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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Xinjun Zhou

Under the dual pressure of resources and environment, many countries have focused on the role of railways in promoting low-carbon development of integrated transportation…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the dual pressure of resources and environment, many countries have focused on the role of railways in promoting low-carbon development of integrated transportation and of even the whole society. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive study on methods to improve railway energy efficiency in other national railways and achievements made by China’s railways in the past practice, and then to propose ways in which in the future China’s railways could rationally select the path of improving energy efficiency regarding the needs of the nation's ever-shifting development and carry out the re-engineering for mechanism innovation in energy conservation and emission reduction process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first studies other national railways that have tried to promote the improvement of railway energy efficiency by the ways of technology, management and structural reconstruction to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Among them, the effect of structural energy conservation and emission reduction has become more prominent. It has become the main energy conservation and emission reduction measure adopted by foreign railway sectors. The practice of energy conservation and emission reduction of railways in various countries has tended to shift from a technical level to a structural one.

Findings

Key aspects in improving energy efficiency include re-optimization of energy structure, re-innovation of energy-saving technologies and optimization of transportation organization. Path selection includes continuing to promote electrified railway construction, increasing the use of new and renewable energy sources, and promoting the reform of railway transportation organizations.

Originality/value

This paper provides further challenges and research directions in the proposed area and has referential value for the methodologies, approaches for practice in a Chinese context. To achieve the expected goals, relevant supporting policies and measures need to be formulated, including actively guiding integrated transportation toward railway-oriented development, promoting innovation in energy-saving and emission reduction mechanisms and strengthening policy incentives, focusing on improving the energy efficiency of railways through market behavior. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to new phenomena in the railway industry for track and analysis.

Details

Railway Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2755-0907

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2022

Preeti Bangarwa and Supriyo Roy

Operational performance is critical for the banking sector for both managers and other stakeholders as it strongly affects the overall performance of the banking system…

Abstract

Purpose

Operational performance is critical for the banking sector for both managers and other stakeholders as it strongly affects the overall performance of the banking system. Traditional performance measures such as ratio analysis encountered certain shortcomings. At this juncture, data envelopment analysis (DEA) approaches are increasingly applied in bank efficiency studies. However, basic DEA models ignored the interactions between consecutive terms and focused primarily on measuring performance independently for each study period. All this is required to develop an operational performance model that can enable the long-term decision model.

Design/methodology/approach

An attempt has been made to develop a dynamic DEA within a non-radial category to measure interconnection activities considering non-performing loans as an undesirable link. This study uses the Indian banking dataset from 2015 to 2019. The study's research design directs three directions: ‘comparison of the dynamic DEA with the traditional static DEA model, areas of inefficiencies that are investigated for each factor using the factor efficiency index and the robustness results highlighting the performance difference between bank categories.'

Findings

Comparing with static DEA results, the study confirms that the dynamic model best measures long-term operational performance due to the linkage between consecutive terms. The efficiency analysis concludes that the input factor that requires the most improvement is ‘fixed assets' and ‘deposits'. The output factor that needs the most progress is ‘non-interest income'. The robustness of the developed model is proven by ownership categories present within the Indian banking system. At a significance level of 10%, the result of both the separate and dynamic model for privately owned banks is significantly better than that of publicly owned banks.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an operational efficiency model for Indian banks in line with undesirable output. The mean factor efficiency analysis related to non-radial DEA modelling enhances managerial flexibilities in determining improvement initiatives.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Ana Krstić, Dragana Rejman-Petrović, Ivana Nedeljković and Predrag Mimović

The purpose of this paper is an analysis of the process of digital transformation of enterprises, by measuring the efficiency of the use of information and communication…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is an analysis of the process of digital transformation of enterprises, by measuring the efficiency of the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in business in 29 European countries in the period from 2012 to 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

A Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes data envelopment analysis (CCR DEA, 1978) window model has been developed to measure the ICT efficiency of European countries. Several indicators of the use of information and communication technologies in enterprises are selected as the variables of the proposed models, which are available as such in the Eurostat database for European countries. Due to the sensitivity of the results obtained by applying the DEA method to measurement errors and output values, the robustness analysis of the obtained values of average efficiency is also performed, using the bootstrap method.

