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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Carmen Padin, Göran Svensson, Carmen Otero-Neira and Nils Høgevold

The objective of this paper is to describe the teleological actions needed to assess and manage critical incidents that cause negative emotions in service encounters…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to describe the teleological actions needed to assess and manage critical incidents that cause negative emotions in service encounters. Teleological actions are movements into the future that are believed to be move either towards a predictable/known or unpredictable/unknown state or condition. The authors distinguish between, define and apply three categories: transformative – ad hoc and present-based actions; formative – pre-determined and past-based actions; and rationalist – goal-directed and future-based actions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study, based upon a two-phase approach applying convenience and judgemental sampling, was used. Focussing on one teleological theory, a process of abductive matching was applied throughout the study. Abductive matching refers to recurring themes, patterns and categories that are uncovered through the iterative processes of analysis. The teleological framework structured and guided the data collection and empirical observations.

Findings

Seen through the perspective of teleological actions, the study enhances our understanding of the manner in which critical incidents generate negative emotions in service encounters. Through the same perspective, the investigation also reveals that the outcome of a negative service encounter depends upon the interactive interface between service provider and service receiver.

Research limitations/implications

The teleological actions between service providers and service receivers in negative service encounters appear to be mediators between cause-and-effect on the one hand (critical incident and negative emotions) and a perceptual gap on the other (outcome of negative service encounter). The teleological perspective also provides numerous opportunities for further research in this area.

Practical implications

Managers should strive to understand the teleological actions potentially undertaken by service receivers, so that they can deal with the teleological actions of their front-line staff accordingly. The interactive interface between a service provider and a service receiver is crucial in assessing and managing critical incidents.

Originality/value

Based on teleological actions, the investigation provides both a valuable and complementary contribution on assessing and managing critical incidents and the negative emotions that are often triggered in the service-encounter interface between a service provider and a service receiver. Providers also need to educate their staff on what can occur and on how to react appropriately.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Ina Garnefeld and Lena Steinhoff

Customer satisfaction formation represents a dynamic phenomenon, especially in extended service encounters. A single service encounter may have an extended duration and…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer satisfaction formation represents a dynamic phenomenon, especially in extended service encounters. A single service encounter may have an extended duration and feature several service interactions, which the customer can evaluate independently. This paper aims to offer a dynamic perspective on satisfaction formation, which indicates that what matters is not only the interactions a customer confronts but also when these interactions occur.

Design/methodology/approach

Research from social psychology provides a foundation for hypothesizing different effects of positive and negative critical incidents. Negative critical incidents likely are more important for overall satisfaction if they occur at the end of a service encounter. Positive critical incidents should have stronger effects at the beginning. In a 2×2 experimental design, participants considered a five‐day holiday hotel experience.

Findings

The data support the predicted dominance of a recency effect for negative critical incidents, such that a negative critical incident has a greater negative impact on customers' overall satisfaction when it occurs at the end of a service encounter instead of at the beginning. For positive critical incidents, no significant differences arose between primacy and recency effects.

Practical implications

The results highlight the importance of process designs of service experiences. Managers should pay particular attention to avoiding service failures at the end of a service encounter.

Originality/value

Unlike research that only assesses satisfaction formation for service encounters from a non‐dynamic perspective, this study posits the importance of the order of interactions within a service encounter.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Bo Edvardsson and Tore Strandvik

Focuses on the criticality of critical incidents in customer relationships. Aims to discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the notion of “critical” in a…

Abstract

Focuses on the criticality of critical incidents in customer relationships. Aims to discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the notion of “critical” in a critical incident. Why is something perceived as critical? What does it lead to? Is criticality a feature built into the service or is it a contextually‐defined phenomenon, depending both on the customer, the service provider, the interaction and the surrounding relationship environment? Suggests a contextual framework for describing, analysing and understanding critical incidents, based on the idea that critical incidents are always embedded in customer relationships. Two interdependent context dimensions are used: the time dimension, and the situational dimension. These elements, combined, lead to a focus on customer‐perceived and relationship‐oriented contexts, which reveal new insights into the role of critical incidents. This framework is used in an empirical study concerning business customers’ perceptions of “critical incidents” in their relationship with a hotel. The findings indicate that the majority of positive and negative critical incidents reported had only a minor impact on customer behavior.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Bo Edvardsson and Inger Roos

