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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Konstantinos Stamoulis, Stelios K. Georgantzinos and G.I. Giannopoulos

The present study deals with the numerical modeling of the low-velocity impact damage of laminated composites which have increasingly important applications in aerospace…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study deals with the numerical modeling of the low-velocity impact damage of laminated composites which have increasingly important applications in aerospace primary structures. Such damage, generated by various sources during ground handling, substantially reduces the mechanical residual performance and the safe-service life. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a computationally efficient approach in order to explore the effect of critical parameters on the impact damage characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical modeling is considered as one of the most efficient tool as compared to the expensive and time-consuming experimental testing. In this paper, a finite element model based on explicit dynamics formulations is adopted. Hashin criterion is applied to predict the intralaminar damage initiation and evolution. The numerical analysis is performed using the ABAQUS® programme.

Findings

The employed modeling approach is validated using corresponding numerical data found in the literature and the presented results show a reasonable correlation to the available literature data. It is demonstrated that the current model can be used to capture the force-time response as well as damage parameter maps showing the intralaminar damage evolution for different impact cases with respect to the physical boundary conditions and a range of impact energies.

Originality/value

Low-velocity impact damage of laminated composites is still not well understood due to the complexity and non-linearity of the damage zone. The presented model is used to predict the force-time response which is considered as one of the most important parameters influencing the structural integrity. Furthermore, it is used for capturing the damage shape evolution, exhibiting a high degree of capability as a damage assessment computational tool.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Mayyadah S. Abed, Payman S. Ahmed, Jawad K. Oleiwi and Basim M. Fadhil

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a…

Abstract

Purpose

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a comparison of composites 12 and 20 layers of fabrics Kevlar and ultrahigh-molecular-weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE)-reinforced epoxy under low-velocity impacts represented by drop-weight impact and Izod pendulum impact has been done. During the Izod test, Kevlar-based composite showed damage at the composite center and fiber breakages. Whereas delamination was observed for UHMWPE reinforced epoxy (PE). The maximum impact strength was for Kevlar-reinforced epoxy (KE) and increases with the number of laminates. Drop-weight impact test showed the highest absorbed energy for (KE) composites. The results revealed that different behavior during the impact test for composites belongs to the impact mechanism in each test.

Design/methodology/approach

Aramid 1414 Kevlar 49 and UHMWPE woven fabrics were purchased from Yixing Huaheng High-Performance Fiber Textile Co. Ltd, with specifications listed in Table 1. Epoxy resin (Sikafloor-156) is supplied from Sika AG. Sikafloor-156 is a two-part, low-viscosity, solvent-free epoxy resin, with compressive strength ∼95 N/mm², flexural strength ∼30 N/mm² and shore D hardness 83 (seven days). The mixture ratio of A/B was one-third volume ratio. Two types of laminated composites with different layers 12 and 20 were prepared by hand layup: Kevlar–epoxy and UHMWPE–epoxy composites as shown in Figure 1. Mechanical pressure was applied to remove bubbles and excess resin for 24 h. The composites were left in room temperature for seven days, and then composite plates were cut for the desired dimensions. Low-velocity impact testing, drop-weight impact, drop tower impact system INSTRON CEAST 9350 (see Figure 2) was facilitated to investigate impact resistance of composites according to ASTM D7137M (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Low-velocity impact tests have been performed at room temperature for composite with dimensions 10 × 15 cm2 utilizing a drop tower (steel indenter diameter 19.85 mm as shown in Figure 3), height (800 mm), drop mass (5 kg) and speed (3.96 m/s). Special impact equipment consisting of vertically falling impactor was used in the test. The energy is obtained from Drop tower impact systems, (2009) E = ½ mv2 (2.1). The relationship between force–time, deformation–time and energy–time and deformation was obtained. Energy–deformation and force–deformation relationships were also obtained. The depth of penetration and the radius of impactor traces were recorded. Izod pendulum impact test of plastics was applied according to ASTM D256 (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Absorbed energy was recorded to compute the impact strength of the specimen. The specimen before the test is shown in Figure 4.