Findings

The obtained results show that the highest average technical efficiency of the use of ICT in companies by windows, in the observed period, is recorded in Belgium, while Denmark is in the second place. Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and Latvia have the lowest average technical ICT efficiency per window. The analysis of the obtained results by years in the same period brings identical conclusions. Only Belgium has been ICT efficient many times. In general, for all observed countries, the movement of average ICT efficiency in the observed period shows a slightly growing trend, with the exception of a significantly decline in 2013. However, the fact is that the ICT efficiency of the observed countries in the past period is relatively low and for all countries it is 46.36%, with no country being 100% efficient and with eight countries whose average efficiency is below 50% of best practice.

Research limitations/implications

To measure and evaluate the efficiency of ICT use in enterprises, four variables for efficiency assessment are identified, given the fact that only these data are available continuously for the observed period from 2012 to 2020 in the Eurostat database.

Practical implications

Low efficiency of using digital potential in business of the observed countries indicates the need for better understanding of the nature and goals of the digital business transformation process by employees and management, to create conditions for effective implementation and optimization of business digitalization.

Originality/value

Measurement of digital transformation is the subject of a very small number of studies and research, which mainly focus on measuring and assessing the impact of digital transformation on individual countries and perform a comparative analysis of technological development in those countries. Also, analyses are mainly based on identifying similarities and differences between countries or ranking countries according to adopted evaluation criteria using different digitization indices. A step forward in this research is the application of the DEA window method for measuring the relative efficiency of the use of ICT in enterprises, and the development of a model that can be extended if necessary with indicators for which data are available.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Muhammad Wajid Raza, Bahrawar Said and Ahmed Elshahat

This study aims to provide a comparative insight into the level of informational efficiency and irregularities of Shariah-compliant stocks and conventional stocks in three…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a comparative insight into the level of informational efficiency and irregularities of Shariah-compliant stocks and conventional stocks in three emerging markets, namely, China, Malaysia and Pakistan. The empirical evidence is provided for pre-crisis and crisis periods caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Informational efficiency is measured using the variance ratio (VR) Test developed by Kim (2006). The Approximate Entropy (ApEn) Metrics is used to investigate the level of irregularities in stock prices caused by the pandemic.

Findings

All the three emerging markets in the sample are not immune to the crisis caused by Covid-19 pandemic. The level of informational efficiency of both the Shariah-compliant and conventional stock is affected by the crisis. However, the former exhibits relatively high level of informational efficiency and stability in returns as compared to more volatility of conventional stocks.

Practical implications

This study provides market agents and policy makers with a robust assessment of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on informational efficiency of Shariah-compliant and conventional stocks. Relatively high informational efficiency of Shariah-compliant stocks indicates that they are more transparent and that investors can trust the Shariah-compliant stocks more. This higher level of transparency and trust leads to more steady returns and lower levels of risk even during turbulent time like Covid-19. Investors can gain superior returns by conducting fundamental analysis and investing in index funds.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that highlights the difference in informational efficiency of conventional stocks and Shariah-compliant stocks in the crisis period caused by Covid-19. Unlike previous studies, this study uses firm level data which enables firm-wise assessment of informational efficiency.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Wei-Kang Wang, Wen-Min Lu, Irene Wei Kiong Ting and Wun-Ya Siao

This study aims to examine the relationships among International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption, earnings management, and corporate efficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationships among International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption, earnings management, and corporate efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors employ the epsilon-based measure (EBM) of the data envelopment analysis to measure the corporate performance of the Taiwanese electronics industry from 2011 to 2014. Second, the authors regress the IFRS adoption and earnings management on corporate efficiency.

