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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Bo Edvardsson and Inger Roos

The traditional critical incident technique (CIT) and variants of the same have frequently been applied in service research for several decades. The technique has often…

Abstract

The traditional critical incident technique (CIT) and variants of the same have frequently been applied in service research for several decades. The technique has often been used to capture data on and analyse both negative and positive critical incidents. While one technique displays hosts of critical incidents in benchmark‐type series (SIT), another variant describes the dynamism in one discrete critical incident and a third the dynamism of the configuration of critical incidents (SPAT). In this article the different variants are discussed in relation to psychological theory focusing on the concepts of time, history and memory. To be able to analyse the criticality from the individual customer’s perspective, we argue that one must understand the significance of critical incidents in the light of human memory mechanisms and judgement processes. The discussion forms the basis for suggesting a new, tentative framework for analysing the criticality of critical incidents. We call this criticality critical incident technique (CCIT).

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Semir Ibrahimovic and Ulrik Franke

This paper aims to examine the connection between information system (IS) availability and operational risk losses and the capital requirements. As most businesses today…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the connection between information system (IS) availability and operational risk losses and the capital requirements. As most businesses today become increasingly dependent on information technology (IT) services for continuous operations, IS availability is becoming more important for most industries. However, the banking sector has particular sector-specific concerns that go beyond the direct and indirect losses resulting from unavailability. According to the first pillar of the Basel II accord, IT outages in the banking sector lead to increased capital requirements and thus create an additional regulatory cost, over and above the direct and indirect costs of an outage.

Design/methodology/approach

A Bayesian belief network (BBN) with nodes representing causal factors has been used for identification of the factors with the greatest influence on IS availability, thus helping in investment decisions.

Findings

Using the BBN model for making IS availability-related decisions action (e.g. bringing a causal factor up to the best practice level), organization, according to the presented mapping table, would have less operational risk events related to IS availability. This would have direct impact by decreasing losses, related to those events, as well as to decrease the capital requirements, prescribed by the Basel II accord, for covering operational risk losses.

Practical implications

An institution using the proposed framework can use the mapping table to see which measures for improving IS availability will have a direct impact on operational risk events, thus improving operational risk management.

Originality/value

The authors mapped the factors causing unavailability of IS system to the rudimentary IT risk management framework implied by the Basel II regulations and, thus, established an otherwise absent link from the IT availability management to operational risk management according to the Basel II framework.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Hossein Karimi, Timothy R.B. Taylor, Paul M. Goodrum and Cidambi Srinivasan

This paper aims to quantify the impact of craft worker shortage on construction project safety performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the impact of craft worker shortage on construction project safety performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A database of 50 North American construction projects completed between 2001 and 2014 was compiled by taking information from a research project survey and the Construction Industry Institute Benchmarking and Metrics Database. The t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to determine whether there was a significant difference in construction project safety performance on projects with craft worker recruiting difficulty. Poisson regression analysis was then used to examine the relationship between craft worker recruiting difficulty and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Total Number of Recordable Incident Cases per 200,000 Actual Direct Work Hours (TRIR) on construction projects.

Findings

The result showed that the TRIR distribution of a group of projects that reported craft worker recruiting difficulty tended to be higher than the TRIR distribution of a group of projects with no craft worker recruiting difficulty (p-value = 0.004). Moreover, the average TRIR of the projects that reported craft worker recruiting difficulty was more than two times the average TRIR of projects that experienced no craft recruiting difficulty (p-value = 0.035). Furthermore, the Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that there was a positive exponential relationship between craft worker recruiting difficulty and TRIR in construction projects (p-value = 0.004).

Research limitations/implications

The projects used to construct the database are heavily weighted towards industrial construction.

Practical implications

There have been significant long-term gains in construction safety within the USA. However, if recent craft shortages continue, the quantitative analyses presented herein indicate a strong possibility that more safety incidents will occur unless the shortages are reversed. Innovative construction means and methods should be developed and adopted to work in a safe manner with a less qualified workforce.

