Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Georgios L Vousinas

– This paper aims to highlight the new regulatory framework established by Basel III.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the new regulatory framework established by Basel III.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a critical review of the existing literature concerning bank supervision while providing an overview of the transition from Basel I to Basel III rules and critical appraisal of the current regulatory framework. Review of the existing literature.

Findings

Basel III introduces new measures in favor of bank stability and in order to mitigate the propagation of financial shocks. But on the other hand the new regulatory framework adds an extra burden to banks’ business plans affecting credit policies and thus the real economy. Another issue that is not properly addressed is the rising of financial innovations that are able to pass by the new regulations. Overall Basel III rules are moving to the right direction but need to stay always up-to-date in order to catch up with the modern ever-evolving financial system. Pros and cons. Need for improvement.

Originality/value

The paper presents an up-to-date review of Basel rules with future prospects.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Pierre-Richard Agénor and Luiz A. Pereira da Silva

Purpose – To discuss, from the perspective of developing countries, recent proposals for reforming international standards for bank capital requirements.…

Abstract

Purpose – To discuss, from the perspective of developing countries, recent proposals for reforming international standards for bank capital requirements.

Methodology/approach – After evaluating, from the viewpoint of developing countries, the effectiveness of capital requirements reforms and progress in implementing existing regulatory accords, the chapter discusses the procyclical effects of Basel regimes, and suggests a reform proposal.

Findings – Minimum bank capital requirements proposals in developing countries should be complemented by the adoption of an incremental, size-based leverage ratio.

Originality/value of chapter – This chapter contributes to enlarge the academic and policy debate related to bank capital regulation, with a particular focus on the situation of developing countries.

Details

International Banking in the New Era: Post-Crisis Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-913-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Mika Veli-Pekka Viljanen

– The purpose of this paper is to aid understanding of the changes in Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) regulatory strategies after the global financial crisis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to aid understanding of the changes in Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) regulatory strategies after the global financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses the credit valuation adjustment (CVA) charge reform as a test case for inquiring whether BCBS has departed from its pre-crisis facilitative regulatory strategy path. The regulatory strategy of the CVA charge is discussed.

Findings

The charge exhibits a new regulatory strategy that BCBS has adopted. It seeks to manipulate market structures by imposing risk-insensitive capital charge methodologies.

Originality/value

The paper offers a new heuristic to analyse regulatory initiatives and their significance. The CVA charge has not been subject to a regulatory theory-based analysis in prior literature.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Semir Ibrahimovic and Ulrik Franke

This paper aims to examine the connection between information system (IS) availability and operational risk losses and the capital requirements. As most businesses today…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the connection between information system (IS) availability and operational risk losses and the capital requirements. As most businesses today become increasingly dependent on information technology (IT) services for continuous operations, IS availability is becoming more important for most industries. However, the banking sector has particular sector-specific concerns that go beyond the direct and indirect losses resulting from unavailability. According to the first pillar of the Basel II accord, IT outages in the banking sector lead to increased capital requirements and thus create an additional regulatory cost, over and above the direct and indirect costs of an outage.

Design/methodology/approach

A Bayesian belief network (BBN) with nodes representing causal factors has been used for identification of the factors with the greatest influence on IS availability, thus helping in investment decisions.

Findings

Using the BBN model for making IS availability-related decisions action (e.g. bringing a causal factor up to the best practice level), organization, according to the presented mapping table, would have less operational risk events related to IS availability. This would have direct impact by decreasing losses, related to those events, as well as to decrease the capital requirements, prescribed by the Basel II accord, for covering operational risk losses.

Practical implications

An institution using the proposed framework can use the mapping table to see which measures for improving IS availability will have a direct impact on operational risk events, thus improving operational risk management.

Originality/value

The authors mapped the factors causing unavailability of IS system to the rudimentary IT risk management framework implied by the Basel II regulations and, thus, established an otherwise absent link from the IT availability management to operational risk management according to the Basel II framework.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Ahmad Raza Bilal, Noraini Bt. Abu Talib and Mohd Noor Azli Ali Khan

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the remodeling of risk management, risk-averse mechanism and the importance of Basel-III framework to cope with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the remodeling of risk management, risk-averse mechanism and the importance of Basel-III framework to cope with the current financial challenges in the regime of post global financial crises of 2008-2011 by evidences in the banking sectors of emerging economies of Bahrain, the UAE and Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

To ensure deep understanding in this cross-cultural study, two fold data collection techniques are used; one through distribution of questionnaires to relevant staff members and second through personal interviews of selected risk officials. Respondents are selected on the basis of minimum five years banking experience and relevant professional education of finance or risk management. Multistage sampling technique is used for data collection. To ensure the consistency from respondents, personal interviews were conducted with an interval of six months after receipt of questionnaires. Various statistical and econometric techniques were used to test the study hypotheses and to satisfy the study objectives.

