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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Anita Medhekar, Ho Yin Wong and John Edward Hall

The purpose of this paper is to explore the supply-side factors that determines the quality of global healthcare services from medical tourism healthcare providers’ (MTHP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the supply-side factors that determines the quality of global healthcare services from medical tourism healthcare providers’ (MTHP) perspective, which provide value-in-medical-travel to foreign patients/medical tourists, who travel to India for medical treatment/surgery.

Design/methodology/approach

The thematic content analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 senior MTHP, from 15 private hospitals in India was undertaken, to generate the themes, and identify the supply-side factors necessary for sustainable medical tourism management.

Findings

The findings conclude that MTHP ranked in ascending order, less waiting-time for surgery, healthcare quality and accreditation, staff/surgeon’s expertise, healthcare information, hospital facilities and services, patient-safety, travel-risk, surgical costs and holiday opportunity as essential factors for providing sustainable quality and value-in-medical-travel to patients.

Research limitations/implications

Many private hospital spokespersons declined to be interviewed due to confidentiality and privacy policy

Practical implications

The findings are generalised in case of global private hospitals treating foreign patients. Policy implications suggest that private hospitals in developing countries need to focus on providing value-in-medical-travel, such as accreditation quality of healthcare, no waiting-time, patient-safety, qualified and experienced medical and non-medical staff, hospital facilities and post-surgery care with positive healthcare outcomes.

Social implications

Medical-tour facilitators, hotels and tourism sites need to collaborate with agencies to provide inclusive built environment, first-aid and wheelchair access, to medical tourists, having financial and legal implications for business.

Originality/value

There is little qualitative empirical research on the views of MTHP, regarding management of essential supply-side factors that provide value-in-medical-travel to attract medical tourists to India.

医疗保健提供者对印度医疗旅行价值的看法

目的

本文的目的是从医疗旅游医疗保健提供者的角度探讨决定全球医疗服务质量的供应方因素, 这些因素可为前往印度求医的外国患者/医疗游客提供医疗旅行的价值治疗/手术.

设计/方法

对印度15家私立医院的15家高级医疗旅游保健提供者(MTHP)进行了深度访谈, 对主题内容进行了分析, 以生成主题并确定可持续医疗旅游管理所必需的供应方因素。

调查结果

研究结果得出结论, MTHP以升序排列的顺序是:手术等待时间, 医疗质量和认证, 工作人员/外科医生的专业知识, 医疗保健信息, 医院设施和服务, 患者安全, 旅行风险, 手术费用和度假时间机会是为患者提供医疗旅行可持续质量和价值的重要因素。

研究局限性

由于医院的机密性和隐私权政策, 许多私立医院发言人拒绝接受采访。

实际含义

如果全球私立医院为外国医疗游客提供治疗, 那么研究结果将得到概括。政策含义表明, 发展中国家的私立医院需要集中精力提供医疗旅行价值, 例如无需等待时间的医疗保健认证质量和患者安全, 合格和经验丰富的医务人员和非医务人员, 医院设施和后期医疗服务。具有积极医疗效果的手术护理。

社会含义

旅馆, 医疗旅行促进者和旅游景点需要与机构合作, 为医疗游客提供紧急急救和轮椅通道, 这对企业有财务和法律影响。

独创性/价值

关于MTHP观点的定性实证研究很少, 涉及对提供医疗旅行价值以吸引医疗游客前往印度的基本供应方因素的管理。

关键词

印度, 医疗旅游, 全球化 等待时间, 患者安全, 认证质量

论文类型

研究论文

Perspectiva del valor de los proveedores del cuidado de la salud en viajes con propositos medicos a la India

Proposito

El propósito de esta investigación es explorar los factores que del lado de la oferta determinan la calidad de los servicios globales de salud desde el punto de vista del proveedor, el cual agrega valor al viaje con propósitos médicos a pacientes/turistas médicos quienes viajan a la India para tratamientos médicos ó cirugía.

Metodologia

El análisis de contenido temático de las detalladas entrevistas, con-15 proveedores experimentados de asistencia sanitaria de turismo medico, en-15 hospitales de la India, fué realizado para generar los temas é identificar los factores que del lado de la oferta son necesarios para la gestión sostenible del turismo médico.