Originality/value

The Poisson regression model is the first model that quantifiably links project craft worker availability to construction project safety performance.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

A. Coulthard and T.A. Vuori

This paper provides interesting insights for anti‐virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e‐mail for…

Abstract

This paper provides interesting insights for anti‐virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e‐mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and distribution of computer viruses. Specifically, the analysis focuses on examining the claims that computer viruses are increasing in prevalence, that computer viruses follow an evolutionary pattern and that seasonality exists in the distribution of computer viruses.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 15 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Hardeep Chahal and Pinkey Devi

This paper aims to explore consumer attitude towards service failure and recovery in the higher education in general and with respect to teaching, examination, library…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore consumer attitude towards service failure and recovery in the higher education in general and with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are collected from 120 students of three undergraduate colleges of University of Jammu using purposive sampling.

Findings

The findings reveal that all recovery efforts pertaining to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure are significant in overcoming the respective service failures.

Research limitations/implications

The present study is limited to address service failure and service recovery relationship with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure and limited to three undergraduate colleges operating in Jammu city only. The sample of the study is small which needs to be considered before generalizing the results.

Originality/value

This study makes a maiden attempt to identify service failure issues with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure using quantitative methodology in higher education and role of service recovery strategies in monitoring and reducing service failure.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Paul Michael Young, Alan St Clair Gibson, Elizabeth Partington, Sarah Partington and Mark Wetherell

Incidents requiring command and control require all personnel from firefighters (FFs) to the incident commander (IC) to make continuous decisions often with limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Incidents requiring command and control require all personnel from firefighters (FFs) to the incident commander (IC) to make continuous decisions often with limited information and under acute time-pressure. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the stress reactivity of specific roles during the command and control of an immersive, computer-based incident.

Design/methodology/approach

Experienced firefighting personnel undergoing incident command training participated in this study. Participants completed measures of state anxiety and stress immediately before and after taking part in a computer-based simulation of a large-scale incident run in real time. During the simulation personnel assumed one of four roles: IC, sector commander, entry control officer (ECO), and command support officer. Following the simulation personnel then completed measures of perceived workload.

Findings

No significant changes in state anxiety were observed, but levels of stress and perceived workload were related to task roles. Specifically, ICs reported the greatest levels of mental and temporal demands and stress when compared with ECOs.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the lack of environmental factors (such as rain, darkness, and noise), a relatively small sample size, and the use of self-reported questionnaires.

Practical implications

The application of immersive training environments as a method of developing FFs experience of incident command roles and skills pertinent to high-acuity, low-frequency events.

Originality/value

The paper represents one of the first attempts to identify the self-reported anxiety, stress, and perceived workload of specific role demands during the command and control of simulated incidents.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Santiago Melián-González and Jacques Bulchand-Gidumal

The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of information technology (IT) in the performance of front office employees in hotels. This is done by testing and analyzing…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of information technology (IT) in the performance of front office employees in hotels. This is done by testing and analyzing up to what level the task performance content of receptionists depends on IT and by testing and analyzing up to what level the contents of the service encounters in which they participate depend on IT.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper includes in-depth interviews with 30 receptionists, using the job task performance model and the critical incident technique in the service encounter model.

Findings

IT takes part heavily in the task performance of front office workers, who rely on IT to get their job done. On the other hand, in service encounters, the value of the human presence is still high, and in most critical incidents, IT do not participate.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was located in the same destination with only two types of hotels.

Practical implications

The dependence of front office employees with IT is so high that some of the receptionists could be substituted by IT in the near future. However, human participation in satisfactory critical incidents is very high.

Social implications

Receptionists should get ready and trained taking into account that the value they provide is higher in tasks that are both not routine and in which face-to-face interactions take place.

Originality/value

Usually, front office employees are managed with human resources view, without taking into consideration specifically how IT has spread into the hospitality industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Elizabeth Shaw, Anushtayini Sivananthan, David Phillip Wood, James Partington, Alison Pearl Reavy and Helen Jane Fishwick

The purpose of this paper is to improve the quality of care of patients presenting with challenging behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the quality of care of patients presenting with challenging behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Current guidelines are described, and adherence to the standards is audited, with a particular emphasis on physical restraint.