Findings

Based on statistical analysis and personal surveys, research findings concluded that banking sectors of study-countries have deep concern with potential risk challenges and they are in continuous process to improve risk measurement framework in accordance with the latest regulatory obligations. All three types of banks have clear understanding of RM practices and strong relationship is observed between predictors and endogenous variables. Respondent banks of study-countries have deep attentiveness to manage all key risks and they recommend to transform existing regulatory framework including Basel-III reforms to develop a more comprehensive “one-size-fits-all” regulatory framework to cover loopholes of existing financial system.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the findings of remodeling of risk management to cope with the new financial challenges for the banking sector. Empirical investigation is conducted in emerging economies of the sub-continent and gulf and evidences are obtained from the UAE, Bahrain and Pakistan. Following this research model, future research can be extended to enlarge the sample size, by including other regional countries or a comparison between eastern and western countries to make it more useful to understand the risk management strategies, minimize banking default risks and to make this significant economic sector more strengthen.

Practical implications

Respondent countries of this study are fast growing and emerging economies of the sub-continent and gulf. Results of this cross-cultural study are likely to be beneficial for credit analysts, bankers and academic researchers. Findings are also beneficial for local and international business investors while they are taking prudent investment decisions in respective capital markets.

Originality/value

This is the first comparative study to empirically investigate the RM practices and risk-averse mechanism in banking sectors of Bahrain, the UAE and Pakistan. In perspective of study-countries, a critical analysis on risk-averse mechanism and Basel-III regulatory implications is demonstrated in this study.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Kevin Nooree Kim and Ani L. Katchova

Following the recent global financial crisis, US regulatory agencies issued laws to implement the Basel III accords to ensure the resiliency of the US banking sector…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the recent global financial crisis, US regulatory agencies issued laws to implement the Basel III accords to ensure the resiliency of the US banking sector. Theories predict that enhanced regulations may alter credit issuance of the regulated banks due to increased capital requirements, but the direction of changes might not be straightforward especially with respect to the agricultural loans. A decrease in credit availability from banks might pose a serious problem for farmers who rely on bank credit especially during economic recessions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the impact of Basel III regulatory framework implementation on agricultural lending in the USA is examined. Using panel data of FDIC-insured banks from 2008 to 2017, the agricultural loan volume and growth rates are examined for agricultural banks and all US banks.

Findings

The results show that agricultural loan growth rates have slowed down, but the amount of agricultural loan volume issuance still remained positive. More detailed examination finds that regulated agricultural banks have decreased both the agricultural loan volume and their loan exposure to the agricultural sector, showing a possible sign of credit crunch.

Originality/value

This study examines whether the implementation of the Basel III regulation has resulted in changes in agricultural loan issuance by US banks as predicted by the lending channel theory.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Peterson K. Ozili

Basel III is a framework to protect the global banking system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a policy discussion on Basel III in Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

Basel III is a framework to protect the global banking system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a policy discussion on Basel III in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The significance of Basel III is discussed, and some ideas to consider when implementing Basel III to make it work in Africa, are provided.

Findings

Under Basel III, the African banking industry should expect better capital quality, higher capital levels, minimum liquidity requirement for banks, reduced systemic risk and differences in Basel III transitional arrangements. This paper also emphasizes that there should be enough time for the transition to Basel III in Africa; a combination of micro and macro-prudential regulations is needed; and the need to repair the balance sheets of banks, in preparation for Basel III.

Originality/value

The discussions in this paper will benefit policymakers, academics and other stakeholders interested in financial regulation in Africa such as the World bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Vitor Branco Oliveira and Clara Raposo

This paper aims to examine the relationship between regulation, market discipline and banking distress.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between regulation, market discipline and banking distress.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the empirical question put forward above, a multivariate logit model is applied to an international sample of 586 banks from 21 European countries in the period between 2000 and 2012. To give robustness to the results, different variables have been used to test the role played by market discipline and regulation as well as an alternative methodology known as duration/survival analysis.

Findings

It can be found that market discipline is a good indicator in signalling banking distress, that is, market discipline has penalized more banks with a higher likelihood of being in distress. Nonetheless, as broadly acknowledged, market discipline was not sufficient per se to avoid banking distress in Europe. With regard to regulation, this paper evidences that the adoption of other regulatory measures beyond the simple transposition of changes occurred in the EU Directives such as borrower-based measures and limits on pre-emptive exposures’ concentration, have contributed toward reducing the probability of distress of EU banks, showing that the introduction of this kind of measures was necessary and relevant. In addition, in this paper, it can be found that the NPL ratio, size, capital (including the well-known regulatory capital ratio, as well as the novel leverage ratio which discards the risk weights present in the former one) and liquidity are good indicators of banking distress which lead us to conclude that the new regulatory framework known as Basel III is on the right path to mitigate the probability that a new banking crisis similar to the last one takes place again.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation regards the period of time chosen, that is, from 2000 to 2012, empirically neglecting, to some extent the important regulatory changes occurred after the aforementioned period. Nonetheless, as mentioned in the Data and Methodology section, the period ends in 2012 because it is difficult to flag a reasonable number of banks’ bailouts afterwards, to properly run the type of model used in this paper. The second limitation is the fact that the possible changes in the risk management and risk assessment by institutions and in the behaviour of investors, acknowledge as weak and inappropriate before the on-set of the global financial crisis, albeit very relevant, are not in the scope of this paper.

