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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Mayyadah S. Abed, Payman S. Ahmed, Jawad K. Oleiwi and Basim M. Fadhil

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a…

Abstract

Purpose

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a comparison of composites 12 and 20 layers of fabrics Kevlar and ultrahigh-molecular-weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE)-reinforced epoxy under low-velocity impacts represented by drop-weight impact and Izod pendulum impact has been done. During the Izod test, Kevlar-based composite showed damage at the composite center and fiber breakages. Whereas delamination was observed for UHMWPE reinforced epoxy (PE). The maximum impact strength was for Kevlar-reinforced epoxy (KE) and increases with the number of laminates. Drop-weight impact test showed the highest absorbed energy for (KE) composites. The results revealed that different behavior during the impact test for composites belongs to the impact mechanism in each test.

Design/methodology/approach

Aramid 1414 Kevlar 49 and UHMWPE woven fabrics were purchased from Yixing Huaheng High-Performance Fiber Textile Co. Ltd, with specifications listed in Table 1. Epoxy resin (Sikafloor-156) is supplied from Sika AG. Sikafloor-156 is a two-part, low-viscosity, solvent-free epoxy resin, with compressive strength ∼95 N/mm², flexural strength ∼30 N/mm² and shore D hardness 83 (seven days). The mixture ratio of A/B was one-third volume ratio. Two types of laminated composites with different layers 12 and 20 were prepared by hand layup: Kevlar–epoxy and UHMWPE–epoxy composites as shown in Figure 1. Mechanical pressure was applied to remove bubbles and excess resin for 24 h. The composites were left in room temperature for seven days, and then composite plates were cut for the desired dimensions. Low-velocity impact testing, drop-weight impact, drop tower impact system INSTRON CEAST 9350 (see Figure 2) was facilitated to investigate impact resistance of composites according to ASTM D7137M (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Low-velocity impact tests have been performed at room temperature for composite with dimensions 10 × 15 cm2 utilizing a drop tower (steel indenter diameter 19.85 mm as shown in Figure 3), height (800 mm), drop mass (5 kg) and speed (3.96 m/s). Special impact equipment consisting of vertically falling impactor was used in the test. The energy is obtained from Drop tower impact systems, (2009) E = ½ mv2 (2.1). The relationship between force–time, deformation–time and energy–time and deformation was obtained. Energy–deformation and force–deformation relationships were also obtained. The depth of penetration and the radius of impactor traces were recorded. Izod pendulum impact test of plastics was applied according to ASTM D256 (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Absorbed energy was recorded to compute the impact strength of the specimen. The specimen before the test is shown in Figure 4.

Findings

In order to investigate two types of impact: drop-weight impact and Izod impact on damage resistance of composites, the two tests were done. Drop-weight impact is dropping a known weight and height in a vertical direction with free fall, absorbed energy can be calculated. Izod impact measures the energy required to break a specimen by striking a specific size bar with a pendulum (Test Method for Compressive, 2005; Test Methods for Determining, 2018). The results obtained with the impact test are presented. Figure 5 shows the histogram bars of impact strength of composites. It can be noticed that Kevlar–epoxy (KE) composites give higher energy strength than UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) in 12 and 20 plies. The increasing percentage is about 18.5 and 5.7%. It can be observed in Figure 6 that samples are not destructed completely due to fiber continuity. Also, the delamination occurs obviously for UHMWPE–epoxy more than for Kevlar-based composite, which may due to weak binding between UHMWPE with an epoxy relative with Kevlar.