Findings

The results of the clinical audit revealed that in the substantial majority of episodes of challenging behaviour, non-physical techniques were used prior to the need to intervene with physical restraint; however, when physical restraint was used, there was limited use of staff debriefs to facilitate reflection- and work-based learning. A potential diagnostic link to the likelihood of use of prone position restraint was also a finding. The results of a quality improvement project undertaken in response to the findings of the clinical audit demonstrated significant and sustained improvements in adherence to most standards.

Practical implications

Continuous improvements to the safety of both patients and staff when managing acute challenging behaviour requires ongoing quality improvement interventions underpinned by the application of human factors principles.

Originality/value

The completion of this audit cycle suggests that it is useful to measure specific points of care processes, however, continuous improvement interventions are indicated to lead to sustained improvement – in this paper this is demonstrated by the safer management of challenging behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Felipe Pathe Duarte

This paper aims to understand whether Portugal, being a relatively peripheral country – in political, economic and military terms – of Southwest Europe, was recently a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand whether Portugal, being a relatively peripheral country – in political, economic and military terms – of Southwest Europe, was recently a target of hybrid threats. The prevalence of a specific type of threat was found. Thus, this paper analyses the non-kinetic hybrid threats in Portugal, in a temporary hiatus of two years (2017-2018).

Design/methodology/approach

This study has two parts: a conceptual analysis of hybrid threats created by us and, based on the typology previously presented, an analysis of the hybrid threats in Portugal between 2017 and 2018. The first part relied on source analysis, as the result of a desk review methodology, supported by monographs, declassified official documents and reports. The second part is also the result of source analysis, but more extensive. In addition to the desk review methodology, the study included semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders from the Portuguese security and armed forces, who asked not to be quoted. Media content analysis was also carried out – for trends and fact-check – mostly for the events related to the “narratives led operations” (for propaganda, misinformation, counter-information and strategic leaks).

Findings

To date, Portugal – compared with other European states – has not been a significant target for hybrid threats. It is diluted in the Portuguese geopolitical dimension. Nevertheless, not escaping what is happening in Europe, it has also been the target of non-kinetic hybrid threats, especially in cyberspace. In the field of so-called “narrative-driven operations”, there have been some occurrences – whether related to fake news, far-right movements or strategic leaks. In addition, cyberattacks from foreign groups for information and data gathering have increased in recent years, making governmental and private critical infrastructures more vulnerable.

Research limitations/implications

One of the characteristics of hybrid threats is their difficult identification. Therefore, information is scarce, which has complicated the research, leading us to assume, in many cases, speculation about the threat. It should also be taken into account that, in the case of cyberspace, until 2018, 90% of the occurrences were not reported, and the study has dealt with only official numbers.

Originality/value

It is not a policy paper. Although it neither points out national vulnerabilities to this type of threat nor makes procedural recommendations or considerations, it is fundamental in identifying the peculiarity of hybrid threats in a democratic state.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Kinga Káplár-Kodácsy and Helga Dorner

The aim of this study is to explore how mentors' and mentees' self-concepts and related reflective practices in mentored teacher training are supported by using audio…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore how mentors' and mentees' self-concepts and related reflective practices in mentored teacher training are supported by using audio diaries within the framework of Dialogical Self Theory (Hermans, 2001), and how it could be used in the wider context of teacher training.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explores a specific qualitative methodology, the use of audio diary in self-reflective activities, in the context of teacher training in Hungary. When analysing the data, we used the thematic analysis approach to employ a relatively high level of interpretation.

Findings

Multi-level meta-position reflections have emerged from the data that were comparable at a given point in time. We found five different I-positions (Hermans, 2001) that suggest that mentors and mentees perceived of these as shared themes of the emerging incidents in mentoring. However, those aspects of the mentoring process on which mentors and mentees reflected only vaguely or have not reflected mutually in their audio diaries involved a certain level of mis-positioning and further tension.

Practical implications

Audio diaries are beneficial for personal and professional development. The tools and the methodology around them could be leveraged to broaden mentor–mentee dyads, which may lead to including university-based teacher educators and researchers from the field.

Originality/value

The value of this study arises from the process of recording audio diary logs as a direct representation of thoughts during the mentorship process.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

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