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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Dimitra Loukia Kolia and Simeon Papadopoulos

This paper investigates the development of efficiency and the progress of banking integration in the European Union by checking for convergence among banks of European and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the development of efficiency and the progress of banking integration in the European Union by checking for convergence among banks of European and Eurozone countries as well as contrasting the results with those of United States banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, we employ the two-stage semi-parametric double bootstrap DEA method, which absorbs the effects of possible integration barriers in the measurement of efficiency. Afterwards, we apply a panel data model, in order to investigate the process of banking integration by testing for convergence and for convergent clusters in banking efficiency.

Findings

Our main findings show that the bank efficiency of the US is considerably higher than that of the Eurozone and the European Union. Although there is no evidence of convergence across the banking groups, our results indicate the presence of club convergence. We also conclude that the US banking system is closer to convergence than the Eurozone and the European Union banks. Nevertheless, this outcome is subject to change in the future due to the fact that Eurozone and European Union banks' speed of convergence is higher than that of US banks.

Originality/value

Our survey is unique in trying to check for convergence while controlling for country-specific and bank-specific factors that affect the efficiency of European and Eurozone banks. Moreover, recent literature does not compare the convergence of efficiency of Eurozone, European and US banking. Finally, in our paper special consideration was given to the comparison of commercial, cooperative and savings banks, as subsets of our banking groups.

Details

Journal of Capital Markets Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-4774

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Fazıl Gökgöz and Engin Yalçın

This paper aims to assess the efficiency levels of World Cup teams via the slack-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach, which contributes to filling an important…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the efficiency levels of World Cup teams via the slack-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach, which contributes to filling an important gap for performance measurement in football.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focuses on a comparative analysis of the past two World Cups. The authors initially estimate the efficiency of the World Cup teams via the slack-based DEA approach, which is a novel approach for sports performance measurement. The authors also present the conventional DEA results to compare results. The authors also include improvement ratios, which provide significant details for inefficient countries to enhance their efficiency. Besides, the authors include effectiveness ratings to present a complete performance overview of the World Cup teams.

Findings

According to the analysis results of the slack-based DEA approach, titleholder Germany and France are found as efficient teams in the 2014 and 2018 World Cup, respectively. Besides, Belgium and Russia recorded the highest efficiency improvement in the 2018 World Cup. The novel approach for sports performance measurement, the slack-based DEA approach, significantly overlaps with the actual performance of teams.

Originality/value

This study presents novelty in football performance by adopting the slack-based DEA with an undesirable output model for the performance measurement of the World Cup teams. This empirical analysis would be a pioneer study measuring the performance of football teams via the slack-based DEA approach.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Shakeb Akhtar, Mahfooz Alam and Mohd Shamim Ansari

This study aims to empirically evaluate the performance of commercial banks operating in India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically evaluate the performance of commercial banks operating in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The efficiency of the commercial banks is evaluated using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. We measure the technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of the sampled conventional banks using the input-oriented model. We employed an extended DEA window analysis approach based on a panel sample of 47 banks in the Indian scenario. The period of study is from 2009 to 2018.

Findings

The results obtained from CRS and VRS measures envisage that Indian banks have failed to manage their inputs efficiently and convert them into outputs. It implies that Indian banks do not operate at an optimum level. Moreover, the results show that public banks exhibit superior efficiency scores followed by private and foreign banks. Apart from the aggregate sector level, we also investigate the performance of Indian banks at the individual level for in-depth analysis. The individual bank-level analysis reports that the public sector banks (PSBs) are the most efficient followed by foreign banks, whereas, the least efficient are the private banks.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of our study have implications for government, financial institutions and policymakers to access the verve and flexibility of the Indian banking system. The government should consider restructuring inefficient banks to enhance overall performance. This can be considered by improvement in managerial efficiency, efficient allocation of scarce resources and appropriate scale of operation. However, the findings of the study should be interpreted in light of the period of study for the banks being operational (as we filter out banks that ceased to exist) in India and empirical methods employed. The results may vary if alternative measures are used.