Practical implications

The force–time curves for Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites with 12 and 20 plies are illustrated respectively in Figure 7. The contact duration between indenter and composite surface is repented by the force–time curves, so the maximum force reaches with certain displacement. It can be seen that maximum force was (13,209, 18,734.9, 23,271.07 and 19,825.38 N) at the time (3.97, 4.43, 3.791 and 4.198 ms) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. The sharp peaks of KE composite are due to the lower ductility of Kevlar compared with UHMWPE. These results agree with the results of Ahmed et al. (2016). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed lower impact force and crack propagates in the matrix with fast fiber breakage compared with PE composites, whereas the latter did not suffer from fabric breakage in 12 and 20 plies any more (see Figure 8). Figure 9 illustrates force–deformation curves, for 12 and 20 plies of Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites. Curve's slop is considered the specimen's stiffness and the maximum displacement. To investigate the impact behavior of the four different composites, the comparison was made among the relative force–deformation curves. The maximum displacement was 5.119, 3.443, 1.173 and 1.17 mm for 12KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. It seems that UHMWPE-based composite (PE) presents lower deformation than Kevlar-based composites (KE) at a same number of laminates, although the maximum displacement is for 12 PE and 12 KE (see Figure 8). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed more damage than UHMWPE-based composite (PE), so the maximum displacement is always higher for KE specimens with maximum indenter trace diameter (D∼11.27 mm). The onset of cracks begins along fibers on the impacted side for 20 KE and 20 PE specimens with lower indenter trace (D∼5.42 and 5.96 mm), respectively (see Table 2). These results refer to the lower stiffness of KE composites (see the slope of the curve) relative to PE composites. This result agreed with (Vieille et al., 2013) when they found that the theoretical stiffness of laminated composite during drop-weight impact depends significantly on fiber nature (Fadhil, 2013). The matrix cracking is the first type of damage that may not change stiffness of composites overall. Material stiffness changes due to the stress concentration represented by matrix cracks, delamination and fiber breakage (Hancox, 2000). Briefly, the histogram (see Figure 10) showed that the best impact behavior was for 20 KE, highest impact force with lower deformation, indenter trace diameter and contact time. Absorbed energy–time and absorbed energy–deformation curves for composites are shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The maximum absorbed energy was (36.313, 29.952, 9.783 and 6.928 J) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. Test period time is only 8 ms, but the time in which composites reached maximum absorbed energy was (4.413, 3.636, 2.394 and 2.408 ms). The maximum absorbed energy was for 12 KE with lower rebound energy because part of kinetic energy transferred to potential energy kept in the composite as material damage (see Figures 3 and 4). This composite absorbs more energy as material damage which kept as potential energy. Whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 PE and 20 KE showed less damage, lower absorbed energy and higher rebound energy, which appeared in different peak behavior as the negative value of energy. Also from the absorbed energy–time curves, it had been noticed significantly the maximum contact time of indenter with composite was 4.413 ms for 12 KE, which exhibits higher deformation (5.119 mm), whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE showed less damage, contact time and deformation as (3.443, 1.173, 1.17 mm), respectively.

Originality/value

The main goal of the current study is to evaluate the performances of armor composite made off of Kevlar and UHMWPE fabrics reinforced epoxy thermosetting resin under the low-velocity impact. Several plates of composites were prepared by hand layup. Izod and drop-weight impact tests were facilitated to get an indication about the absorbed energy and strength of the armors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Sivaguru Shasthri and Venkatason Kausalyah

Ballistic missile-resistant impact panels have seen fair advancement over the years, especially in military applications. However, high cost, as well as a changing…

