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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Yasmina Bahlil, Djamil Krouf, Zoheir Mellouk, Nawal Taleb-Dida and Akila Guenzet

This study aims to examine whether Globularia alypum (Ga) lyophilized aqueous leaves extract treatment improves cardiometabolic syndromes such as hyperglycemia, lipid…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether Globularia alypum (Ga) lyophilized aqueous leaves extract treatment improves cardiometabolic syndromes such as hyperglycemia, lipid profiles and oxidative damage resulting from a high-fructose diet induced in hypertriglyceridemic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 24 male Wistar rats weighing 80 ± 5 g were first randomly divided into 2 groups. A total of 12 control rats (C) were fed a standard-diet (St-D) and 12 high fructose (HF) rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HF-D) containing St-D in which cornstarch was substituted by fructose (61.4%). After 15 weeks of feeding, body weight (BW) was about 320 ± 20 g and hypertriglyceridemia was noted in HF vs C group (2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L) vs (1.25 ± 0.33 mmol/L). Each group of rats was then divided into two equal groups (n = 6) and fed during four weeks either a St-D or HF-D, treated or not with 1% of Ga extract (C-Ga) and (HF-Ga). After 28 days, fasting rats were anesthetized and blood and tissues were removed to measure biochemical parameters.

Findings

The results showed no significant differences in BW and insulinemia between all groups. Ga extract supplementation reduced glycemia (−36%), glycosylated hemoglobin (−37%), Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance index (−34%) and triacylglycerol’s contents in plasma (−33%), very low density lipoproteins–low density lipoproteins (VLDL-LDL) (−48%), liver (−52%) and aorta (−39%); total cholesterol concentrations in aorta was 3.7-fold lower in HF-Ga vs HF group. Ga treatment reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma, VLDL-LDL, red blood cells (RBC), liver, muscle and kidney by improving superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in RBC and catalase (CAT) activity in kidney (p < 0.05). Moreover, Ga ameliorates glutathione (GSH) production in RBC (+41%) and kidney tissues (+35%).

Originality/value

Ga extract ameliorated cardiometabolic syndrome by its hypotriglyceridemic effect and prevented development of insulin resistance. It reduces lipid peroxidation by enhancing non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (SOD, GPx and CAT) antioxidant defense systems in high-fructose hypertriglyceridemic rats. Therefore, supplementation of Ga leaves extract as an adjuvant could be used for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and the prevention and/or the management of cardio-metabolic adverse effects.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Hayet Cherrad, Sherazede Bouderbala, Yahiaoui Zidan and Djamil Krouf

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (CO) on glycaemia and lipemia and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (CO) on glycaemia and lipemia and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes and tissues, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg BW). In total, 12 diabetic D rats, weighing 260 ± 20 g, were divided into two groups fed a casein diet supplemented (D-OC) or not (D) with OC (7.5 per cent), for four weeks.

Findings

In D-OC compared with D, glycaemia, total cholesterol and triglycerides values (−40 per cent; p = 0.007, 27 per cent; p = 0.007 and −27 per cent; p = 0.0019). In erythrocyte, liver, kidney, heart, muscle and brain, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents were respectively, (−19 per cent; p = 0.03, −32 per cent; p = 0.002, −20 per cent; p = 0.04, −68 per cent; p = 0.003, −74 per cent; p = 0.0003 and −38 per cent; p = 0.04). In erythrocyte, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities were respectively, (+14 per cent; p = 0.01, +74 per cent; p = 0.012 and +34 per cent; p = 0.0009). In the liver, kidney, heart and muscle, SOD activity was respectively, (+31 per cent; p = 0.004, +12 per cent; p = 0.038, +43 per cent; p = 0.001 and +23 per cent; p = 0.18). GSH-Px activity was respectively, (+121 per cent; p = 0.0009, 89 per cent; p = 0.0006, + 95 per cent; p = 0.008, +71 per cent; p = 0.02 and +26 per cent; p = 0.01), in the liver, kidney, heart, muscle and brain. Catalase activity was (+21 per cent; p = 0.008) in the liver, (+88 per cent; p = 0.0002 in the kidney, +53 per cent; p = 0,002 in the heart and 83 per cent; p = 0.00004 in the muscle).

