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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Mark M. Davis and Janelle Heineke

The experience of waiting for service is often the first direct interaction between customers and most service delivery processes. The literature on satisfaction with…

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15330

Abstract

The experience of waiting for service is often the first direct interaction between customers and most service delivery processes. The literature on satisfaction with waiting has paralleled the literature on general service satisfaction, in which the relative importance of actual performance, perceived performance, and the disconfirmation between expected performance and perceived performance has been the subject of much debate. This paper presents an empirical study of satisfaction with waiting for service in a fast food environment. The study demonstrates that actual waiting time, perceived waiting time, and the disconfirmation between expected waiting time and perceived waiting time are all related to satisfaction with the waiting experience. It further demonstrates that the relative importance of each of these variables in predicting satisfaction depends on the differences in the needs of the customers. The implications for both theory and practice are significant: the importance of the perception of the experience increases as the importance of the satisfaction measure increases. More specifically, for customers who are concerned about time, the perception of the time spent waiting is a better predictor of satisfaction than the actual waiting time.

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International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Yusuke Gotoh, Tomoki Yoshihisa, Hideo Taniguchi and Masanori Kanazawa

The purpose of this paper is to propose a scheduling method called the “Asynchronous Harmonic Broadcasting Considering Commercial (AHB‐CC)” method, to reduce waiting time

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a scheduling method called the “Asynchronous Harmonic Broadcasting Considering Commercial (AHB‐CC)” method, to reduce waiting time for continuous media data broadcasting.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze and evaluate the performance of the proposed AHB‐CC method.

Findings

The authors confirm that the proposed method gives shorter average waiting times than the conventional methods.

Research limitations/implications

A future direction of this study will involve making a scheduling method where the server concurrently broadcasts data and commercial contents. Also, maximum buffer size needs to be considered.

Practical implications

In general broadcasting systems, the server broadcasts the same data repetitively and clients wait until the first portion of the data is broadcast. Although the server can deliver the data to many clients concurrently, clients have to wait until their desired data are broadcast.

Originality/value

The AHB‐CC method presented in the paper further reduces waiting time by scheduling an effective broadcast that considers the playing time of commercial contents.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

John E. Clague, Patrick G. Reed, Judith Barlow, Roy Rada, Margaret Clarke and Richard H.T. Edwards

To assess and plan alterations in outpatient clinic structure, produces a computer simulation of an outpatient clinic based on detailed time and role measurements from the…

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2352

Abstract

To assess and plan alterations in outpatient clinic structure, produces a computer simulation of an outpatient clinic based on detailed time and role measurements from the authors’ clinic. The simulation which used an object‐oriented design method is able to indicate the impact of changes in clinic structure using patient and doctor waiting times in clinic as endpoint measures. Examines the effects of changes in clinic size, consultation time, patient mix, appointment scheduling and non‐attendance. Finds that patient waiting time could be shortened considerably by using an optimizing appointment scheduler to determine appointment intervals. Clinic mix influences patient waiting time, which was shorter with a 1 in 4 ratio of new to follow‐up patients. In mixed clinics, new patients appointments are optimally spread throughout the clinic to reduce patient waiting time. In all new or all follow‐up clinics, waiting time is improved if the appointment interval reflects the consultation time. Computer modelling can help in optimizing clinic management so improving the delivery of care in outpatient services.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Bahar Tasar, Keti Ventura and Ural Gokay Cicekli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of capacity decisions regarding the number of servers/chefs and tables on identifying a change in the number of wait

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of capacity decisions regarding the number of servers/chefs and tables on identifying a change in the number of wait-related anxious customers, customer losses and customers served to meet the waiting time standards of an actual upscale restaurant.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied a simulation model to present the consequences of restaurant capacity decisions based on waiting time standards. Arena Simulation Software, licensed by Rockwell Automation, was used for modeling and identifying distributions of the data set provided by the restaurant. An experiment was designed for an upscale restaurant with existing five servers/chefs and 50 tables by changing these resources to measure the changes in customers' wait-related anxiety and other service performance indicators.