Originality/value

The present paper investigates the efficiency of the Indian banking sector employing the Data Envelopment Window Analysis (DEWA) technique. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is perhaps the first one to employ the DEWA measure on the Indian banking industry to gauge their performance over time.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

David Mutua Mathuva and Moses Nzuki Nyangu

In this paper, the authors investigate whether the systemic local banking crises (LBCs) and global financial crisis (GFC) impact the association between bank profit…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors investigate whether the systemic local banking crises (LBCs) and global financial crisis (GFC) impact the association between bank profit efficiency and earnings quality in developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data spanning 29 years over the period 1991–2019 for 169 banks drawn from five East African countries, the authors perform difference-in-difference multivariate analyses using the generalised method of moments (GMM) system estimator on a sample consisting of 2,261 bank-year observations.

Findings

The results, which are robust for endogeneity and other checks, show that banks with higher profit efficiency consistently report higher quality earnings. The authors further establish that whereas systemic LBCs contribute negatively to bank earnings quality, the GFC tends to have a positive impact. These results are upheld when the joint impacts of both systemic LBCs, GFC and profit efficiency on earnings quality are considered. The positive influence of profit efficiency and GFC on earnings quality is pronounced under income-decreasing earnings management. The impacts of profit efficiency, LBCs and GFC on earnings quality appear to be non-monotonic and vary across the sampled countries.

Research limitations/implications

The study's findings are based on banks in five developing countries within a regional economic bloc. Additional studies could focus on other economic blocs for enhanced generalisability of the findings. In addition, some of the variables examined are studied at bank-level, while other variables are at country-level. Finally, the study establishes an association between the variables of interest, and this does not necessarily imply causation.

Practical implications

The results provide useful insights to bank regulatory and supervisory agencies on the need to exercise increased risk-based scrutiny over bank loan loss provisioning and minimum loan loss reserve requirements. From an audit perspective, auditors need to be cautious and apply an enhanced risk-based audit especially when auditing banks during and after a financial, banking or systemic crisis. Credit rating agencies need to pay closer attention to the LLPs of distressed banks. Finally, bank investors and customers should be cautious when using bank financial statements, since bank managers of poorly performing banks might engage in aggressive earnings management.

Originality/value

The study is perhaps the first to examine the joint effects of systemic LBCs on the association between bank profit efficiency and the quality of earnings in a larger dataset of banks in a developing regional economic bloc. The authors also employ the GMM system estimator in the modelling, which helps address some weaknesses in prior studies.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Ehsan Poursoleyman, Samira Joudi, Gholamreza Mansourfar and Saeid Homayoun

Previous literature posits that corporate governance and information asymmetry are the main factors in making efficient investments. Meanwhile, a growing body of studies…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous literature posits that corporate governance and information asymmetry are the main factors in making efficient investments. Meanwhile, a growing body of studies is of the opinion that corporate governance can also mitigate the problem of information asymmetry and consequently exerts significant impacts on the association between information asymmetry and investment efficiency. This study aims to analyze the impact of corporate governance and information asymmetry on investment efficiency. It also tests the moderating role of corporate governance in the relationship between information asymmetry and investment efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 4,082 firms domiciled in 20 developed countries over the years from 2003 to 2019, including 33,812 firm-year observations. The bid–ask spread is used as a proxy for information asymmetry. To measure corporate governance performance, a proxy provided by ASSET4 is employed, and to determine the optimal levels of investments, we relied on the growth opportunity. To estimate the models, ordinary least squares and generalized method of moment are used.

Findings

The results reveal that information asymmetry is inversely related to investment efficiency, and, corporate governance mitigates this negative association.