Originality/value

In diabetic rats, OC reduces hyperglycaemia induced by STZ and attenuates triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia. This residue is able to decrease the oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in erythrocytes and tissues. The high contents of phytoconstituents present in OC are considered to be responsible for this effect.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Chinu Chacko and Rajamohan Thankappan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The test oils were heated at 210 ± 10°C for 15 h. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In total, 15% fresh/heated oils and 1% cholesterol were mixed with the experimental diet and fed to the animals for 60 days.

Findings

Chemical analysis revealed that repeated heating of oils resulted in changes in fatty acid composition and elevated lipid peroxidation, the effects being lower in heated coconut oil. Body weight gain significantly decreased in heated coconut oil (p = 0.02), heated mustard oil (p = 0.022) and heated sunflower oil (p = 0.001) fed animals. Malondialdehyde level was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in tissues of heated oils fed animals. Concentration of protein oxidation products was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Total thiols were decreased (p = 0.001) in tissues of animals that were fed heated oils. Animals that were fed heated mustard oil and heated sunflower oil showed lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidation products when compared to those fed heated coconut oil.

Originality/value

Studies comparing the effects of thermally oxidized oils that vary in fatty acid composition are rare. The effects of fresh and heated oils that vary in fatty acid constitution, namely, coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil, in cholesterol-fed rats are studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Beno Okechukwu Onunkwor, Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu Ugwor, Kunle Ogungbemi, Anuoluwapo Adewole, Michael Ayobami Olowoyeye, David Arowojolu, Olamide Yewande Adeleke and Victory Chukwudalu Ugbaja

This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of chitosan (CT) on cardio-lipotoxic responses elicited by a high-fat diet (HF).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of chitosan (CT) on cardio-lipotoxic responses elicited by a high-fat diet (HF).

Design/methodology/approach

Thirty-six male Wistar rats were distributed across six groups (n = 6): normal diet (ND), HF, ND-5%CT, HF-1%CT, HF-3%CT and HF-5%CT, for seven weeks. Blood and cardiac tissues were processed for biochemical, immunohistochemical and histopathological analyses.

Findings

Ingestion of HF induced hyperlipidaemia and lipid accumulation, leading to increased body and heart weight by 70.5% (p < 0.0001) and 124% (p = 0.0021), respectively, compared to ND-groups. Cardiac damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde) were higher in the HF-group compared to control rats. Also, atherogenic and coronary risk indices were significantly elevated by 155% (p = 0.0044) and 174% (p = 0.0008), respectively, compared to control rats. Rats fed HF had significantly reduced cardiac antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and elevated expression of NF-κB-p65 and p53 (p < 0.0001) in the cardiac tissues. Histology revealed lipid inclusions in the cardiac tissues of HF-groups. CT (1%–5%) prevented hyperlipidaemia, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and cardiac damage in HF-fed rats, while greatly improving the histology of the cardiac tissues in HF-fed rats in a dose-dependent manner.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of CT against cardio-lipotoxicity elicited by HF diet ingestion. The findings suggest that CT may present a safe therapeutic alternative for managing complications arising from cardio-lipotoxicity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Robert Benjamin Adams, Karen Nkechiyere Egbo and Barbara Demmig-Adams

The purpose of this review is to summarize new research indicating that high-dose supplements of the antioxidant vitamin C can interfere with the benefits of physical…

1126

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this review is to summarize new research indicating that high-dose supplements of the antioxidant vitamin C can interfere with the benefits of physical exercise for athletic performance and the risk for chronic disease.

Design/methodology/approach

This article reviews current original literature on the regulation of human metabolism by oxidants and antioxidants and evaluates the role of exercise and high-dose vitamin C in this context. The presentation in this article aims to be informative and accessible to both experts and non-experts.

Findings

The evidence reviewed here indicates that single, high-dose supplements of the antioxidant vitamin C abolish the beneficial effects of athletic training on muscle recovery and strength as well as abolishing the benefits of exercise in lowering the risk for chronic disease. In contrast, an antioxidant-rich diet based on regular foods apparently enhances the benefits of exercise. These findings are consistent with an updated understanding of the critical importance of both oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of human metabolism. While more research is needed to address the role of timing and level of antioxidant consumption, it is clear that a balance between oxidants and antioxidants is essential.

Practical implications

The information presented in this review is important for both athletes and the public at large in their efforts to choose nutrition and exercise regimes appropriate to maximize the outcome of their training efforts and lower their risk for chronic disease.