Findings

In order to investigate two types of impact: drop-weight impact and Izod impact on damage resistance of composites, the two tests were done. Drop-weight impact is dropping a known weight and height in a vertical direction with free fall, absorbed energy can be calculated. Izod impact measures the energy required to break a specimen by striking a specific size bar with a pendulum (Test Method for Compressive, 2005; Test Methods for Determining, 2018). The results obtained with the impact test are presented. Figure 5 shows the histogram bars of impact strength of composites. It can be noticed that Kevlar–epoxy (KE) composites give higher energy strength than UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) in 12 and 20 plies. The increasing percentage is about 18.5 and 5.7%. It can be observed in Figure 6 that samples are not destructed completely due to fiber continuity. Also, the delamination occurs obviously for UHMWPE–epoxy more than for Kevlar-based composite, which may due to weak binding between UHMWPE with an epoxy relative with Kevlar.

Practical implications

The force–time curves for Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites with 12 and 20 plies are illustrated respectively in Figure 7. The contact duration between indenter and composite surface is repented by the force–time curves, so the maximum force reaches with certain displacement. It can be seen that maximum force was (13,209, 18,734.9, 23,271.07 and 19,825.38 N) at the time (3.97, 4.43, 3.791 and 4.198 ms) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. The sharp peaks of KE composite are due to the lower ductility of Kevlar compared with UHMWPE. These results agree with the results of Ahmed et al. (2016). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed lower impact force and crack propagates in the matrix with fast fiber breakage compared with PE composites, whereas the latter did not suffer from fabric breakage in 12 and 20 plies any more (see Figure 8). Figure 9 illustrates force–deformation curves, for 12 and 20 plies of Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites. Curve's slop is considered the specimen's stiffness and the maximum displacement. To investigate the impact behavior of the four different composites, the comparison was made among the relative force–deformation curves. The maximum displacement was 5.119, 3.443, 1.173 and 1.17 mm for 12KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. It seems that UHMWPE-based composite (PE) presents lower deformation than Kevlar-based composites (KE) at a same number of laminates, although the maximum displacement is for 12 PE and 12 KE (see Figure 8). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed more damage than UHMWPE-based composite (PE), so the maximum displacement is always higher for KE specimens with maximum indenter trace diameter (D∼11.27 mm). The onset of cracks begins along fibers on the impacted side for 20 KE and 20 PE specimens with lower indenter trace (D∼5.42 and 5.96 mm), respectively (see Table 2). These results refer to the lower stiffness of KE composites (see the slope of the curve) relative to PE composites. This result agreed with (Vieille et al., 2013) when they found that the theoretical stiffness of laminated composite during drop-weight impact depends significantly on fiber nature (Fadhil, 2013). The matrix cracking is the first type of damage that may not change stiffness of composites overall. Material stiffness changes due to the stress concentration represented by matrix cracks, delamination and fiber breakage (Hancox, 2000). Briefly, the histogram (see Figure 10) showed that the best impact behavior was for 20 KE, highest impact force with lower deformation, indenter trace diameter and contact time. Absorbed energy–time and absorbed energy–deformation curves for composites are shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The maximum absorbed energy was (36.313, 29.952, 9.783 and 6.928 J) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. Test period time is only 8 ms, but the time in which composites reached maximum absorbed energy was (4.413, 3.636, 2.394 and 2.408 ms). The maximum absorbed energy was for 12 KE with lower rebound energy because part of kinetic energy transferred to potential energy kept in the composite as material damage (see Figures 3 and 4). This composite absorbs more energy as material damage which kept as potential energy. Whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 PE and 20 KE showed less damage, lower absorbed energy and higher rebound energy, which appeared in different peak behavior as the negative value of energy. Also from the absorbed energy–time curves, it had been noticed significantly the maximum contact time of indenter with composite was 4.413 ms for 12 KE, which exhibits higher deformation (5.119 mm), whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE showed less damage, contact time and deformation as (3.443, 1.173, 1.17 mm), respectively.

