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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Anthony Ayakwah, Ellis L.C. Osabutey and Isaac Sakyi Damoah

A few decades ago, most research works on internationalisation were aligned to studies in developed economies. In recent times, business entrepreneurs in developing and…

Abstract

A few decades ago, most research works on internationalisation were aligned to studies in developed economies. In recent times, business entrepreneurs in developing and emerging economies have shown their potential to permeate international markets. The current capability of business entrepreneurs in developing and emerging economies, which drives their ability to overcome the numerous barriers to internationalisation, particularly within clusters, requires a critical examination. As a result, the study situates the discussion on internationalisation within the theory of agglomeration in developing and emerging economies and argues that the gains enjoyed by business entrepreneurs from operating in close proximity in clusters are critical for overcoming the barriers of internationalisation. This research adopts a systematic review of secondary data to tease out the unique attributes of clusters in developing and emerging economies, which supports the internationalisation drive. The findings show that most emerging economy clusters are engaged in exports but there is minimal work on international entrepreneurs operating within clusters. The unique features that drive exporting clusters are the presence of multinational companies, public agencies and collaborative relationships. These unique features have the capacity to minimise the constraints to internationalisation and determine the export performance of businesses in the cluster.

Details

International Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Nature, Drivers, Barriers and Determinants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-564-1

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Dinesh Rawat

The purpose of this paper is to find out the different types of business networks formed by firms with the stakeholders present in a cluster, i.e. how firms in a cluster

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the different types of business networks formed by firms with the stakeholders present in a cluster, i.e. how firms in a cluster interact with the cluster stakeholders?

Design/methodology/approach

To answer the research question, this study uses an exploratory research design, which is carried out in two stages, Stage 1 involves use of primary data, which was collected through semi-structured personal face-to-face interview mode and Stage 2 involves survey research method where data was collected through a survey questionnaire. Data for interviews and questionnaires were collected from managers and owners of firms operating in the cluster at their offices.

Findings

The study has identified four types of business networks between a firm and its buyers, only one type of business network with the suppliers and educational institutes, finally two types of business networks with government agencies and local associations. However, with respect to network with other stakeholders such as research institutes and competitors, the study shows that the interaction between a firm and these stakeholders is not strong i.e. the linkages between them remain largely unfilled.

Research limitations/implications

The study has been limited to only one cluster thus it might not be appropriate to generalise the findings. Further research in this area needs to be done by taking other clusters to generalise the findings.

Originality/value

The study has tried to answer the research gap of lack of literature on types of business networks formed by firms with the stakeholders present in an industrial cluster, and thus, contributed to the existing literature of business networks. The identified business networks provide a much deeper understanding of how firms connect with its buyers, its suppliers, government agencies and educational institutes operating in an auto-component cluster.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2018

Anthony Ayakwah, Leandro Sepulveda and Fergus Lyon

An efficient policy supporting clustered business operations necessitates an appreciation of the dynamics of rivalry and collaborations among businesses. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

An efficient policy supporting clustered business operations necessitates an appreciation of the dynamics of rivalry and collaborations among businesses. This paper postulates that variation in competition and cooperation can significantly influence the nature of business relationships among clustered businesses, which is essential for cluster policy particularly (Newlands, 2003) as most research on rivalry and cooperation in clusters have been in developed economies. The purpose of this paper is to seek to fill the gap in the literature in African clusters based on original empirical research.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a mixed-method research design allowing for data triangulation to study two food processing clusters. The approach comprises a survey and in-depth interview with key actors along the supply chain.

Findings

The findings show that business clusters with more formal business structures tend to have minimal horizontal competition but higher vertical cooperation. Comparatively, clusters with more socially embedded milieu tend to have higher levels of cooperation and minimal competition in both vertical and horizontal relationships. The research also shows that such variations in inter-business relationships have an effect on cluster operations in terms of business access to finance, formal contract, sharing of innovation and the way they relate to different stakeholders in their supply chain.