Originality/value

This paper sheds light on the role of corporate governance in firms as a lever for mitigating information asymmetry and tries out information asymmetry and agency theories in relation to the impact of information asymmetry on investment efficiency. It also confirms the theory stating that corporate governance can be considered as a determinant of investment efficiency.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Aparajita Singh and Haripriya Gundimeda

The Indian leather industry contributes to economic growth at a significant environmental cost. Due to the rising global demand for sustainable leather products, promoting…

Abstract

Purpose

The Indian leather industry contributes to economic growth at a significant environmental cost. Due to the rising global demand for sustainable leather products, promoting efficient input utilisation has become vital. This study measures input efficiency and its determinants for leather industry in order for it to improve its future performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first stage, bootstrap data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach is used for measuring efficiency and analysing firms' differences based on their geographical location, organisational structures, urban-rural location and sub-industrial groups. A second stage regression examines efficiency determinants using size, age, skill and capital-labour intensity as the explanatory variables.

Findings

Efficiency result shows a significant potential of minimising inputs by 47% provided the firms adopt best practices. West Bengal firms, urban located firms, individual and proprietorship owned firms and leather consumer goods firms are found to be relatively efficient to their counterparts. Size, skilled managerial staff and labour-intensive firms positively affect efficiency.

Practical implications

Construction of well-connected roads for accessing urban retail markets and provision of reliable electricity would improve efficiency of rural firms. Small-scale enterprises have a larger share in Indian leather industry; therefore, policy should focus on enhancing the firms' scale and investing in training facilities to skill employed labour for ensuring optimal use of inputs.

Originality/value

Previous studies on the leather industry have used the conventional DEA efficiency measurement approach. This study uses DEA bootstrapping model for robust efficiency estimates and provides consistent inferences about the determinants.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Sajid Iqbal and Ahmad Raza Bilal

The study aims to empirically estimate the role of public supports for energy efficiency financing and presents the way forward to mitigate the energy financing barriers…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to empirically estimate the role of public supports for energy efficiency financing and presents the way forward to mitigate the energy financing barriers that incurred during the COVID-19 crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the G7 countries data, the study estimated the nexus between the constructs. Generalized method of moments (GMM) and conventional increasing-smoothing asymptotic of GMM are applied to justify the study findings. Wald econometric technique is also used to robust the results.

Findings

The study findings reported a consistent role of public support on energy efficiency financing indicators, during the COVID-19 crisis period. G7 countries raised funds around 17% through public supports for energy efficiency financing, and it raised 4% of per unit energy usage to GDP, accelerated 16% energy efficiency and 24% output of renewable energy sources, during COVID-19. By this, study findings warrant a maximum support from public offices, energy ministries and other allied departments for energy efficiency optimization.

Practical implications

The study presents multiple policy implications to enhance energy efficiency through different alternative sources, such as, on-bill financing, direct energy efficiency grant, guaranteed financial contracts for energy efficiency and energy efficiency credit lines. If suggested policy recommendations are applied effectively, this holds the potential to diminish the influence of the COVID-19 crisis and can probably uplift the energy efficiency financing during structural crisis.

Originality/value

The originality of the recent study exists in a novel framework of study topicality. Despite growing literature, the empirical discussion in the field of energy efficiency financing and COVID-19 is still shattered and less studied, which is contributed by this study.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Guotao Yang, Yue Wang, Huibin Chang and Qinghua Chen

This study examines the relative efficiencies of anti-poverty policies implemented in 28 Chinese provinces.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relative efficiencies of anti-poverty policies implemented in 28 Chinese provinces.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses meta-frontier undesirable dynamic two-stage data envelopment analysis. The authors divide the poverty reduction process into two stages: agricultural production and poverty reduction. Public expenditure is the input for the second stage, and the population below the poverty line is the undesirable output. The authors compute the efficiencies (overall efficiency, efficiency of each stage and the efficiencies of individual inputs and outputs) using meta-frontier analysis for the 28 provinces.

Findings

The results show that: (1) a significant imbalance exists between the eastern and western regions in terms of input-output efficiencies; (2) the poverty reduction stage generally fared better than the agricultural production stage did. In particular, most provinces saw increases in poverty reduction efficiencies between 2013 and 2017; (3) the place-based poverty relief policies introduced in recent years are effective at reducing the poverty rate and reaching the government-set goals and (4) while disposable income has increased steadily over the past few years, income inequality has been exacerbated.