Originality/value

The main goal of the current study is to evaluate the performances of armor composite made off of Kevlar and UHMWPE fabrics reinforced epoxy thermosetting resin under the low-velocity impact. Several plates of composites were prepared by hand layup. Izod and drop-weight impact tests were facilitated to get an indication about the absorbed energy and strength of the armors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Patryk Adam Jakubczak and Jaroslaw Bienias

The purpose of this paper was to compare the response of selected hybrid Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) in the form of glass and carbon fibre aluminium laminates to dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to compare the response of selected hybrid Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) in the form of glass and carbon fibre aluminium laminates to dynamic and static loads compared together.

Design/methodology/approach

The subject of examination was FMLs (Al/CFRP and Al/GFRP). The samples were subjected to low-velocity impact and quasi-static indentation. The response of laminates to the both types of loads was evaluated by comparison of force – displacement diagrams including the values of maximum forces as well as the extent and nature of structure degradation as a result of loads.

Findings

In case of Al/GFRP laminates, the analysis of characteristic relations, i.e. force – displacement and the impactor influence area in case of indentation and impact confirmed that certain parameters, i.e. the values of maximum force transferred by laminate, destruction surface area and destruction mechanisms are consistent after static and dynamic tests. Significant differences were found in destruction scale in Al/GFRP laminates despite considerable fitting of force – displacement diagrams to static and dynamic tests. Destruction surface area observed in FML carbon laminates subjected to dynamic loads was significantly smaller than after indentation but perforation area occurring at the unloaded side was much more extensive.

Practical implications

Research issues in the scope of dynamic loads by means of concentrated force in composite materials and interpretation of the effects of their impacts are extremely complex. Therefore, the attempts are made to predict the resistance to dynamic loads by means of concentrated force using statistical research methods. The test results might be useful for the design and simulations of FMLs applications in aerospace.

Originality/value

From the analysis of available literature, it appears that there are no studies exploring the issue of forecasting or comparison the effects of static and dynamic tests for hybrid FMLs. The new hybrid materials like FMLs have different mechanisms of damage initiation and propagation as a result of impact, in comparison to classic composite materials. It means that possibilities of using the static loads to predict impact resistance should be known well for all type of FMLs. Actually, there is no research about static indentation in relation to low-velocity impact of aluminium-carbon laminates. This situation encouraged the authors of the present study to undertake research in this scope. The results can demonstrate and explain why prediction of impact resistance of FMLs by using static indentation is uncertain and not always valuable.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

M.G. Cottrell, J. Yu, Z.J. Wei and D.R.J. Owen

In recent years, developments in the field of lightweight armour have been of primary importance to the defence industry. This necessity has led to many organisations…

Abstract

In recent years, developments in the field of lightweight armour have been of primary importance to the defence industry. This necessity has led to many organisations adopting composite armours comprising both the traditional heavy armours and new lighter weight ceramic armours. The numerical modelling of metal based armour systems has been well documented over the years using purely continuum based methods; and also the modelling of brittle systems using discrete element methods, therefore it is the objective of this paper to demonstrate how a coupled finite and discrete element approach, can be used in the further understanding of the quantitative response of ceramic systems when subjected to dynamic loadings using a combination of adaptive continuum techniques and discrete element methods. For the class of problems encountered within the defence industry, numerical modelling has suffered from one principal weakness; for many applications the associated deformed finite element mesh can no longer provide an accurate description of the deformed material, whether this is due to large ductile deformation, or for the case of brittle materials, degradation into multiple bodies. Subsequently, two very different approaches have been developed to combat such deficiencies, namely the use of adaptive remeshing for the ductile type materials and a discrete fracture insertion scheme for the modelling of material degradation. Therefore, one of the primary objectives of this paper is to present examples demonstrating the potential benefits of explicitly coupling adaptive remeshing methods to the technique of discrete fracture insertion in order to provide an adaptive discontinuous solution strategy, which is computationally robust and efficient.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2021

