325 companies listed on stock exchanges of developing markets and of developed markets (Brazil – IBrX 100, 46 companies; Russia – Broad Market Index, 50 companies; India – BSE 100, 50 companies; China – SSE 180, 29 companies; South Africa – FTSE/JSE All Share index, 50 companies; the USA – NYSE 100, 50 companies; the UK – FTSE 100, 50 companies). Descriptives are used to calculate company wise and item wise scores. T-test analysis is applied to check for significant differences between mean scores of developing and developed countries.

Findings

The findings of the study reflect that developed countries have higher CSR disclosure scores than developing countries. Overall, mean CSR disclosure score of developed countries is 53.5%, followed by that of the developing countries at 49.4%. Developed countries take lead in CSR disclosure for all the five categories, namely, human resources, community, environment, customer and product and others. The results of independent sample T-test suggest that mean disclosure score of developing nations is significantly different from developed nations.

Practical implications

As suggested by the results, the gap in the CSR disclosure scores between developing and developed group of countries is not an alarming one. However, developing countries should practice CSR in spirit and not just in letter. Focus should not be on just filling the pages in black and white, rather the essence of CSR should be attained for balanced development of the country. For instance, though developing country like India has high score of CSR disclosure in contrast to each of the developed country taken in the sample, yet the country is still battling with several issues such as poverty, over-population, corruption, poor standard of working conditions for the employees and environmental conservation. Sustenance should focus upon renewable sources of energy; efforts of employees should be acknowledged offering flexible working hours; consumer trust should be built by communicating authentic and accurate information about the product. As developing countries encounter several social and environmental problems, companies must endeavor to build a healthy nation keeping in mind the welfare of all stakeholders by practicing CSR.

Originality/value

This study overcomes the limitations of prior cross-country studies by taking a better representative sample with greater number of countries belonging to identifiable group of “developing” and “developed” nations and thus attempts to improve generalization and authenticity of results.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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