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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

K. Douglas Hoffman, Scott W. Kelley and Holly M. Rotalsky

Demonstrates a method for examining service failures and recoverystrategies in service industries and provides a typology of servicefailures and recoveries in the…

11529

Abstract

Demonstrates a method for examining service failures and recovery strategies in service industries and provides a typology of service failures and recoveries in the restaurant industry. Based on 373 critical incidents collected from restaurant customers, uses the critical incident technique (CIT) to identify 11 unique failure types and eight different recovery strategies. Additional data regarding the magnitude of the service failure, the service recovery rating, the lapsed time since the failure/recovery incident, and customer retention rates were also collected. Presents this information along with managerial and research implications.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Katherine E. Harris, Lois A. Mohr and Kenneth L. Bernhardt

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in consumers' attributions of blame for service failures and its affect on their expectations for recovery in both…

6909

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in consumers' attributions of blame for service failures and its affect on their expectations for recovery in both online and offline settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of non‐student adults participated in a 2 (service type) by 2 (shopping medium) experimental design testing the affects of on‐ and offline shopping on consumers' attributions of blame for a service failure. Specifically, regression is employed to test the effects of on/offline medium on blame and expected service failure recovery in both the airline and banking industries.

Findings

Empirical support is found for the hypotheses that online subjects blame themselves more for service failures, and, in turn, expect less of a recovery than offline consumers. The on/offline medium is shown to have a mediated effect on expected service failure recovery through blame in the airline data. In the bank data, on/offline medium has a significant affect on blame, and blame has a significant affect on expected service failure recovery, though on/offline medium does not show a mediated affect on expected service failure recovery.

Practical implications

Because online customers tend to blame themselves more for service failures, managers may be able to offer less of service failure recovery online than offline. Furthermore, online customers may be more willing to recover for themselves, thereby saving the firm money and placing customers more in control of their service experience.

Originality/value

This study allows for the possibility of consumers' blaming themselves for service failures and, to our knowledge, this is the first study to examine how attribution for service failure affects expected service failure recovery in both on‐ and offline settings. Managers should find our results useful in developing service failure recovery strategies.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Ibrahim Alnawas, Amr Al Khateeb, Allam Abu Farha and Nelson Oly Ndubisi

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of service failure severity on brand forgiveness and to investigate the moderating effects of interpersonal attachment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of service failure severity on brand forgiveness and to investigate the moderating effects of interpersonal attachment styles and thinking styles on the service failure severity–brand forgiveness relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used retrospective experience sampling to collect the data and structural equation modeling (AMOS 24) to analyze 570 responses collected via an online survey.

Findings

This study shows that the service failure severity–brand forgiveness relationship is not always negative, as different conditions may amplify or weaken it. Specifically, a secure attachment style and holistic thinking weaken the negative impact of service failure severity on brand forgiveness, whereas an anxious attachment style and analytic thinking negatively amplify the relationship. An avoidance attachment style did not appear to play a role.

Practical implications

This study should help hotels fine-tune their segmentation, targeting and positioning efforts and may also help in implementing more focused recovery strategies.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into the role of psychological traits in amplifying/reducing the negative impact of service failure severity on brand forgiveness, thus showing the importance of developing the psychological profiles of customers beyond demographic profiling. The emotional and cognitive typologies of consumers are key to understanding the dependence of forgiveness on service failure severity.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Mohd Adil, Mohd Sadiq, Charles Jebarajakirthy, Haroon Iqbal Maseeh, Deepak Sangroya and Kumkum Bharti

The purpose of this study is to present a systematic review of the online service failure (OSF) literature and conduct an exhaustive analysis of academic research on this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a systematic review of the online service failure (OSF) literature and conduct an exhaustive analysis of academic research on this emerging research area.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study has adopted a structured systematic literature review approach to synthesize and assess the OSF literature. Further, the study uses the Theory-Context-Characteristics-Methodology (TCCM) framework to propose future research directions in the OSF domain.