Findings

The findings show that the corporate efficiency deteriorated after IFRS adoption. Although the regression analysis shows that the relationship between earnings management and corporate efficiency is significantly positive, the authors find that IFRS adoption is effective in unveiling earnings management. Moreover, IFRS adoption moderates the impact earnings management and corporate efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides reference for decision-makers in the application of accounting principles and in the understanding of the IFRS impact adoption.

Practical implications

IFRS adoption can either facilitate or limit the earnings management that would affect corporate efficiency significantly and help the electronics industry as well as investors to know the changes in accounting principles and their effects on corporate efficiency.

Originality/value

The authors use the EBM of efficiency model to measure corporate efficiency and employ the modified Jones model to measure earnings management.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Yihays Fente Tarekegn, Weifeng Li and Huilin Xiao

The current paper's goal is to examine the productivity of the closed banking sector evidenced from Ethiopia. In addition, the inclusion of intangibles on productivity was…

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper's goal is to examine the productivity of the closed banking sector evidenced from Ethiopia. In addition, the inclusion of intangibles on productivity was examined in the current paper.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the standard Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) was employed for 13 commercial banks for both stages. Second, by excluding the state-owned commercial bank, the analysis employed a bootstrapped MPI for the robust and comprehensive conclusion. Furthermore, from 2010 to 2019, the fixed effect Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression with balanced panel data was used.

Findings

The standard MPI in both stages shows that the productivity of Ethiopian commercial banks is declining. The technological shock was the main reason for the loss. The catch-up in both stages scored above unity, mainly due to the pure efficiency change. Besides, when combined with tangible resources, the inclusion of resource-based view (RBV) proxy variables reduces technological shock regress and ultimately improves productivity change. The bootstrapped MPI also reveals that technological shock is the primary source of the productivity decline. However, efficiency change also contributes to the productivity decline based on this estimation.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could examine the more extensive productivity analysis by considering the primary sources of data collections for resource-based variables.

Practical implications

According to the study's results, banking regulatory authorities and bank management, including the shareholders, should continue to invest in cutting-edge technology to improve the productivity of the banking sector.

Originality/value

This is the first comprehensive study of productivity for Ethiopian commercial banks based on the standard MPI, bootstrapped MPI, and OLS by incorporating all resources into the analysis.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Zhaojun Han, Miao Hu, Yan Zuo and Shenyang Jiang

This study addresses an important research question regarding how supplier-base concentration affects buyer efficiency. Drawing on the contradicting views of transaction…

Abstract

Purpose

This study addresses an important research question regarding how supplier-base concentration affects buyer efficiency. Drawing on the contradicting views of transaction cost theory (TCT) and resource dependence theory (RDT), the authors explore the main effect of supplier-base concentration on buyer efficiency and how this effect is contingent on buyers' characteristics (i.e. research and development (R&D) expenditure and market share).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data collected from the Chinese manufacturing firms listed on National Equities Exchange and Quotations (NEEQ) between 2015 and 2019, the authors use a fixed-effect model as well as a two-stage least squares model to test the predictions.

Findings

The authors find that supplier-base concentration has a positive effect on buyer efficiency. In addition, when a buyer has higher levels of R&D expenditure and market share, the positive relationship between supplier-base concentration and buyer efficiency is strengthened.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a better understanding of the effect of supplier-base concentration. First, the authors provide theoretical and empirical evidence of the positive effect of supplier-base concentration on buyer efficiency. Second, the authors reveal the underlying mechanism of how to counter the potential drawbacks and benefit more from supply base reduction by introducing R&D expenditure and market share as contingencies.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2022

Guoquan Xu, Shiwei Feng, Shucen Guo and Xiaolan Ye

China has proposed two-stage goals of carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutralization by 2060. The carbon emission reduction effect of the power industry, especially the…

Abstract

Purpose

China has proposed two-stage goals of carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutralization by 2060. The carbon emission reduction effect of the power industry, especially the thermal power industry, will directly affect the progress of the goal. This paper aims to reveal the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of carbon emission efficiency of the thermal power industry and proposes policy suggestions for realizing China’s carbon peak and carbon neutralization goals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper evaluates and compares the carbon emission efficiency of the thermal power industry in 29 provinces and regions in China from 2014 to 2019 based on the three-stage slacks-based measure (SBM) of efficiency in data envelopment analysis (DEA) model of undesired output, excluding the influence of environmental factors and random errors.