Originality/value

This article provides accessible and comprehensive information to researchers, nutritionists, and consumers interested in optimal nutrition during athletic training and for obtaining the full benefit of physical exercise in lowering the risk for chronic disease.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2021

Sanam Nadirova, Yuriy Sinyavskiy, Serik Abdreshov, Yevgeniya Deripaskina and Ashat Torgautov

Evaluation of the effect of yoghurts enriched with a complex of vegetable additives on the state of the antioxidant defense system, the content of triglycerides and…

Abstract

Purpose

Evaluation of the effect of yoghurts enriched with a complex of vegetable additives on the state of the antioxidant defense system, the content of triglycerides and cholesterol in rats exposed to toxic seeds with cadmium chloride. The purpose of this paper is evaluation of the effect of yoghurts enriched with a complex of vegetable additives on the state of the antioxidant defense system, the content of triglycerides and cholesterol in rats exposed to toxic cadmium chloride.

Design/methodology/approach

The studies were carried out on 72 male rats (Wistar), divided into six groups (n = 12): control, model of cadmium intoxication and receiving the developed dairy product, enriched with appropriate biologically active supplements (rosehip, rowan and hawthorn berries syrup and grape peel extract [rich in resveratrol]). Biochemical parameters of blood, homogenates of the liver and kidneys were analyzed.

Findings

The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (in the liver, kidneys and erythrocytes) decreased in the group receiving dairy products enriched with berry syrups and grape peel extract (rich in resveratrol). The activity of catalase, total antioxidant activity and superoxide dismutase increased. In the groups receiving dairy products enriched with berry syrups, the total protein level in the blood increased, compared with Group 2. The content of triglycerides and cholesterol levels in groups receiving dairy products decreased significantly compared to animals intoxicated with cadmium chloride.

Originality/value

The topic of cadmium’s toxic effects on human and animal health and methods for solving this problem is very relevant.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Grzegorz Cieslar, Justyna Malyszek‐Tumidajewicz, Pawel Sowa and Aleksander Sieron

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the influence of long‐term, whole‐body exposure of rats to strong, static electric field with physical parameters generated nearby…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the influence of long‐term, whole‐body exposure of rats to strong, static electric field with physical parameters generated nearby high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines on the intensity of reactive oxygen species generation analyzed indirectly, basing on the measurement of malone dialdehyde level, as well as on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defence system.

Design/methodology/approach

In rats exposed to static electric field with intensity of 16, 25 and 35 kV/m, respectively, or sham‐exposed eight hours daily for 56 days, in the obtained plasma, erythrocytes lysates and liver homogenates the activity of some antioxidant enzymes as well as the concentration of malone dialdehyde were determined with use of spectrophotometric and kinetic methods.

Findings

It was observed that long‐term exposure of rats to static electric field causes only temporary compensatory changes in the concentration of malone dialdehyde and transient changes in the activity of enzymatic antioxidant system, both in blood and in liver tissue in the form of temporary inhibition of activity of most antioxidant enzymes during exposure cycle, with subsequent compensatory increase in this activity after the end of exposure cycle, enabling maintenance of prooxidant‐antioxidant balance in the organism of experimental animals and inhibition of peroxidation process.

Practical implications

Presented data indicate that construction of air HVDC transmission lines, according to actual compulsory regulations, enables serious health hazards related to persistent disturbances of prooxidant‐antioxidant balance to be avoided.

Originality/value

In the experiment it was confirmed, for the first time, that long‐term exposure to strong static electric field causes transient compensatory changes of prooxidant‐antioxidant balance in living organisms.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1990

Garry G. Duthie

In 1988 over half of the deaths in the world were due to heartdisease. The recognised risk factors for coronary heart disease aresmoking, plasma cholesterol levels and…

Abstract

In 1988 over half of the deaths in the world were due to heart disease. The recognised risk factors for coronary heart disease are smoking, plasma cholesterol levels and hypertension. These factors, however, account only for some 50‐60 per cent of the variance in incidence of the disease between countries; so other factors must contribute. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that in conditions of oxidant stress a relative deficiency in antioxidants, in conjunction with a relatively high concentration of oxidisable substrates such as cholesterol, may play an important role in the development of atheroma. The efficiency of the human antioxidant defence system depends in part on an adequate intake of foods containing antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. Until intervention trials with these antioxidants show positive effects in reducing coronary heart disease, advising the general population to increase intake of Vitamin C and E is contentious. On the other hand increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables is unlikely to do any harm, and may do us some good.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Shokoofeh Talebi, Zamzam Paknahad, Mohammad Hashemi and Akbar Hasanzadeh