Findings

This systematic review shows that OSF research is still developing and remains mainly incoherent. Further, the study develops a conceptual framework integrating the frequently reported antecedents, mediators, moderator and consequences in the extant literature. This review also synthesizes the theoretical perspectives adopted for this domain.

Research limitations/implications

The study followed specific inclusion and exclusion criteria to shortlist articles. Further, articles published only in the English language were considered. Hence, the findings of this review cannot be generalized to all OSF literature.

Practical implications

This systematic review has classified antecedents into customers' and service providers' roles which will enable online service providers to understand all sets of factors driving OSF. It also synthesizes and presents service recovery strategies and emphasizes the role of online customer support to fix OSF.

Originality/value

The OSF literature is still developing and remains highly incoherent, suggesting that a synthesized review is needed. This study has systematically reviewed and synthesized the OSF literature to study its development over time and proposes a framework which provides a comprehensive understanding of OSF.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2022

Durgesh Agnihotri, Kushagra Kulshreshtha, Vikas Tripathi and Pallavi Chaturvedi

The study aims to examine the customers' revisit intention toward the green restaurants after service failure based upon service failure attributions. The study further…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the customers' revisit intention toward the green restaurants after service failure based upon service failure attributions. The study further intends to investigate the moderating effect of green self-identity on customers' post-service failure behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 327 participants who had experienced service failure while dining in green restaurants. The study draws upon the prevailing literature to examine the relationship among the constructs using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The findings of the study have confirmed that service failure has an adverse effect on customers' revisit intention toward the green restaurants. However, customers with green self-identity appear less anxious about service failure as findings indicate customers revisit green restaurant even after service failure.

Practical implications

The study provides a clear indication to the managers of the green restaurants that a better understanding of service failure attributions may facilitate in preventing service failure in a prompt and reasonable manner. It will not only contribute to building the brand reputation, but also ensure that customers stay with the brand for a longer duration.

Originality/value

The study is unique in a way that it is the first of its type to establish a relationship between service failure attributions and customer satisfaction in the emerging South Asian market, such as India in the context of green restaurants. Besides, this is the only study to use green self-identity as a moderator between the relationships of customer satisfaction and revisit intention.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Rana Muhammad Umar and Salman Saleem

Employees' emotional competence (EEC) is gaining increasing attention in service failure and recovery research. This study investigates the mediating role of consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees' emotional competence (EEC) is gaining increasing attention in service failure and recovery research. This study investigates the mediating role of consumer forgiveness between perceived EEC and recovery satisfaction among casual dining consumers. Additionally, this study examines the effect of perceived EEC on recovery satisfaction across process failure vs outcome failure.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical incident technique (CIT) in conjunction with a self-administered online survey was carried out. Using the snowball sampling technique, a total of 204 useable responses were collected. To test the hypotheses, this study used partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The study finds that perceived EEC influences service recovery satisfaction. Additionally, the study identifies the mediating role of consumer forgiveness in the relationship between perceived EEC and recovery satisfaction. Multi-group moderation analysis shows that the relationship between perceived EEC and recovery satisfaction is weaker in process failures as compared to outcome failures.

Practical implications

Based on obtained results, this study recommends that after service failure consumer forgiveness and subsequent recovery satisfaction can be obtained with perceived EEC. To do so, managers need to incorporate emotional competence while recruiting and training the employees. Moreover, managers need to train employees on failure types and respective recovery strategies. Lastly, the study suggests that in emerging markets managers should pay greater emphasis on process failure, because such failure decreases customer satisfaction greatly than outcome failure.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the impact of perceived EEC on consumer forgiveness which subsequently determines the recovery satisfaction in the emerging markets. It extends the application of the emotional contagion and affect infusion theories by exposing the effect of perceived EEC on recovery satisfaction through consumer forgiveness. In addition, the study provides insights that the influence of perceived ECC on recovery satisfaction significantly varies across service failure types.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Aihui Chen, Yueming Pan, Longyu Li and Yunshuang Yu

As an emerging technology, medical artificial intelligence (AI) plays an important role in the healthcare system. However, the service failure of medical AI causes severe…

256

Abstract

Purpose

As an emerging technology, medical artificial intelligence (AI) plays an important role in the healthcare system. However, the service failure of medical AI causes severe violations to user trust. Different from other services that do not involve vital health, customers' trust toward the service of medical AI are difficult to repair after service failure. This study explores the links among different types of attributions (external and internal), service recovery strategies (firm, customer, and co-creation), and service recovery outcomes (trust).