Practical implications

Despite the welcomed changes performed by regulators so far, some aspects are not complete yet and new areas deserve more empirical work and attention by the regulators and supervisors. Some of them stem directly from the results obtained from this paper such as the enhancement and a close monitoring of the current Pillar 3 framework the increase of the adoption of more targeted tools, in a more preemptive way, to counter the build-up of risks and the implementation of the leverage ratio.

Originality/value

In the aftermath of the financial crisis, the identification of leading indicators signalling emerging risks to the banking system has become a major priority to central banks and supervisory authorities. As a consequence, several studies have formulated the aim of analysing predictive characteristics of a set of macroeconomic variables, such as GDP Growth, Credit-to-GDP, Inflation, M2-to-GDP, among others. Other studies take a different perspective and complement the analysis with bank-specific risk indicators. Nonetheless the aforementioned studies do not consider the relationship between regulation and market discipline and banking distress. This is the gap the authors wanted to fill, and this assessment is the main contribution of this paper.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Faizul Haque

This study aims to investigate how ownership structure and bank regulations individually and interactively influence risk-taking behaviour of a bank.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how ownership structure and bank regulations individually and interactively influence risk-taking behaviour of a bank.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical framework is based on dynamic two-step system generalised method of moments estimation technique to analyse an unbalanced panel data set covering 144 conventional banks from 12 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries.

Findings

The estimation results suggest that foreign shareholding has an inverse relationship with bank risk-taking. In addition, official supervisory power is found to have a positive association with bank risk, and this relationship is reinforced for banks with higher ownership concentration. In addition, capital stringency increases bank risk, whereas market discipline has an opposite effect, only in countries with higher activity restrictions. Finally, the interaction between ownership concentration and activity restriction has an inverse association with bank risk-taking.

Research limitations/implications

Overall, the evidence suggests that the Basel II framework and the regulatory reform initiatives in the post-global financial crisis period do not seem to have reduced bank risk-taking in MENA countries.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on the effectiveness of regulatory reform based on the three pillars of the Basel II guidance (capital regulations, market-oriented disclosures and official supervisory power), and offers evidence in support of “political/regulatory capture hypothesis” of bank regulation. The results also provide support for “global advantage hypothesis” of bank ownership.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Norman Mugarura

This paper aims to articulate the complexities posed by tax havens and offshore financial centres (OFCs) in the global fight against financial crimes such as tax avoidance…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to articulate the complexities posed by tax havens and offshore financial centres (OFCs) in the global fight against financial crimes such as tax avoidance and money laundering. It suggests possible measures to mitigate the effect of tax avoidance on economic development of countries, especially less developed poor countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were evaluated using examples and case studies drawn from tax havens and OFCs in newspaper reports to demonstrate how illicit proceeds of crime are spirited out of countries for safe custody in tax haven jurisdictions around the globe. The author also carried out a scoping review of the literature to delineate the correlation between tax havens, OFCs and the growth in financial crimes such as tax avoidance and money laundering.

Findings

There is a close correlation that bank secrecy laws in OFCs fuel the growth of financial crimes such as tax avoidance and money laundering around the globe. The findings also suggest that while imposition of sanctions on countries which transgress international financial regulatory regimes is an essential component in the international efforts against financial crimes, they need to be enforced on all states so that they are not seen as politicized and subsequently undermined.

Research limitations/implications

It is important that states work in tandem to initiate desired regimes to address financial crimes but enunciating regimes alone cannot generate a far reaching impact unless they are enforced against all transgressing states.

Practical implications

The paper has practical implications for states, people, governments, oversight institutions, markets and other stakeholders because it unravels varied issues relating to tax avoidance, money laundering and policies that need to be adopted to address these challenges.

Social implications

The paper draws attention to the impact of asymmetric information and data generation capacity in some countries on tax avoidance and other financial crimes and the need for international harmonization of tax and AML regimes.

Originality/value

The issues explored in this paper help to highlight the challenges posed by tax havens and OFCs for economic development of countries. While the paper was undertaken by the review of primary and secondary data, it offers important contributions that could potentially enhance the fight against tax avoidance.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000