Abstract

Purpose

Ballistic missile-resistant impact panels have seen fair advancement over the years, especially in military applications. However, high cost, as well as a changing materials landscape, has impressed the need for a deeper understanding of impact mechanism as well as of new permutations in design strategy development. Parameters such as projectile impact angle, panel impact location as well as application of multilayer sandwich panels are not fully explored and characterised. In this work, finite element method simulation methodology is used on a 25 mm by 25 mm plate of 3.5 mm thickness to investigate the above-mentioned parameters and conditions. Solid elements using Johnson–Cook damage material models are developed. Two common impact angles of 90 and 45° at centre and plate-edge locations are investigated for single-layer titanium alloy and carbon steel panels. Subsequently, a bilayer panel comprising of titanium alloy at the impact layer with the same overall plate thickness is investigated for impact at five different impact speed (ranging from 100 ms-1 to 500 ms-1). The displacements and von Mises stresses are documented for all cases, and it is shown that angular impact angles bring about greater plastic deformations as well as higher fracture likelihood compared to normal angle impact. Findings also indicate that with an addition of 1 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V front bilayer, the impact resistance of the high carbon steel is significantly improved (up to twice the impact load), especially at higher impact velocities. The study documents the properties of titanium alloy–carbon steel bilayer armoured panel, which shows good promise for its implementation due to its superior performance and its cost-savings potential.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, finite element method simulation methodology is used to investigate the above-mentioned parameters and conditions. Solid elements using Johnson–Cook damage material models are developed. Two common impact angles 90 and 45° at centre and plate-edge locations are investigated for single-layer titanium alloy and carbon steel panels, and, subsequently, a bilayer panel comprising of titanium alloy for the outer layer is investigated for the combination of the same aforementioned materials. Five different impact speed effects are studied.

Findings

The effects and trends of displacements and stresses are documented for all cases and shown to indicate angular impact angles bringing about greater plastic deformations as well as higher fracture likelihood compared to normal angle impact. Findings also show that with an addition of 1 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V front bilayer, the impact resistance of the high carbon steel is significantly improved, especially at higher impact velocities.

Originality/value

The study documents the properties of titanium alloy–carbon steel bilayer armoured panel, which shows good promise for its implementation due to its superior performance and its cost-savings potential.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Yihua Xiao, Huanghuang Dong, Haifei Zhan and Aihua Zhu

Metal plates are usually used as protective shields of engineering structures, which probably undergo multiple projectile impacts resulting from gunshot and blast. Though…

Abstract

Purpose

Metal plates are usually used as protective shields of engineering structures, which probably undergo multiple projectile impacts resulting from gunshot and blast. Though a large number of studies have been conducted on the performance of metal plates under a single projectile impact, few studies have explored their performance under multiple projectile impacts. This paper aims to explore the performance of Weldox 460 E steel plates against multiple projectile impacts through numerical simulation.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional coupled finite element (FE) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model was developed to simulate the perforation of a 12-mm-thick Weldox 460 E steel plate by an ogival projectile. The model was verified by existing experimental data. Then, it was extended to investigate the same target plate subjected to impacts with multiple projectiles. Simultaneous impacts with different number of projectiles, as well as sequential impacts with two projectiles, were considered.

Findings

Effects of spacing between projectiles on residual velocity of projectile, ballistic limit and failure mode of target were revealed for simultaneous impacts. Effects of spacing and axial distance between projectiles on residual velocity of projectile were explored for sequential impacts.

Originality/value

This work developed an advanced FE–SPH model to simulate perforation of steel plates by multiple projectiles, and revealed the effects of multiple impacts on ballistic performance of steel plates. It provides guidance for the design of protective structures/shields in various engineering applications.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Konstantinos Stamoulis, Stelios K. Georgantzinos and G.I. Giannopoulos

The present study deals with the numerical modeling of the low-velocity impact damage of laminated composites which have increasingly important applications in aerospace…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study deals with the numerical modeling of the low-velocity impact damage of laminated composites which have increasingly important applications in aerospace primary structures. Such damage, generated by various sources during ground handling, substantially reduces the mechanical residual performance and the safe-service life. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a computationally efficient approach in order to explore the effect of critical parameters on the impact damage characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical modeling is considered as one of the most efficient tool as compared to the expensive and time-consuming experimental testing. In this paper, a finite element model based on explicit dynamics formulations is adopted. Hashin criterion is applied to predict the intralaminar damage initiation and evolution. The numerical analysis is performed using the ABAQUS® programme.

Findings

The employed modeling approach is validated using corresponding numerical data found in the literature and the presented results show a reasonable correlation to the available literature data. It is demonstrated that the current model can be used to capture the force-time response as well as damage parameter maps showing the intralaminar damage evolution for different impact cases with respect to the physical boundary conditions and a range of impact energies.