Originality/value

This paper advances a critical case for international business theory on clusters in Africa to incorporate the distinctive business relationships in small and medium enterprises (SME) clusters. It also demonstrates how unique location-specific attributes of developing economies hold the key to sustaining the operations of SME-based clusters.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Awele Achi and Francis Chukwuedo Achi

Recently, there is an increasing academic and practitioner interest on the Igbo ethnic group, their business activities and how they have utilised industrial clusters to…

Abstract

Recently, there is an increasing academic and practitioner interest on the Igbo ethnic group, their business activities and how they have utilised industrial clusters to drive local industrial development in the southeast region of Nigeria and the country at large. However, there are relatively few studies that have explored the mechanisms driving this development. Our chapter focuses on explicating the Igbo business industrial clusters and its inherent locally generated venture capital approach built on the Igbo traditional culture and philosophy. We draw on previous literature to show the three phases: assessing competency, providing the start-up capital and continuous replication process involved in creating and sustaining the locally generated venture capital approach as operated by Igbo business industrial clusters. We contend that overall, this approach has the potential to drive modern business and industrial policies for driving entrepreneurial start-ups, innovation, and economic sustainability. We conclude our chapter by highlighting the implications for Africa, African business practices and areas for future studies.

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Gazi Mahabubul Alam and Samsilah Roslan

Education system supplies the required manpower in order to ensure the national prosperity. A salient link between education and business sector is a prerequisite to cater…

Abstract

Purpose

Education system supplies the required manpower in order to ensure the national prosperity. A salient link between education and business sector is a prerequisite to cater economically productive manpower. Economic and social development supplements each other that can only be ensured via a functional education system. A dysfunction education system created by a biased clustering policy develops a greater horizontal and vertical mismatch with the job market in many developing nations. This mismatch dents the quality of business management that halts the national prosperity. Therefore, the role of education has become questionable. This research aims to bridge between education and business sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the differentiated nature of research questions, multiple techniques are used to collect the data. However, this research bears the norms of qualitative method. Both secondary and primary data are used. While, secondary data are collected by the banks, Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) and by the University Grants Commission (UGC), primary data are collected through interviews. Document review and data collected through personal communication with members of staff of sampled banks and institutes of HE also supplements. Data were collected from six commercial banks and from the Central Bank.

Findings

Findings suggest that clustering system favours science graduates by depriving business counterpart, which creates an atmosphere of educational disparity. This disparity affects the symbiotic and reciprocal relationship that exists amongst different provisions (i.e. secondaryand tertiary) of education. Favoured clustering system further contributes for a larger “horizontal educational mismatch” with job market. Therefore, science graduates occupy the places in the banks where business graduates should ideally be employed. Being a dysfunction system, education fails to support substantially for social and economic developments.

Originality/value

A few studies are conducted in the area of HE in Bangladesh but none covers the issue of impact of clustering system of education in secondary provision on HE and job market. Graduates' performance in carrying out the jobs is seen as the most important element for the business management. This study has suggested a unique way forward which would be able to reduce the mismatch between education system and job market, enabling a substantial business management process. Considering this, the paper is first on its kind.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

Donald F. Heany and Gerald Weiss

U.S. corporations have been paying attention to strategic planning at the line‐of‐business level. However, something more is needed. According to the authors, strategic…

Abstract

U.S. corporations have been paying attention to strategic planning at the line‐of‐business level. However, something more is needed. According to the authors, strategic planning for clusters of businesses is the missing and vital ingredient for success in the future.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Alberto Paucar‐Caceres

The purpose of the paper is to determine possible grouping of similar MBA programmes offered by 45 British and French business schools accredited by the Association of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to determine possible grouping of similar MBA programmes offered by 45 British and French business schools accredited by the Association of Master Business Administration (AMBA) as of January 2006.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the statistical co‐plot method reported in a similar study of leading full time MBA programmes in the USA. The method is used to map/group the schools according to both core and elective units offered by the business schools.

Findings

The paper outlines the features of the six groups of MBA programmes found (Cluster 1: Manchester and Bath; Cluster 2: Warwick, Lancaster and London; Cluster 3: five top French business schools and Cranfield; Cluster 4: two French schools – Grenoble and Audiencia‐Nantes; Cluster 5: two French schools – ENPC‐EAP and IEP; Cluster 6: the remaining UK MBA programmes). The differentiating characteristics of core and option units offered by business schools in each cluster are described and discussed.