Sathiyamoorthy Margabandu and Senthil Kumar Subramaniam

The study aims to investigate the influence of fabric hybridization, stacking sequences and matrix materials on the tensile strength and damping behavior of jute/carbon…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the influence of fabric hybridization, stacking sequences and matrix materials on the tensile strength and damping behavior of jute/carbon reinforced hybrid composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid composites were fabricated with different sequences of fabric plies in epoxy and polyester matrix using a hand layup technique. The tensile and vibration characteristics were evaluated on the hybrid laminated composite models using finite element analysis (FEA), and the results were validated experimentally according to ASTM standards. The surface morphology of the fractured specimens was studied using the scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the position of jute layers in the hybrid composites has a significant influence on the tensile strength and damping behavior. The hybrid composite with jute fiber at the surface sides and carbon fibers at the middle exhibited higher tensile strength with superior damping properties. Further, it is found that the experimental results are in good coherence with the FEA results.

Originality/value

The less weight and low-cost hybrid composites were fabricated by incorporating the jute and carbon fabrics in interply configurations. The influences of fabric hybridization, stacking arrangements and matrix materials on the tensile and vibration behavior of jute/carbon hybrid composites have been numerically evaluated and the results were experimentally validated.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2012

Guangmin Luo

FRP laminated structures enjoy the advantages of a low mass and high specific strength. However, the utilization of laminated forming methods causes these structures to…

Abstract

FRP laminated structures enjoy the advantages of a low mass and high specific strength. However, the utilization of laminated forming methods causes these structures to become susceptible to phenomena such as delamination and fiber breakage, which lead to strength deficiencies, when they sustain low-velocity impact. In light of this, increasing the low-velocity impact strength of FRP laminated structures has been a major direction. This study utilizes Constrained Layered Damping (CLD) to enhance the low-velocity impact strength of FRP laminated structures, and assesses the efficiency of attaching CLD to laminated materials in increasing low-velocity impact strength. The results provide a reference for the design and construction of relevant structures in the future. Low-velocity impact failure in FRP laminated structures commonly includes fiber breakage and delamination. Delamination is particularly apparent when laminated curved shells bear external loading. We will attach CLD to the rear of FRP laminated structures to appropriately absorb impact energy, increasing the low-velocity impact strength of the structures. Results showed that the existence of CLD effectively delayed the occurrence of delamination, increasing the post-failure strength of laminated structures and alleviating structural failure. Finally, the energy perspective is used to assess the efficiency of increasing the low-velocity impact strength of FRP structures after attaching CLD.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2012

Yishi Su and Xiaolu Gong

Dynamic response of open-cell metal foam under low-velocity impact loading is important in applications involving impact resistance and energy absorption, etc. Assuming…

Abstract

Dynamic response of open-cell metal foam under low-velocity impact loading is important in applications involving impact resistance and energy absorption, etc. Assuming that metal foam is a conceptually continuous material, the macroscopic mechanical behaviors, both static and dynamic, must be studied. Within the dynamic mechanical properties of metal foam, impact response becomes the renewed interest to understand the characteristics of impact deformation. The present work aims to experimentally and numerically analyze the low-velocity impact response of open-cell metal foam. A series of low-velocity drop impact tests are realized on the open-cell metal foam samples with different relative densities and at different impact velocity. Afterwards, a well compiled program in Python controls the whole multiple drop impact process on each sample of metal foam. Corresponding numerical modeling and the simulation for single impact analysis are continuously carried out with the finite element (FE) program ABAQUS/Explicit. Proper meshing technique, loading and boundary conditions are conducted on all the foam models, and at the same time, the required mechanical properties: elastic module, Poisson's ratio, uniaxial stress-strain response and strain-rate dependence are utilized. In conclusion, the simulated results provide the good agreements with the experimental results in the case of low-velocity impact testing of open-cell metal foam. Experimental procedure and numerical simulation offer good approaches to improve the impact resistance and energy absorption of the open-cell metal foam.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Mondher Wali, Moez Abdennadher, Tahar Fakhfakh and Mohamed Haddar

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the dynamic behaviour of an elasto‐plastic sandwich subjected to low velocity impact.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the dynamic behaviour of an elasto‐plastic sandwich subjected to low velocity impact.