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is developed by an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium. Recent studies have shown that increased oxidative stress has…

Abstract

Purpose

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is developed by an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium. Recent studies have shown that increased oxidative stress has implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. Anxiety and CAD have a mutual relationship, as the effect of long-lasting anxiety on atherosclerosis and CAD is well known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between dietary / serum total antioxidant capacity and CAD.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 160 male patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Diagnosis and analysis of angiograms were performed visually by a cardiologist. The subjects were categorized into CAD− (coronary artery obstruction <75 per cent) and CAD+ (coronary artery obstruction ≥ 75 per cent) groups. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, blood sugar and lipid profile and physical activity (PA) were assessed. Information about anxiety was obtained by Spielberger questionnaire. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was obtained by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of selected foods.

Findings

Mean of dietary TAC was significantly lower in CAD+ than CAD− group (P < 0.001). However, there was not any significant differences about serum TAC (P = 0.28). The mean of body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.04) and triglyceride (TG) level (P = 0.03) and the frequency of smoking (P = 0.03) were significantly higher in the CAD+ than the CAD− group. There was no significant relationship between CAD with apparent (P = 0.33) and hidden anxiety level (P = 0.16). Confounding factors such as smoking and medications were adjusted.

Research limitations/implications

This study had certain limitations. Being a single center cross-sectional design does not permit analysis of causal relationships; the sample size was geographically limited. The authors could not exclude the medication of patients, which could affect the total antioxidant capacity levels. Measurement error in self-reported dietary consumption may results misclassification of exposure.

Practical implications

A diet high in total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with CAD. Serum TAC does not vary between men with and without CAD when confounders including age, BMI, TG, smoking, SBP, DBP, energy intake, PA, HDL-C, LDL-C, T-C, FBS, family history of CAD, education and anxiety are taken into consideration.

Social implications

High consumption of vegetables and fruits may play a major role in the prevention of CAD.

Originality/value

The study was approved by the ethics committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (No:394888).

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Javaid Akhtar, Muhammad Shafiq, Iram Nadeem, Muhammad Ashfaq and Sammia Shahid

The cowpea plant, being affordable and protein‐rich, is considered poor man's meat. The aim of this paper is to undertake a detailed investigation regarding in vitro total…

Abstract

Purpose

The cowpea plant, being affordable and protein‐rich, is considered poor man's meat. The aim of this paper is to undertake a detailed investigation regarding in vitro total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and chemical constituents of the vegetable oils from seeds of this plant, taking its nutritional value into consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

Vegetable oils of different indigenous cowpea varieties were obtained using soxhelt extraction assembly and subjected to GC‐MS analyses and various antioxidant assays including 2,2′‐azinobis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulpohonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, ferr, 2.2′‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging, total phenolic contents (TPC), lipid peroxidation inhibition, and iron chelation activity.

Findings

Various chemical constituents including different hydrocarbons, tocopherols, ketones, fatty esters, estragole and cedrene were identified. TPCs were found to be 5.439, 5.7279, 7.6126, 6.7573 and 10.0591 mg/L gallic acid equivalent for S.A. Dandy, Elite, White Star, CP‐386 and FBD Rawan varieties, respectively. Employing ABTS radical decoloration assay a significant linear correlation (R2=0.997, 0.996, 0.997, 0.996 and 0.997 for S.A. Dandy, Elite, White Star, CP‐386 and FBD Rawan varieties, respectively) was found between the percent inhibition of ABTS radical cation and the amount of vegetable oils. The percent inhibition of the Fe(II)‐Ferrozine complex formation was found to be 29.45, 53.76, 82.91, 86.59 and 57.87 for the same varieties, respectively.

Originality/value

GC‐MS and standard in vitro antioxidative capacity analyses data clearly demonstrated the potency of the cowpea as antioxidant and radical scavenger plant which may be used as a good source of natural antioxidants. The plant seeds may prove a better and cost‐effective substitute of expensive food items.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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