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical analysis was carried out using data (N = 338) collected from a 2 × 3 scenario-based experiment. The scenario-based experiment has three stages: service delivery, service failure, and service recovery. The attribution of service failure was divided into two parts (customer vs. firm), while the recovery of service failure was divided into three parts (customer vs. firm vs. co-creation), making the design full factorial.

Findings

The results show that (1) internal attribution of the service failure can easily repair both affective-based trust (AFTR) and cognitive-based trust (CGTR), (2) co-creation recovery has a greater positive effect on AFTR while firm recovery is more effective on cognitive-based trust, (3) a series of interesting conclusions are found in the interaction between customers' attribution and service recovery strategy.

Originality/value

The authors' findings are of great significance to the strategy of service recovery after service failure in the medical AI system. According to the attribution type of service failure, medical organizations can choose a strategy to more accurately improve service recovery effect.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 122 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2022

Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz, Mohammad Soliman, Alamir Al-Alawi, Bassam Samir Al-Romeedy and Moustafa Mekawy

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived severity of service failure (PSSF) and service recovery strategies (SRSs) as antecedents of customer forgiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived severity of service failure (PSSF) and service recovery strategies (SRSs) as antecedents of customer forgiveness (CF), customer reconciliation, negative word-of-mouth and re-patronage intention as outcomes across two Middle Eastern countries: Egypt and Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative technique was used, using a questionnaire, to collect data from customers of the national airline companies of Egypt and Oman. The perspectives of 1,084 airline customers were analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results of this study show that service failure severity has a negative influence on the effectiveness of SRSs. In turn, proper SRSs strongly and positively affect both Egyptian and Omani CF. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicate that service failure habit plays an important role in increasing the negative influence of perceived service failure severity on Egyptian, but not Omani, CF. Overall, results suggest that CF differs considerably between Egyptians and Omanis.

Originality/value

This study developed and empirically examined a comprehensive conceptual model of the drivers and outcomes of CF of airline companies. This study provides academics with meaningful insights into how social and cultural differences between customers in different countries can result in sometimes dramatically different behaviours following a service failure.

目的

本研究在埃及和阿曼两个中东国家调查了感知的服务失败严重性(PSSF), 并将其作为服务恢复策略, 作为顾客宽恕, 顾客和解, 负面口碑和重购意向的前因变量。

设计/方法/方法

本研究采用定量方法, 使用问卷调查, 从埃及和阿曼国家航空公司的顾客中收集数据。使用PLS-SEM分析了1084个航空公司客户的观点。

结果

结果表明, 服务失败严重性对服务恢复策略的有效性有负面影响。相应地, 适当的服务恢复策略对埃及和阿曼顾客的宽恕度有强烈的积极影响。此外, 研究结果表明, 在埃及(而不是阿曼)的顾客中, 服务失败习惯对感知到的服务失败严重程度对宽恕的负面影响方面起着重要作用。总体而言, 结果表明, 埃及和阿曼顾客之间的顾客客户宽恕差异很大。

原创性/价值

本研究开发并实证检验了航空公司顾客宽恕的驱动因素和结果的综合概念模型。本研究为学界提供了有意义的见解, 即了解不同国家/地区的顾客之间的社会和文化差异如何导致服务失败后出现截然不同的行为。

Propósito

Este estudio analizó la gravedad percibida de los fallos del servicio de reclamaciones (PSSF) y quejas como antecedentes de respuesta a los clientes, la reconciliación con el mismo, el boca a boca negativo y la intención de patrocinio como resultados en dos países del Medio Oriente (MO): Egipto y Omán.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

se empleó una técnica cuantitativa, utilizando un cuestionario, para recopilar datos de los clientes de las compañías aéreas nacionales de Egipto y Omán. Se analizaron las perspectivas de 1084 clientes de aerolíneas utilizando PLS-SEM.