Originality/value

The study makes a contribution under the application area of international business education (specifically the design of MBA programmes), as well as in the area of statistical analysis by using co‐plot cluster analysis, an approach not used before when comparing UK and French Business schools to explore aspects of curriculum design.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Steven R. Gordon and Judith R. Gordon

The organization of companies’ information technology (IT) functions has been studied and described in three ways: on a centralization‐decentralization continuum, on the…

Abstract

The organization of companies’ information technology (IT) functions has been studied and described in three ways: on a centralization‐decentralization continuum, on the basis of technological architecture, and, for multinational companies, as reflective of their strategic focus. This research proposes a classification of organizational structures based on the tension between business units and IT departments in the delivery of IT services. Using a cluster analysis on a sample of 40 companies having corporate offices in the USA or The Netherlands, it identifies four basic structures or patterns that describe the similarities and differences in the way IT services are handled. The paper then describes the implications of these structures for companies that are considering the redesign or restructure of their information technology function.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Paolo Tasca, Adam Hayes and Shaowen Liu

This paper aims to gather together the minimum units of users’ identity in the Bitcoin network (i.e. the individual Bitcoin addresses) and group them into representations…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to gather together the minimum units of users’ identity in the Bitcoin network (i.e. the individual Bitcoin addresses) and group them into representations of business entities, what we call “super clusters”. While these clusters can remain largely anonymous, the authors are able to ascribe many of them to particular business categories by analyzing some of their specific transaction patterns (TPs), as observed during the period from 2009 to 2015. The authors are then able to extract and create a map of the network of payment relationships among them, and analyze transaction behavior found in each business category. They conclude by identifying three marked regimes that have evolved as the Bitcoin economy has grown and matured: from an early prototype stage; to a second growth stage populated in large part with “sin” enterprise (i.e. gambling, black markets); to a third stage marked by a sharp progression away from “sin” and toward legitimate enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

Data mining.

Findings

Four primary business categories are identified in the Bitcoin economy: miners, gambling services, black markets and exchanges. Common patterns of transaction behavior between the business categories and their users are a “one-day” holding period for bitcoin transactions is somewhat typical. That is, a one-day effect where traders, gamblers, black market participants and miners tend to cash out on a daily basis. There seems to be a strong preference to do business within the bitcoin economy in round lot amounts, whether it is more typical of traders exchanging for fiat money, gamblers placing bets or black market goods being bought and sold. Distinct patterns of transaction behavior among the business categories and their users are flows between traders and exchanges average just around 20 BTC, and traders buy or sell on average every 11 days. Meanwhile, gamblers wager just 0.5 BTC on average, but re-bet often within the same day. Three marked regimes have evolved, as the Bitcoin economy has grown and matured: from an early prototype stage, to a second growth stage populated in large part with “sin” enterprises (i.e. gambling, black markets), to a third stage marked by a sharp progression away from “sin” and toward legitimate enterprises. This evolution of the Bitcoin economy suggests a trend toward legitimate commerce.

Originality/value

The authors propose a new theoretical framework that allows investigating and exploring the network of payment relationships in the Bitcoin economy. This study starts by gathering together the minimum units of Bitcoin identities (the individual addresses), and it goes forward in grouping them into approximations of business entities, what is called “super clusters”, by using tested techniques from the literature. A super cluster can be thought of as an approximation of a business entity in that it describes a number of individual addresses that are owned or controlled collectively by the same beneficial owner for some special economic purposes. The majority of these important clusters are initially unknown and uncategorized. The novelty of this study is given by the pure user group and the TP analyses, by means of which the authors are able to ascribe the super clusters into specific business categories and outline a map of the network of payment relationships among them.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Georgiana Ciobotaru and Stanislav Chankov

The paper aims to develop (1) a comprehensive framework for classifying crowdshipping business models and (2) a taxonomy of currently implemented crowdshipping business models.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to develop (1) a comprehensive framework for classifying crowdshipping business models and (2) a taxonomy of currently implemented crowdshipping business models.

Design/methodology/approach

The business models of 105 companies offering crowdsourced delivery services are analysed. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis are applied to develop a business model taxonomy.

Findings

A detailed crowdsourced delivery business model framework with 74 features is developed. Based on it, six distinct clusters of crowdshipping business models are identified. One cluster stands out as the most appealing to customers based on social media metrics, indicating which type of crowdshipping business models is the most successful.

Research limitations/implications

Detailed investigations of each of the six clusters and of recent crowdshipping business model developments are needed in further research in order to enhance the derived taxonomy.

Practical implications

This paper serves as a best-practices guide for both start-ups and global logistics operators for establishing or further developing their crowdsourced delivery business models.

Originality/value

This paper provides a holistic understanding of the business models applied in the crowdshipping industry and is a valuable contribution to the yet small amount of studies in the crowd logistics field.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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