Originality/value

Low-velocity impact damage of laminated composites is still not well understood due to the complexity and non-linearity of the damage zone. The presented model is used to predict the force-time response which is considered as one of the most important parameters influencing the structural integrity. Furthermore, it is used for capturing the damage shape evolution, exhibiting a high degree of capability as a damage assessment computational tool.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

J. Langus, P. Šuštarič and T. Rodič

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect that polymer coat has on the impact behavior of grinding sphere and to find possible subsection of parameter space in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect that polymer coat has on the impact behavior of grinding sphere and to find possible subsection of parameter space in which grinding sphere wear could be reduced.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical analysis is based on axisymmetric finite elements that were developed using symbolic tool AceGen. Comparing stress response of elastic and visco‐elastic material revealed that for high strain rates observed in impacts both behave the same and that is why elastic elements were used in simulations.

Findings

Impact velocity, coat thickness and polymer material properties were varied in a parametric case study of polymer‐coated sphere impact. Decrease of the pressure on the surface of grinding sphere indicates that polymer layer can be effective in reducing grinding media wear, but in order to maintain adequate impact pressure to do the grinding the impact velocity has to be increased. Both upper and lower limit for impact velocity were determined for some arbitrary pressure threshold values. This shows that combining measured threshold values of specific material with results from presented numerical tool could provide valuable guides for finding optimum stirred media milling operation parameters.

Originality/value

In this work, the authors develop numerical tools with the aim of supporting experimental development of polymer coat capable of reducing grinding media wear.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2019

Jianping Ma, Lianfa Yang, Yulin He and Jian Guo

This paper aims to study frictional characteristics of thin-walled tubes in the liquid impact forming (LIF) process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study frictional characteristics of thin-walled tubes in the liquid impact forming (LIF) process.

Design/methodology/approach

LIF experiments under various impacting velocities were performed on SUS304 stainless steel tubes with various guiding lengths on a custom-designed measurement system to investigate the effects of impacting velocity and guiding length on the coefficient of friction (COF) in the guiding zone.

Findings

The results indicate that the COF changes dynamically in the guiding zone and decreases with the deformation process. The reduction range of the COF is wider in LIF than in both the conventional and pulsating hydroforming (THF), which may be contributed to the impacting velocities in a short time. Moreover, the COF decreases faster in the first half of the LIF process than in the second half. Under different impacting velocities and guiding lengths, the decreasing rate of the COF in the first half is more sensitive and obvious than that in the second half.

Originality/value

A method for determining the COF in the guiding zone in LIF is proposed and the frictional characteristics in LIF are studied. Comparing the COF of tubes in conventional THF, pulsating THF and the LIF process is valuable for improving and predicting the tubular formability in various hydraulic environments for industrial production.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-07-2019-0269

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Bahni Ray, Gautam Biswas, Ashutosh Sharma and Samuel W.J. Welch

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical approach for investigating different phenomena during multiple liquid drop impact on air‐water interface.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical approach for investigating different phenomena during multiple liquid drop impact on air‐water interface.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have used the coupled level‐set and volume‐of‐fluid (CLSVOF) method to explore the different phenomena during multi‐drop impact on liquid‐liquid interface. Complete numerical simulation is performed for two‐dimensional incompressible flow, which is described in axisymmetric coordinates.

Findings

During drop pair impact at very low impact velocities, the process of partial coalescence is observed where the process of pinch off is different than single drop impact. At higher impact velocities, phenomena such as bubble entrapment are observed.

Originality/value

In this paper, a new approach has been developed to simulate consecutive drop impact on a liquid pool.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Rosario Borrelli, Umberto Mercurio and Simona Alguadich

The purpose of this paper is to improve knowledge of the water impact phenomenon from both the experimental and numerical points of view.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve knowledge of the water impact phenomenon from both the experimental and numerical points of view.