Resultados

los resultados muestran que la gravedad de los fallos en el servicio tiene una influencia negativa en la efectividad de las estrategias del servicio de reclamaciones. Asimismo, las estrategias de este tipo afectan fuerte y positivamente sobre la empatía de los clientes egipcios y omaníes. Además, los resultados indican que los fallos en el servicio de quejas, juega un papel importante en el aumento de la influencia negativa de la severidad percibida sobre el servicio y la consideración a la hora de perdonar por parte del cliente egipcio, pero no en el omaní. En general, los resultados sugieren que el perdón del cliente difiere considerablemente entre egipcios y omaníes.

Originalidad/valor

el estudio se desarrolló y se implementó empíricamente sobre un modelo conceptual integrado de impulsores y resultados del perdón de los clientes de las compañías aéreas. El estudio brinda a los académicos información significativa sobre cómo las diferencias sociales y culturales entre los clientes en diferentes países pueden resultar en comportamientos a veces dramáticamente diferentes en los fallos en el servicio.

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2022

Ke Ma and Si Qian

Service failure is detrimental for both enterprises and customers; therefore, it is particularly important and cost effective for service enterprises to take precautionary…

Abstract

Purpose

Service failure is detrimental for both enterprises and customers; therefore, it is particularly important and cost effective for service enterprises to take precautionary measures rather than provide recovery after service failure. Based on the inoculation theory, this research examines the impact and the boundary conditions of inoculation messages on the effectiveness of service recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed research model is examined through two scenario-based experimental studies. A total of 627 datasets was collected and analyzed with the SPSS program with the PROCESS tool to examine the moderation (Model = 1) and three-way interaction (Model = 4) effects.

Findings

The research findings show that inoculation messages moderate the relationship between recovery measures and customer satisfaction. Specifically, there is a positive relationship between service recovery and recovery satisfaction, which can be further boosted with inoculation messages. Importantly, inoculation messages eliminate the significant difference between the effects of expected recovery and high recovery. However, inoculation messages are only effective for enterprises with high brand equity.

Originality/value

These findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the service recovery practice of service enterprises.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Arash Ahmadi and Sohrab Fakhimi

The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the different psychological impacts of two initial verbal recovery strategies (gratitude vs empathetic apology) on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the different psychological impacts of two initial verbal recovery strategies (gratitude vs empathetic apology) on the consumers' loyalty after a service failure. The proposed theoretical model also appraises the mediating role of two emotional responses (consumer forgiveness, consumer anger) and consumer self-esteem and the moderating role of self-oriented perfectionism.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies (i.e. an experimental design and a field study) are considered for this investigation to assess the effectiveness of gratitude expression versus empathetic apology on post-recovery loyalty and test the effects of mediators and the moderator applied between the verbal recovery strategies and post-recovery loyalty.

Findings

The results of Study 1 revealed the supremacy of gratitude to empathetic apology in maintaining consumers' loyalty after service failure recovery. The better impact of gratitude expressed in increasing post-recovery loyalty is mediated through the elevation of consumers' forgiveness, the reduction of consumers' anger and consumers' self-esteem. The findings of Study 2 indicated that gratitude increases more post-recovery loyalty through individuals with a high level of self-oriented perfectionism.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could examine other service failure situations, different types of service recovery, mediators or moderators, which contribute to the service marketing literature.

Practical implications

After a service failure, using gratitude expressions to consumers often makes them feel better and more valuable.

Originality/value

This work increases service providers' knowledge in using proper expressions after a service failure to help elevate consumers' positive reactions resulting in maintaining their loyalty.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 95000