Findings

The results showed that an additional server/chef on weekends decreases the daily average number of anxious customers by nearly 33% and increases the daily average number of customers served by nearly 3% and has a little positive effect of decreasing customer losses. Table insertion for high- and low-requested seating areas had an only positive effect on decreasing customer losses.

Originality/value

In this study, the service capacity is dependent on waiting time, and it is addressed to study the relationship with customers' wait-related anxiety, which is a subjective metric. This study developed a point of view for identifying anxious customers whose waiting times are much longer than their cooking and delivery duration expectations regarding their meal preferences in the cooking stage and waiting experiences in the service entry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Mark N. Wexler

The purpose of this paper is to highlight both the contribution and the present need to reconfigure the literature on “queue culture” as a precursor of the sociology of…

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1265

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight both the contribution and the present need to reconfigure the literature on “queue culture” as a precursor of the sociology of waiting.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a legal-structural lens in comparing the initial conceptual treatment of the archetypal “waiting line” with the “line” modifying sociology of waiting that results in waiting rooms, number and telephone queues and in the experience of online waiting.

Findings

The initial conception of the culture of the queue understates the importance of three factors: first, the role of third parties in the design, management and inculcation of rules binding those experiencing thick time; second the degree to which communication technology and its attachment to the “mobilities” paradigm has thinned the experience of thick time and lastly the degree to which the increasing commodification of the wait has resulted in the creation of waiting time as a form of pay as you go flexitime.

Social implications

The social construction of waiting and the experience of thick time are shown to be increasingly part of the privatized market experience where queue management innovations not only are commercialized but have strong implications for the egalitarian social assumptions imbedded in the initial queue culture based sociology of waiting. Policy implications support the present pay for use philosophy increasingly applied in the transition from public to private management of space.

Originality/value

The self-policing “fairness” of the waiting line is now open to scrutiny given the proliferation of the newly shaped distributional logics imbedded in the management, design and use of waiting spaces.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Xiande Zhao, R.S.M. Lau and Kokin Lam

Presents an approach to optimize the service configurations of a student canteen utilizing computer simulation and a total cost function that incorporates both the cost of…

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1545

Abstract

Presents an approach to optimize the service configurations of a student canteen utilizing computer simulation and a total cost function that incorporates both the cost of services and the cost of waiting. The cost of waiting is measured in terms of the impact of waiting on the customer satisfaction and the resulting changes in future repurchases. By collecting data of waiting time and customer satisfaction from a student canteen, first evaluates the impact of waiting time on customer satisfaction and future purchase frequency. Subsequently develops a simulation model to simulate the service processes and waiting line behavior at the student canteen. By varying the number of servers at the two different stages of services and calculating the total cost per customer served, the performance of the system was optimized considering both the service cost and the cost of waiting in term of its impact on future purchases. The approach presented can be used with modification in designing service configurations for a variety of service organizations.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Yu Zhang and Bing-Jia Shao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence mechanism of waiting time on customer satisfaction based on first impression bias, which explains how customers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence mechanism of waiting time on customer satisfaction based on first impression bias, which explains how customers’ perceived service-entry waiting time (PSWT) influences their first impression of service staff and satisfaction in the context of online service. Furthermore, the moderating effect of three information formats (formal, informal and hybrid) of opening remark on the relationship between PSWT and first impression, and the moderating effect of perceived in-service waiting time (PIWT) on the relationship between first impression and customer satisfaction are investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were used to verify the research model. First, an experiment on prepurchase consulting services for cruise tourism products was designed, and 810 Chinese individuals have participated. Second, 20 interviews with e-commerce practitioners in China were conducted.

Findings

The results show that, first, PSWT negatively influences customers’ first impression of service staff. Second, customers prefer the hybrid format to present opening remarks, which not only conveys the respect of the staff but also fosters a relationship. Third, in-service waits are equally as important as service-entry waits in online service. When PIWT is longer, the positive influence of first impression on customer satisfaction is weakening, resulting in lower customer satisfaction.