Design/methodology/approach

A drop test campaign on water was carried out on semi‐cylindrical steel structures. Therefore, an experimental database for validation purpose was generated. Subsequently, a finite element model was developed in LS‐DYNA in order to reproduce the tests. The behaviour of water was modeled by using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. Numerical simulations were compared to experimental data and the influence of some numerical parameters on the simulations was investigated.

Findings

The FE model was found to be able to reproduce the tests, at least in terms of acceleration peak and distribution of plastic deformation. Acceptable prediction was also found for the pressure peak in soft areas.

Research limitations/implications

In case of low velocity impact, the water model was found to be too rigid and the acceleration peaks were over‐predicted by the simulations. Further investigations are needed to adjust the water model in order to obtain better results also in the case of low velocity impact.

Originality/value

The experimental database could be very useful to the crashworthiness community to validate their numerical models. Moreover, the present paper provides guidelines to modelling the water impact correctly.

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Manar Hamid Jasim, Ali Mohammad Ali Al-Araji, Bashar Dheyaa Hussein Al-Kasob and Mehdi Ranjbar

In the article, analytical model of first-order shear deformation (FSDT) beams made of jute–epoxy is presented to study the low-velocity impact response.

Abstract

Purpose

In the article, analytical model of first-order shear deformation (FSDT) beams made of jute–epoxy is presented to study the low-velocity impact response.

Design/methodology/approach

The nonlinear Hertz contact law is applied to identify the contact between projectile and beam. The energy method, Lagrange's equations and Ritz method are applied to derive the nonlinear governing equation of the beam and impactor-associated boundary condition. The motion equations are then solved simultaneously by the Runge–Kutta fourth-order method.

Findings

Also, a comparison is performed to validate the model predictions. The contact force and beam indentation histories of the jute–epoxy simply supported beam under spherical impactor with different radius and initial velocity are investigated in detail. It is found that in response to impactor radius increase, the utilization of the contact force law has resulted in a same increasing trend of peak contact force, impact duration and beam indentation, while in response to impactor initial velocity increase, the maximum contact force and beam indentation increase while impact time has vice versa trend.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how jute–epoxy beam behavior with simply supported boundary conditions under low-velocity impact can be enabled.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes, S Ramaswami, Vasudeva Avuthu, Chian-Fong Yen and Bryan Cheeseman

Traditionally, an armor-grade composite is based on a two-dimensional (2D) architecture of its fiber reinforcements. However, various experimental investigations have…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, an armor-grade composite is based on a two-dimensional (2D) architecture of its fiber reinforcements. However, various experimental investigations have shown that armor-grade composites based on 2D-reinforcement architectures tend to display inferior through-the-thickness mechanical properties, compromising their ballistic performance. To overcome this problem, armor-grade composites based on three-dimensional (3D) fiber-reinforcement architectures have recently been investigated experimentally. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, continuum-level material models are derived, parameterized and validated for armor-grade composite materials, having four (two 2D and two 3D) prototypical reinforcement architectures based on oriented ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene fibers. To properly and accurately account for the effect of the reinforcement architecture, the appropriate unit cells (within which the constituent materials and their morphologies are represented explicitly) are constructed and subjected to a series of virtual mechanical tests (VMTs). The results obtained are used within a post-processing analysis to derive and parameterize the corresponding homogenized-material models. One of these models (specifically, the one for 0°/90° cross-collimated fiber architecture) was directly validated by comparing its predictions with the experimental counterparts. The other models are validated by examining their physical soundness and details of their predictions. Lastly, the models are integrated as user-material subroutines, and linked with a commercial finite-element package, in order to carry out a transient non-linear dynamics analysis of ballistic transverse impact of armor-grade composite-material panels with different reinforcement architectures.

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed the role the reinforcement architecture plays in the overall ballistic limit of the armor panel, as well as in its structural and damage/failure response.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported attempt to assess, computationally, the utility and effectiveness of 3D fiber-reinforcement architectures for ballistic-impact applications.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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