The traditional critical incident technique (CIT) and variants of the same have frequently been applied in service research for several decades. The technique has often…

Abstract

The traditional critical incident technique (CIT) and variants of the same have frequently been applied in service research for several decades. The technique has often been used to capture data on and analyse both negative and positive critical incidents. While one technique displays hosts of critical incidents in benchmark‐type series (SIT), another variant describes the dynamism in one discrete critical incident and a third the dynamism of the configuration of critical incidents (SPAT). In this article the different variants are discussed in relation to psychological theory focusing on the concepts of time, history and memory. To be able to analyse the criticality from the individual customer’s perspective, we argue that one must understand the significance of critical incidents in the light of human memory mechanisms and judgement processes. The discussion forms the basis for suggesting a new, tentative framework for analysing the criticality of critical incidents. We call this criticality critical incident technique (CCIT).

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Inge Wels‐Lips, Marleen van der Ven and Rik Pieters

Analyzing over 800 critical incidents across six service industries this study finds that responsiveness, courtesy/understanding the customer and communication frequently…

Abstract

Analyzing over 800 critical incidents across six service industries this study finds that responsiveness, courtesy/understanding the customer and communication frequently function as satisfiers driving the occurrence of positive incidents. Lack of competence, credibility and, particularly, reliability function as dissatisfiers driving the occurrence of negative incidents. Two generic dimensions emerge from multiple correspondence analysis: service system versus service people, and customer initiative versus employee initiative. The service system is associated with negative incidents, and service people with positive incidents. Substantial differences between service industries in antecedents of critical incidents emerge. Implications and recommendations for service delivery design and management are offered.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2018

Obi Berko Obeng Damoah

In line with the slogan “Africa rising”, the paper responds to the calls to shed light on the management knowledge of Africa, especially on the internationalisation of…

Abstract

Purpose

In line with the slogan “Africa rising”, the paper responds to the calls to shed light on the management knowledge of Africa, especially on the internationalisation of process of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from Africa. This paper aims to explore the critical incidents that trigger the export initiation of SMEs from the garment and textile sub-sector of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the qualitative multi-case study research approach, coupled with the critical incident method and uses 36 case firms from the garment and textile sub-sector of Ghana.

Findings

From the interview transcripts, it was found that being in the receipt of unsolicited order, wining government award and having international orientation are among the critical incidents that catapult SMEs in the garment and textile sub-sector of Ghana to initiate export business.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on the interpretivist qualitative method; therefore, future studies could extend the results by improving the sample size and use statistical methods.

Practical implications

Based on the findings, it is recommended that what is needed to improve export participation of SMEs from Ghana is entrepreneurial orientation. Implicitly, public policy must promote entrepreneurship education, i.e whether the government expects to see improvement in export involvement of SMEs from Ghana. Such initiatives will catapult most entrepreneurs from their comfort zones to take advantage of the various critical incidents in the external business environment and become exporters.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper is that unlike previous studies that use objective quantitative measures to examine the issue from other settings, the present paper uses the critical incident method which is proven to delve deeper into the phenomenon. Another contribution is that it sheds light on the internationalisation process of manufacturing SMEs from an under-researched and a new geographical context.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Ole Andreas Engen, Aslaug Mikkelsen and Kjell Grønhaug

This paper seeks to address how major companies adjust their behaviour and definitions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) when exposed to “critical incidents”.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to address how major companies adjust their behaviour and definitions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) when exposed to “critical incidents”.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative explorative study including two cases from the Norwegian oil and gas industry, both reflecting critical incidents that are included in the present study: the Utkal case of Norsk Hydro and the Iran corruption case of Statoil.