Research limitations/implications

The results show that: (1) a significant imbalance exists between the eastern and western regions in terms of input-output efficiencies; (2) the poverty reduction stage generally fared better than the agricultural production stage did. In particular, most provinces saw increases in poverty reduction efficiencies between 2013 and 2017; (3) the place-based poverty relief policies introduced in recent years are effective at reducing the poverty rate and reaching the government-set goals and (4) while disposable income has increased steadily over the past few years, income inequality has exacerbated.

Originality/value

A large amount of attention and public resources are devoted to fighting poverty and associated market failures in China. The extant literature focuses either on the agricultural production itself or the relationship between human capital and productivity levels. Making use of recent developments of the DEA method, the authors propose a new framework for evaluating the efficiencies of the poverty reduction process. Such a framework has the advantage of giving researchers and policymakers a more detailed diagnosis with regard to the components in the endeavor to eliminate poverty and providing useful information for policymakers to optimize public funds use. Methodologically, the framework is flexible enough to be employed for future research in similar appraisals, at different geographic and scale aggregation levels, for public projects including but not limited to poverty reduction.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Norman Mohd Saleh and Xiao Wei Sun

In this study, the authors argue that because of female traits, the proportion of female directors in the board helps the governing body make more cautious decisions, thus…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors argue that because of female traits, the proportion of female directors in the board helps the governing body make more cautious decisions, thus improving the investment efficiency of the firm. Therefore, this research aims to propose the mediating role of caution in reexamining the relationship between the proportion of female directors and the efficiency of the investment of a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data on 100 nonfinancial listed firms in Malaysia between 2015 and 2018. The authors use several multivariate regression analyses to test the mediating effect.

Findings

The result shows that female directors significantly affect investment efficiency. Moreover, the findings in this research confirm the mediating role of caution in the relationship between the proportion of female directors and the efficiency of firm investment.

Practical implications

This study proves that increasing the proportion of females in the board of directors is an effective governance method to improve the investment efficiency of listed firms in Malaysia.

Originality/value

In general, this study contributes to the literature by extending the current understanding of risk propensity differences between male and female directors and introducing the concept of caution.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Chun Su, Xing Liu and Huan Shao

This paper aims to investigate the influence of over-allocation and under-allocation of family board seats on the corporate investment efficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of over-allocation and under-allocation of family board seats on the corporate investment efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the perspective of altruistic behavior, this paper theoretically analyzes the relationship between the preference of family board seats allocation and corporate investment efficiency, and designs the research. On this basis, we use STATA14.0 as an analysis tool to empirically test the relationship between the preference of family family board seats allocation and corporate investment efficiency, and consider the impact of different governance scenarios.

Findings

This study finds that firms with a higher over-allocation degree of family board seats invest more efficiently, evidenced by significantly suppressed over-investment rather than mitigated under-investment. However, we do not find evidence that the higher degree of under-allocation of family board seats contribute to lower corporate investment efficiency. Additionally, this study finds that the positive relationship between the over-allocation degree of family board seats and corporate investment efficiency is more pronounced for firms with higher separation of cash flow rights and control rights, and weaker regional law system environment. Our mechanism discussion shows that the higher over-allocation level of family board seats contributes to the mitigation of agency costs for family firms by reducing the tendency for non-family boards to vote “against board proposals” and the appropriation behavior of the controlling family, and eventually improving corporate investment efficiency.

Originality/value

This paper examines the relationship between the preference of family board seats allocation and corporate investment efficiency from the perspective of altruistic behavior. Unlike previous studies, this paper distinguishes the governance effects arising from over-allocation and under-allocation of family board seats. Additionally, different governance scenarios are incorporated into the decision-making mechanism of the board of family firms, and the influences of the divergence of cash-flow and control rights and a weaker regional law system on the governance effect of the preference of family board seat allocation are analyzed.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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