Hallazgos

Los hallazgos concluyen que proveedores experimentados de turismo ranquearon en orden ascendente la reducción en tiempos de espera para cirugías, acreditación de la calidad del cuidado de la salud, experticia del personal no médico y de cirugía, información del cuidado de la salud, servicios é instalaciones de los hospitales, seguridad del paciente, riesgos de viaje, costos de cirugías, y oportunidades vacacionales, como factores esenciales para proveer calidad sostenible y valor en los viajes con propósitos médicos a los pacientes.

Limitaciones de la Investigacion

Muchos representates de los hospitales privados se rehusaron a ser entrevistados debido las políticas de privacidad y confidencialidad del hospitales.

Implicaciones practicas

Los hallazgos son generalizables en el caso de hospitales privados globales que tratan a turistas médicos extranjeros. Las implicaciones políticas sugieren que los hospitales privados en los países en vía de desarrollo necesitan enfocarse en agregar valor al viaje médico, por medios como la calidad de acreditación de la atención médica, reduccion de tiempos de espera y la seguridad del paciente, personal médico y no médico calificado y experimentado, instalaciones hospitalarias y servicios posoperatorios con resultados sanitarios positivos.

Implicaciones sociales

Los hoteles, los facilitadores de toures médicos y los sitios de turismo necesitan colaborar con las agencias para proveer primeros auxilios de emergencia y acceso en silla de ruedas a los turistas médicos, teniendo esto implicaciones financieras y legales para los negocios.

Originalidad y valor

Existe poca investigación empírica cualitativa sobre los puntos-de vista-de (MTHP) proveedores de asistencia sanitaria de turismo médico con respecto a la gestión de los factores esenciales del lado de la oferta que agregan valor al turismo con fiines médicos para atraer turistas médicos a la India.

Palabras clave

India, globalización, turismo médico, tiempo-de-espera, calidad, seguridad-del- paciente

Tipo de investigación

Trabajo de investigación

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 75 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2019

Ayse Collins, Anita Medhekar, Ho Yin Wong and Cihan Cobanoglu

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Americans choose a country and medical facility to travel abroad for medical treatment based on the following factors country…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Americans choose a country and medical facility to travel abroad for medical treatment based on the following factors country environment, tourism destination, medical tourism costs and medical facilities and services.

Design/methodology/approach

Online survey with the help of Amazon Mechanical Turk website was used for data collection, and 541 valid cases were used of American residents who had travelled abroad for medical tourism. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate the scales.

Findings

Findings indicated four major factors that can influence American medical tourists’ choices of medical tourism destinations. These factors are overseas’ country factors, attractiveness of tourism destination, medical tourism costs and facilities and services. Both the convergent and discriminant validities for the constructs were established. The results of the measurement-model-fit based on various measures were within the suggested cut-off values.

Research limitations/implications

Out of the 541 responses of post-travel experienced medical tourists, it is hard to tell how similar/dissimilar the participants are in terms of ranking the four factors. To be competitive to attract global medical tourists, research suggests that the five popular countries of treatment, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Turkey, identified in this study should provide high quality of medical and tourism facilities to patients.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying factors, which influence American medical tourists’ choice of destinations, with validated scales. For this exploratory research, 25 new items together with 34 items from other studies were adapted.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Parves Sultan, Ho Yin Wong and Marianna Sigala

The purpose of this paper is to segment the Australian organic food consumer market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to segment the Australian organic food consumer market.

Design/methodology/approach

A nationwide online survey was conducted for collecting data about the Australian organic food consumer market. Various statistical techniques were used for analyzing the data and identifying market segments.

Findings

The key market segmentation variables that significantly characterize the Australian organic food consumer market include age, income, education, metro/city-vs-rural/region, purchase frequency, weekly expenditure, consumption period, retail outlets, perceived values, self-image, and perceptions about organic foods.

Originality/value

Australia, like many other countries, is an emerging market for the organically produced and marketed food products. The current review unfolds the fact that there are limited studies in market segmentation, and no study in the Australian context, in particular. The current paper contributes to the organic food market segmentation literature and provides several implications for market segmentation strategy.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Muhammad Anees-ur-Rehman, Ho Yin Wong, Parves Sultan and Bill Merrilees

This study aims to examine the relationship between brand orientation and financial performance in business-to-business (B2B) small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between brand orientation and financial performance in business-to-business (B2B) small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It examines the impact of brand-oriented strategy on financial performance through four branding constructs, namely, internal branding, brand communication, brand awareness and brand credibility.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 250 Finnish B2B SMEs. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the validity of the constructs, whereas structural equation modeling was used to test proposed hypotheses of the study.