Findings

The critical incidents reported here resulted in changes in decision making and the reformulation of corporate strategies. The findings reported also reveal how the construction of CSR policy and the construction of the reality of the different stakeholders were transferred between companies, NGOs and civil society.

Research limitations/implications

Only a small sample of events and companies is investigated in the study. Accordingly, future research is needed on how legislation and government regulations affect a broader scale of different companies and how complex organisations manage individual and organisational challenges concerning all aspects of CSR.

Practical implications

Assuming that critical incidents influence organisational attention, interpretation and actions, the study indicates that the incidents can be seen as catalysts for the emergence of new CSR policy. New CSR policy is expressed in the patterns of social behaviour. This implies participating in diverse social networks, partnerships and learning forums and that CSR behaviour is constructed in the interaction between company, NGOs, media and business networks.

Originality/value

Similar studies have not previously been undertaken in Norwegian oil companies.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Rebecca Eliahoo

This qualitative study explores the barriers and dilemmas faced by beginning and novice mentors in post-compulsory education in the Southeast of England. It analyses…

Abstract

Purpose

This qualitative study explores the barriers and dilemmas faced by beginning and novice mentors in post-compulsory education in the Southeast of England. It analyses critical incidents (Tripp, 2012) taken from the everyday practice of mentors who were supporting new teachers and lecturers in the Southeast of England. It categorises different types of critical incidents that mentors encountered and describes the strategies and rationales mentors used to support mentees and (indirectly) their learners and colleagues. The purpose of this paper is to explore ways in which mentors’ own values, beliefs and life experiences affected their mentoring practice.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a specialist master’s-level professional development module, 21 mentors wrote about two critical incidents (Tripp, 2012) taken from their own professional experiences, which aimed to demonstrate their support for their mentee’s range of complex needs. These critical incidents were written up as short case studies, which justified the rationale for their interventions and demonstrated the mentors’ own professional development in mentoring. Critical incidents were used as units of analysis and categorised thematically by topic, sector and mentoring strategies used.

Findings

The research demonstrated the complex nature of decision making and the potential for professional learning within a mentoring dyad. The study of these critical incidents found that mentors most frequently cited the controversial nature of teaching observations, the mentor’s role in mediating professional relationships, the importance of inculcating professional dispositions in education and the need to support new teachers so that they can use effective behaviour management strategies.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the central importance of mentoring for professional growth within teacher education. It identifies common dilemmas that novice mentors face in post-compulsory education, justifies the rationale for their interventions and mentoring strategies and helps to identify ways in which mentors’ professional development needs can be met. It demonstrates that mentoring is complex, non-linear and mediated by mentors’ motivation and values.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Amy Wong and Amrik Sohal

This exploratory study investigates the nature of customer evaluations of their service encounters in a retail chain departmental store setting in Victoria, Australia. The…

Abstract

This exploratory study investigates the nature of customer evaluations of their service encounters in a retail chain departmental store setting in Victoria, Australia. The focus of the study is to understand how a customer perceives positive and negative encounters with regard to shopping at the retail chain. To accomplish these objectives, data were gathered by means of focus group interviews with customers of four retail stores. These customers were asked to recall positive and negative critical incidents with regard to their shopping experiences at the retail store. The results showed that positive critical incidents foster customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and repurchase intentions, while negative critical incidents affected customer behaviour and led to customer complaints, reduced willingness to patronise the retail firm, and to the spread of negative word‐of‐mouth behaviour. Using this and additional information gathered in the interviews, implications are drawn regarding both the value of the methodology and the results for managers in this type of retail business.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Book part
Publication date: 20 April 2021

Sharmila Pixy Ferris and Kathleen Waldron

Abstract

Details

Higher Education Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-230-8

1 – 10 of over 18000