Design/methodology/approach

A numerical model is developed with the assumption that the plastic deformation is confined under the contact area. The structure is analyzed using the in‐house finite element code with an appropriate contact law. During the impact progression, two phases (elastic and plastic) related to the impact intensity are considered in the dynamic model. The proportional viscous damping is incorporated in the model. An elasto‐plastic impact algorithm is established to determine the impact force, the sandwich structure displacement and indentation.

Findings

The numerical results are validated by experimental dropping weight impact tests. The influences of the impactor radius, the core material variation and the impactor initial velocity on the dynamic behaviour of the impacted structure are studied.

Originality/value

In order to study the low velocity impact problems by considering the caused plastic deformations, a simple numerical elasto‐plastic impact model of sandwich structure is proposed.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Ali Sadik Gafer Qanber, Raed Salman Saeed Alhusseini, Bashar Dheyaa Hussein Al-Kasob, Manar Hamid Jasim and Mehdi Ranjbar

The main objective of this article is to develop a theoretical formulation for predicting the response of CNTs reinforced beam under multiple impactors with general…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this article is to develop a theoretical formulation for predicting the response of CNTs reinforced beam under multiple impactors with general boundary conditions, using first-order shear deformation beam theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The rule of mixtures is implemented to derive the material properties of the beam. The nonlinear Hertz contact law is applied for simulation between impactors and the surface of the beam. A combination of approaches includes energy method, Ritz method and generalized Lagrange equations are used to extract the matrix form of equations of motion. The time-domain solution is obtained using implementing the well-known Runge Kutta 4th order method.

Findings

After examining the accuracy of the present method, the effects of the number of impactors include one impactor, and three impactors in various CNTs volume fraction are studied for CNTs reinforced beam with clamped-clamped, clamped-free and simply supported boundary conditions under the low-velocity impact. The most important finding of this article is that contact force and beam indentation at the middle of the beam in the case of one impactor are greater than those reported in the case of three impactors.

Originality/value

This article fulfills an identified need to study how CNTs reinforced beam behaviour with general boundary conditions under multiple low-velocity impacts can be enabled.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Raed Salman Saeed Alhusseini, Ali Sadik Gafer Qanber, Bashar Dheyaa Hussein Al-Kasob, Manar Hamid Jasim and Mehdi Ranjbar

This paper aims to present the potential of using aligned single-layer graphene sheets to reinforce the methyl methacrylate cantilever beam in low-velocity impact problem.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the potential of using aligned single-layer graphene sheets to reinforce the methyl methacrylate cantilever beam in low-velocity impact problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The Halpin–Tsai law is applied to compute the mechanical properties of isotropic polymer beam reinforced by aligned graphene sheet. Using both longitudinal and lateral displacements in composite beam, all components of the stress and strain fields are written. The equations of motion are derived by applying energy method, generalized Lagrange equations and Ritz method.

Findings

The analytical formulation accuracy is corroborated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. Numerical examples indicate that the contact duration is decreased with increasing of graphene volume fraction, whereas the values of peak contact force, shear strain and shear stress at peak contact force tend to be vice versa. Also, among the results, shear stress at the peak contact force has the most effect with graphene volume fraction changes.

Originality/value

This research fulfils an identified need to investigate how graphene-reinforced beam behavior subjected to low-velocity impact can be enabled.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

1 – 10 of 352