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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Zahra Bazrafshan, Maryam Ataeefard and Farahnaz Nourmohammadian

This paper aims to report on production of the colour digital printing toners cyan, magenta and yellow. Colour digital electrophotographic printing is currently in high…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on production of the colour digital printing toners cyan, magenta and yellow. Colour digital electrophotographic printing is currently in high demand. The provision of a large colour gamut depends on appropriate selection of precise colourants to produce toner capable of producing a thin layer on paper.

Design/methodology/approach

Printing toners were synthesised by the emulsion aggregation method, and then evaluated for chemical constitution and effects of the colourant substituents.

Findings

Results demonstrated that increasing the polarity of a pigment produced better dispersion and lower particle size with narrower distribution and even better colour reproduction. While, changing a pigment’s characteristics did not affect the toner shape or its thermal properties.

Practical implications

The developed method provides a simple way to synthesise colour printing toner.

Social implications

Emulsion aggregation toners provide less hazardous materials during printing.

Originality/value

Evaluations of the influence of solid-state parameters and physicochemical properties of the pigments on printing toner characteristics were done for the first time.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Toru Takahashi, Tomoko Saiki, Jae‐Ho Shin, Noritomo Ouchi, Chihiro Watanabe and Yuji Tou

A virtuous cycle between effective utilization of external resources and functionality development can be constructed. Given that the timely emergence of new functionality…

Abstract

Purpose

A virtuous cycle between effective utilization of external resources and functionality development can be constructed. Given that the timely emergence of new functionality in an efficient way is crucial to a firm's competitive strategy in an era of mega‐competition, construction of such a virtuous cycle is a key element with regard to a firm's technopreneurial strategy. The purpose of this paper is to identify a trigger for such a virtuous cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical comparative analysis taking copying machines development trajectories in Canon and Ricoh and the patent data analysis were conducted.

Findings

Cumulative learning from preceding relevant technology development is found to stimulate intra‐technology spillover. Timely intra‐technology spillover from preceding innovation plays a triggering role.

Practical implications

Attempting a broad and comprehensive learning exercise should be strongly encouraged for the effective utilization of external resources for innovation. Fruitful effects of learning should be pursued to the hybrid management of technology fusing indigenous strength and the effects of the comprehensive learning.

Originality/value

Aiming at identifying the trigger emerging a virtuous cycle between effective utilization of external resources and functionality development, core technologies instilled in the copying machines just short of the emergence of functionality development were investigated. In order to anticipate thorough capturing of all dimensions of color technologies utilized for the emergence of new functionality development through indigenous development as well as utilization of externally developed technologies, F‐term retrieval of patent registration data was attempted.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Jiangping Yuan, Ming Zhu, Baohui Xu and Guangxue Chen

The purpose of this paper is provide a broad view for the standardization efforts of color quality evaluation of color 3D printing techniques. Further, this review paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is provide a broad view for the standardization efforts of color quality evaluation of color 3D printing techniques. Further, this review paper demonstrates the processes and color properties of most color 3D printing techniques with specific devices and applications to extend the range of possible memberships of standardization group.

Design/methodology/approach

Six color 3D printing techniques including plastic-based, paper-based, powder-based, organism-based, food-based and metal-based color 3D printing have been introduced and illustrated with colorization principles and forming features in detail. Moreover, for printed 3D color objects, literature about color measurement, color specification and color reproduction are described and analyzed, respectively.

Findings

Four color 3D printing techniques including plastic-based, paper-based, powder-based and food-based color 3D printing show great affinity toward standardization of color quality evaluation, while their colorization principles indicate that it is difficult with a single standard frame. It is possible to develop a completed color quality evaluation standard for color 3D printing based on approaches in color 2D printing when color measurement method and devices are standardized together.

Originality/value

The paper provides an important guide focusing on the efforts to standardize the colorization processes and color quality evaluation of the color 3D printing techniques.

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Maja Stanic, Branka Lozo and Diana Gregor Svetec

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and discuss colour properties, stability and lightfastness after accelerated exposure in xenon‐arc light apparatus, of 3D ink jet…

1225

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and discuss colour properties, stability and lightfastness after accelerated exposure in xenon‐arc light apparatus, of 3D ink jet prints produced by using 3D colour printing process.

Design/methodology/approach

3D colour prints were produced using ZCorporation 3D printing method. The samples were divided into groups according to the finishing process applied (untreated, finished with different infiltrants). Colorimetric properties were measured using spectrophotometer. Samples were placed into xenon‐arc based weathering apparatus (Xenotest), using the preset glass filtered sunlight, standard indoor conditions. Colour stability was evaluated as change in colour after repeating the spectrophotometer measurements and comparing spectral and specific colorimetric values of initial and exposed samples.

Findings

Based on methodology used, the analysis has shown the changes in colour appearance of differently finished 3D prints, which were mostly attributed to chroma and lightness variations. The colour stability of samples studied noticeably varied and is dependent on colour, percentage of ink coverage and finishing method. Issues of colour and stability of 3D ink jet prints could become important as 3D printing emerges into new application areas, in which the object properties will need to be maintained for a certain amount of time.

Research limitations/implications

The research is comparative and is limited to the specific materials and procedures used.

Originality/value

The paper describes aspects of colour 3D printing for which the published research and literature data are still, for the most part, lacking. Colour measurements methodology and evaluation of stability described could be of value for further research and for users of the technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Colour technology and Colour

593

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Jiangping Yuan, Zhaohui Yu, Guangxue Chen, Ming Zhu and Yanfei Gao

The purpose of this paper is to study a feasible visualization of large-size three-dimension (3D) color models which are beyond the maximum print size of newest…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study a feasible visualization of large-size three-dimension (3D) color models which are beyond the maximum print size of newest paper-based 3D printer used 3D cutting-bonding frame (3D-CBF) and evaluate the effects of cutting angle and layout method on printing time of designed models.