Practical implications

This study provides suggestions for online service enterprises to minimize the negative impact of waiting time and improve customer satisfaction through waiting time management.

Originality/value

This study provides a new perspective for exploring the mechanism of waiting time on customer satisfaction in online service context, and extends previous research related to waiting time by exploring the influence of waiting time in multiple service stages and expression modes of service staff.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 29 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Agnes K.Y. Law, Y.V. Hui and Xiande Zhao

Although customer satisfaction and loyalty have attracted a lot of attention in service management research, relatively few studies have examined the impact of waiting time

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17016

Abstract

Although customer satisfaction and loyalty have attracted a lot of attention in service management research, relatively few studies have examined the impact of waiting time and service quality on customer satisfaction and repurchase frequency. In this study, we model the relationships between customer satisfaction, repurchase frequency, waiting time and other service quality factors in fast food outlets. The results indicate that waiting time and other service factors such as staff attitude, environment, seat availability and food quality significantly influence the customers’ return frequency. Results also show that waiting time, staff attitude, food quality and food variety all significantly affect customer satisfaction. It is also found that the significance of the relationship depends on the timing of the visits. These models will help managers to understand the critical factors that influence customer loyalty and satisfaction in the fast food industry and help them make improvements accordingly.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Peter Jones and Emma Peppiatt

Investigates the extent to which there is a gap between customers’ perception of waiting time compared with the actual waiting time and, whether this gap could be reduced…

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11761

Abstract

Investigates the extent to which there is a gap between customers’ perception of waiting time compared with the actual waiting time and, whether this gap could be reduced. Maister originally identified eight propositions based around the idea that the perception of waiting lines are modified by a range of factors. Although other studies have discussed Maister’s propositions by identifying the level of management control and customers’ perceptions of waiting lines, rarely has the basic idea ‐ that perceived and actual wait times may be different ‐ been empirically tested. Reviews those studies which have compared actual waiting time with perceived waiting time, before going on to report on the first known UK study. The research involved an experimental study into two of Maister’s propositions involving 300 members of the general public. Tests a control group of 100 people queueing in a small retail food outlet to identify whether there is a significant difference between perceived and actual waiting times. Repeats the measurement on two further random samples of 100 people. Then discusses the implications of this study, and the earlier studies, with respect to a revision of Maister’s original eight propositions. Concludes with a review of how queue management may be carried out more effectively in relation to matching more closely actual and perceived waiting times.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Y. L. Basta, K. M.A.J. Tytgat, J. H.G. Klinkenbijl, P. Fockens and E. M.A. Smets

Guidelines stating maximum waiting times fail to take cancer patients’ expectations into account. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to assess patients’ expectations…

Abstract

Purpose

Guidelines stating maximum waiting times fail to take cancer patients’ expectations into account. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to assess patients’ expectations and experiences with their waiting time at a fast-track clinic.

Design/methodology/approach

Patients were selected using a purposeful sampling strategy and were interviewed four times: before the visit; one day after; two weeks after the visit; and one week after starting treatment. Interviews were audiotaped and independently coded by two researchers.

Findings

All patients (n=9) preferred a short waiting time before the first visit; they feared that their disease would spread and believed that cancer warrants priority treatment. Six patients experienced the waiting time as short, one had no expectations and two felt they waited longer than expected; three patients changed this evaluation during the study. Six patients received treatment – four preferred to wait before treatment and two wanted to start treatment immediately. Reasons to wait included putting one’s affairs in order, or needing to adjust to the diagnosis.

Practical implications

Cancer patients prefer a short waiting time before the first visit but have different expectations and needs regarding waiting time before treatment. Ideally, their expectations are managed by their treating physician to match waiting time reality.

Originality/value

This is the first study to assess cancer patients’ waiting time experiences and how these experiences change over time. This study paves the way for establishing a framework to better assess patient satisfaction with oncology care waiting time. An important aspect, is managing patients’ expectations.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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