Findings

The results suggest that brand orientation improves the effectiveness of brand communication and internal branding in building brand awareness and credibility. Brand awareness emphasizes an external route through brand communication, whereas brand credibility emphasizes an internal route through internal branding. Brand awareness has a positive impact on brand credibility, and brand credibility has a positive impact on financial performance, highlighting the importance of both brand performance components for financial performance.

Originality/value

This study addresses the research gap in the B2B branding literature regarding the role of branding in enhancing financial performance. The results suggest that brand-oriented strategy can contribute to financial performance through brand awareness and brand credibility in the context of B2B SMEs.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Parves Sultan and Ho Yin Wong

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test an integrated-process model/an index model by incorporating the antecedents and consequences of service quality in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test an integrated-process model/an index model by incorporating the antecedents and consequences of service quality in a higher education context.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The data from three focus groups, conducted at an Australian University, generated key themes and their interrelationships. The theoretical model was then tested using the structural equation modelling (SEM) technique on a sample of 528 University students.

Findings

The findings show that information (or marketing communications) and past experience are the antecedents of perceived service quality (PSQ). PSQ is a second order construct and has three dimensions: academic, administrative and facilities. The consequences of PSQ include trust, satisfaction, university-brand (UniBrand) performance and behavioural intentions. Overall, the results suggest a good validity of the model, and the nine path coefficients are found statistically significant.

Originality/value

The model explains how service quality is formed, and how PSQ affects UniBrand and positive behavioural intentions overtime. This paper develops and validates three new constructs including information, past experience and UniBrand performance. In addition, it improves and validates other constructs including service quality, satisfaction, trust and behavioural intention. The paper also advances service quality literature and validates five hypothesised relationships between constructs that are relatively new in the service quality literature. Finally, this study validates a comprehensive three-tiered “integrated-process” model/an index model that includes antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality taking a University as a case. Universities aiming for a sustainable presence in a competitive global market and intending to enhance brand performance and attract and retain students are encouraged to consider this model and its implications.

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Anita Medhekar, Ho Yin Wong and John Edward Hall

The purpose of this paper is to explore the demand-side factors that influence the inbound medical tourists’ (MTs) decision to travel abroad for medical treatment/surgery.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the demand-side factors that influence the inbound medical tourists’ (MTs) decision to travel abroad for medical treatment/surgery.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews in India with 24 foreign MTs’ to generate the themes, identify factors and propose a model with hypothesis for future quantitative survey.

Findings

The findings conclude that patients ranked in ascending order less waiting time for surgery, healthcare quality and accreditation, staff/surgeons expertise, healthcare information, hospital facilities and services, patient safety, travel risk, surgical costs and holiday opportunity as important factors that influence the decision to travel abroad for medical treatment/surgery.

Research limitations/implications

Foreign patients from six private hospitals were willing to be interviewed with the permission of the hospital. Due to confidentiality and privacy policy, many hospitals declined interviews with foreign patients.

Practical implications

The findings are generalised in case of foreign patients as MTs and all private hospitals treating foreign patients in India and other global healthcare destinations. Policy implications suggest that private hospitals in developing countries need to provide first-class quality of healthcare as foreign patients look for internationally accredited quality, no waiting time, patient safety, qualified and experienced surgeons, healthcare workers education and experience hospital facilities and post-surgery care with positive healthcare outcomes.

Originality/value

There is little empirical research on the views of inbound MTs, about factors influencing their decision to travel abroad for surgery to India.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Parves Sultan and Ho Yin Wong

The aim of this study is to develop and empirically test an integrated model incorporating the antecedents and consequences of service quality in a higher education context.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to develop and empirically test an integrated model incorporating the antecedents and consequences of service quality in a higher education context.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The data from three focus groups, conducted at the Central Queensland University (CQU), Rockhampton, Australia, generated key themes and their interrelationships. The theoretical model was then tested using structural equation modelling technique on a sample of 528 university students.