Design/methodology/approach

Sixteen models, including cuboid model, cylinder model, hole model and sphere model with different shape features, were divided into two symmetric parts and printed by the Mcor IRIS HD 3D printer. Before printing, two sub-parts were rearranged in one of three layout methods. Nine scaled sizes of original models were printed to find the quantitative relationship between printing time and scale values in each type. For the 0.3 times of original models, six cutting angles were evaluated in detail.

Findings

The correlation function about colorization time and printed pages was proposed. Based on 3D-CBF, the correlation between printing time and scale size is statistically defined. Optimization parameters of designed parts visualization about cutting angel and layout method were found, even if their statistical results were difficult to model their effects on printing time of specimens.

Research limitations/implications

The research is comparative and limited to the special models and used procedures.

Originality/value

The paper provides a feasible visualization and printing speed optimization methods for the further industrialization of 3D paper-based printing technology in cultural creative field.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Fatemeh Andami, Maryam Ataeefard, Farhood Najafi and Mohammad Reza Saeb

Printing toners are polymer composites accountable for transmission of digital images onto target substrates. Bearing in mind the ever increasing demand for high quality…

Abstract

Purpose

Printing toners are polymer composites accountable for transmission of digital images onto target substrates. Bearing in mind the ever increasing demand for high quality digital printing, modification and/or integration of existing techniques for manufacturing toners with favourable morphological and colour characteristics appears of vital importance. The present study aims to uncover the significance of in-situ polymerisation method, i.e. suspension, emulsion and mini-emulsion to control the microstructure of toner particles (particle size, particle size distribution and sphereness) while keeping the energy required for polymerisation along with reaction conversion at a reasonable level.

Design/methodology/approach

Assessment of particle size, particle size distribution and reaction conversion visualised the potential of suspension, emulsion and mini-emulsion polymerisation techniques to control microstructure, and colour characteristics of synthesized toners as well.

Findings

The results provided support for the fact that either the emulsion or mini-emulsion polymerisation routes will result in toners having an acceptable particle size and particle size distribution in the presence of a redox precursor. The higher monomer conversion at low temperature, as compared to the suspension polymerisation, was noticeable.

Practical implications

Analysing the glass transition temperature and colour characteristics of the resulting toners elucidated the superiority of mini-emulsion with respect to the other two cases which ranks this method on account of application.

Originality/value

For the first time, mini-emulsion route was put into practice and toners with acceptable colour and microstructure features were synthesised. In spite of lower polymerisation temperature and higher conversion of mini-emulsion compared to suspension and emulsion polymerisation techniques, further investigations are required to fine-tuning the properties of toners produced through this method.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

Noritomo Ouchi, Toru Takahashi, Tomoko Saiki, Chihiro Watanabe* and Yuji Tou

Purpose: Sustainable functionality development (FD) is decisive to firm's profitability in their new innovation in a competitive market. While functionality instills…

Abstract

Purpose: Sustainable functionality development (FD) is decisive to firm's profitability in their new innovation in a competitive market. While functionality instills attractive values in innovative goods leading to a dramatic increase in profit through increasing demand and higher prices, it obsolesces immediately in a competitive market. Therefore, how to maintain sustainable FD trajectory is decisive to firm survival strategy within the context of mega‐competition in a globalizing economy. Notwithstanding an increasing significance of this subject, dynamism enabling a sustainable FD trajectory still remains inside a black box. The purpose of this paper, on the basis of an empirical comparative analysis of the diffusion trajectories for copying machines developed by Canon and Ricoh, is to attempt to elucidate this dynamism. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employed a bi‐logistic growth model utilizing patent data for copying machine technologies. Findings: It was found that early undertaking of 2nd generational copying machinery initiated by Canon played a more decisive role in terms of its higher level of sustainable FD than with its competitor. Originality/value: This paper provides significant insight to firm's management of technology strategy in a competitive market.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1982

J.V. Harding

Coloration costs as a percentage of a product's total manufacturing price have, in general, risen ten times faster than all other raw material costs in the last five…

Abstract

Coloration costs as a percentage of a product's total manufacturing price have, in general, risen ten times faster than all other raw material costs in the last five years. The ever increasing need for the most cost‐effective use of pigments in colouring, coupled with the need to reduce machine down‐time while colour matching is taking place, has resulted in the rapid development of computer based technology to assist the colourist in his work.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Maryam Ataeefard

This paper aims to investigate the effect of paper properties (whiteness, gloss and roughness) on colour laser printing quality. Paper characteristics have a significant…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of paper properties (whiteness, gloss and roughness) on colour laser printing quality. Paper characteristics have a significant influence on print quality and are crucial variables for predicting and reproducing colour.

Design/methodology/approach

Six kinds of paper with different properties were selected and the effects of the paper characteristics on the printed paper were studied. Samples were printed with cyan, magenta and yellow toner with a laser printer under identical conditions. The papers and printed papers were evaluated with atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, gloss-meter, spectrophotometer and densitometer.

Findings

Results showed that print quality is statistically dependent on paper type, and the average optical density of printed paper varied for different papers. Furthermore, the increase in the roughness and gloss of the papers in comparison to whiteness more significantly affected the optical density of paper by reducing it.

Practical implications

To achieve high-quality print, laser printing paper and toner require controlled characteristics.

Originality/value

For the first time, the present study evaluated the influence of paper properties on the quality of colour laser printing.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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