Findings

Empirical results show that during the sample period, the carbon emission efficiency of China’s thermal power industry shows a fluctuating upward trend, and the carbon emission efficiency varies greatly among the provincial regions. The carbon emission efficiency of the interregional thermal power industry presents a pattern of “eastern > central > western,” which is consistent with the level of regional economic development. Environmental factors such as economic level and environmental regulation level are conducive to the improvement of carbon emission efficiency of the thermal power industry, but the proportion of thermal power generation and industrial structure is the opposite.

Originality/value

This paper adopts the three-stage SBM–DEA model of undesired output and takes CO2 as the undesired output to reveal the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of carbon emission efficiency in China’s thermal power industry. The results provide a more comprehensive perspective for regional comparative evaluation and influencing factors of carbon emission efficiency in China’s thermal power industry.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2022

W.M.T.H. Wijesundara and R.A. Ranga Prabodanie

This study aimed to evaluate the relative efficiencies of the state universities in Sri Lanka from 2017 to 2019 and their capacity to enroll more students.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the relative efficiencies of the state universities in Sri Lanka from 2017 to 2019 and their capacity to enroll more students.

Design/methodology/approach

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) method was used to measure the relative efficiencies. Annual data on expenditure, academic staff, non-academic staff, student enrollments, graduate output and publications in indexed journals were used.

Findings

Results from both input oriented DEA and output oriented DEA showed that seven out of 15 (47%) state universities were constantly performing efficiently from 2017 to 2019. Well-established universities are apparently more efficient than emerging universities. Six universities were constantly inefficient. Excess staff and the deficiencies in enrollments, graduate output and publications were the main causes of the inefficiencies. In particular, the total enrollments can be increased by 23%.

Research limitations/implications

The outcomes are thoroughly based on DEA with a selected set of variables and data. Owing to the limitations in the DEA method, variables and data, the results may not reflect the actual efficiencies of the universities. However, this study indicates that the universities can improve their relative efficiencies by accommodating more students and increasing research output.

Originality/value

This study is the first proper investigation of the relative efficiencies of the state universities in Sri Lanka using DEA. This is also the first quantitative assessment of the capacity of Sri Lankan Universities to increase student enrollments.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Yongfeng Zhu, Zilong Wang and Jie Yang

The existing three-stage network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models with shared input are self-assessment model that are prone to extreme efficiency scores in pursuit…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing three-stage network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models with shared input are self-assessment model that are prone to extreme efficiency scores in pursuit of decision-making units (DMUs) efficiency maximization. This study aims to solve the sorting failure problem of the three-stage network DEA model with shared input and applies the proposed model to evaluate innovation resource allocation efficiency of Chinese industrial enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-stage network cross-DEA model considering shared input is proposed by incorporating the cross-efficiency model into the three-stage network DEA model. An application of the proposed model in the innovation resource allocation of industrial enterprise is implemented in 30 provinces of China during 2015–2019.

Findings

The efficiency of DMU would be overestimated if the decision-maker preference is overlooked. Moreover, the innovation resource allocation performance of Chinese industrial enterprises had a different spatial distribution, with high in eastern and central China and low in western China. Eastern China was good at knowledge production and technology development but not good at commercial transformation. Northeast China performed well in technology development and commercial conversion but not in knowledge production. The central China did not perform well in terms of technology development.

Originality/value

A three-stage network DEA model with shared input is proposed for the first time, which makes up for the problem of sorting failure of the general three-stage network model.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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