Findings

The findings show that information (marketing communications) is more statistically significant than past experience as the antecedents of service quality. The consequences of service quality are composed of trust, satisfaction, and image. Overall, the results suggest a good validity of the theoretical model and the key paths in the model are found statistically significant, except past experience affecting service quality.

Originality/value

The model provides a good explanation of a university brand image, and perceived service quality was found playing an important role in this model. Universities intending to enhance their image are encouraged to consider focusing their efforts on marketing communication information, service quality, student satisfaction and trust.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Ho Yin Wong and Bill Merrilees

This paper aims to undertake an empirical study to investigate the nature and magnitude of potential benefits that accrue to firms that have a high level of brand orientation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to undertake an empirical study to investigate the nature and magnitude of potential benefits that accrue to firms that have a high level of brand orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study is undertaken. The sample of firms surveyed included more than 400. The scope of the study included measuring the level of brand orientation among other variables. A conceptual model linking brand orientation and performance is developed and tested.

Findings

The overall structural model fits the data well, giving confidence to interpreting the individual paths within the model. The main result is a very strong positive relationship between brand orientation and brand performance. Brand orientation also exerts another, less direct influence on performance, via brand distinctiveness. Innovation mediates the influence of brand distinctiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The most obvious limitation is that the study pertains to one country only at this stage, pending more applications. The implication for firms is a very strong endorsement of the importance of using branding as a central driver of the entire marketing strategy process. The study identifies a number of brand barriers that stand in the way of becoming brand‐oriented. Recognising these brand barriers may assist firms to make progress towards becoming more brand‐oriented.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to quantify the performance benefits of being brand‐oriented. The study is also among the first to include the role of brand distinctiveness as a potential influence on brand performance.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Ho Yin Wong and Bill Merrilees

The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test a model of brand engagement. More specifically, the aim is to evaluate both antecedents and consequences of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test a model of brand engagement. More specifically, the aim is to evaluate both antecedents and consequences of brand engagement, from a management perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey of 403 firms is undertaken to test the model. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to estimate the parameters of the model.

Findings

A reliable and valid measure of brand engagement is established. The SEM model works well, in terms of goodness of fit indices. The results demonstrate that there are major brand performance benefits (consequences) of brand engagement. Additionally, and important for the practical implications, the results show that brand orientation is a major antecedent to brand engagement.

Research limitations/implications

The study needs to be replicated in other countries, with scope to add other explanatory variables for influencing brand engagement. The results have considerable practical benefits for guiding the introduction of measures to enhance brand engagement.

Originality/value

The study builds on earlier (mainly consumer) conceptual approaches to brand engagement, but goes further in that it provides empirical evidence about the nature, antecedents and consequences of brand engagement and further, offers a management rather than consumer perspective. Essentially, the study reveals a new perspective of factors that encourage firms to connect/engage their brands with consumers. Brand engagement is a dual concept, reflecting both a consumer and a firm perspective.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Ho Yin Wong and Bill Merrilees

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the inter‐related relationships among various branding issues such as brand orientation, brand re‐positioning, brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the inter‐related relationships among various branding issues such as brand orientation, brand re‐positioning, brand performance and international marketing issues in terms of international marketing strategy, financial performance, control of international marketing activities, international commitment and macro‐marketing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey with 315 useful samples drawn from the Austrade database was conducted. The steps suggested by Churchill, Cheng and Andersen and Gerbing were rigorously followed to purify the constructs and measurement models. Finally, structural equation modelling using partial disaggregation method was performed to test the whole structured model.

Findings

The results from structural equation modelling method confirm significant relationships between the constructs in the model. All major fit indices from structural equation modelling analysis show satisfactory results for both the measurement models and the structural model.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide insight to international marketers with regard to deploying resources, establishing strategy and adapting the strategy to the culture within overseas markets. Judicious investments in finance and personnel are required for overseas expansion. International branding strategy can be used to enhance a firm's brand and financial performances abroad.

Originality/value

The major values of this study are the establishment of the role of branding in international business. Both brand orientation and brand repositioning have significant impacts on international marketing strategy, which in turn positively affects a firm's performance. Developments of new constructs such as brand orientation, brand repositioning, brand performance and cultural aspects are statistically validated.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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