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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Ghassan Abo Chameh, Fadi Kheder and Francois Karabet

The purpose of this paper was to find out the appropriate enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of alkali pretreated olive pomace (OP) which enable maximum yield of reducing sugar.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to find out the appropriate enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of alkali pretreated olive pomace (OP) which enable maximum yield of reducing sugar.

Design/methodology/approach

The commercial enzymatic preparation (Viscozyme® L) was used for the hydrolysis of OP. The effects of pretreatment, time, temperature, pH, enzyme quantity and substrate loading on the hydrolysis yield were investigated.

Findings

This study showed that enzymatic hydrolysis of OP using Viscozyme® L can be successfully performed at 50°C. Alkaline pretreatment step of OP prior the enzymatic hydrolysis was indispensable. The hydrolysis yield of alkaline pretreated OP was 2.6 times higher than the hydrolysis yield of untreated OP. Highest hydrolysis yield (33.5 ± 1.5 per cent) was achieved after 24 h using 1 per cent (w/v) OP load in the presence of 100 μl Viscozyme® L at 50°C and pH 5.5 with mixing rate of 100 rpm (p = 0.05).

Originality/value

Reaction time, temperature, pH value and enzyme quantity were found to have a significant effect on enzymatic hydrolysis yield of alkali pretreated of OP. Although high-solid loadings of OP lowered the hydrolysis yield, it produced higher concentration of reducing sugars, which may render the OP conversion process more economically feasible.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Sameh Hachicha, Leila Kaaniche and Fathi Abid

Investment decisions by agribusiness firms are costly and subject to high volatility and uncertainty. In many cases, the project value is not only determined by its…

Abstract

Purpose

Investment decisions by agribusiness firms are costly and subject to high volatility and uncertainty. In many cases, the project value is not only determined by its cash‐flows stream and financial side effects but also by the presence of substantial future uncertainty such as project implementation delay and growth opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate an agribusiness project taking into account these two options and to illustrate the how risks that evolve over time can affect sequential investment decisions in the oleic oil industry in Tunisia.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used to capture the investment project value and analyze the impact of lags between the initial investment decision and its implementation on project value is based on a decision tree method and binomial lattice method (which adds growth option). The project valuation is based, first on actual data at the time of the initial decision and second the authors use the full information to report on the true value of the investment opportunity as real time evolved.

Findings

Findings show that time to build is a very important factor in valuing an agribusiness especially when efficiency is strongly governed by climatic conditions and international market uncertainty. Our real options approach shows that production delays can deteriorate the follow‐on project value by as much as 53 percent. The implicit growth option falls to only 27 percent of the total project value while it was about 58 percent according to the standard forecast. The delay in project implementation not only affects the firm project financing costs and the loss of revenue, but also it contributes to modify the initial marketing strategy.

Originality/value

The paper is a first application of real option approach to the oleic oil industry. The methodology used in the paper can be adapted by practitioners and investors to adequately value oleic projects.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Hayet Cherrad, Sherazede Bouderbala, Yahiaoui Zidan and Djamil Krouf

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (CO) on glycaemia and lipemia and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (CO) on glycaemia and lipemia and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes and tissues, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg BW). In total, 12 diabetic D rats, weighing 260 ± 20 g, were divided into two groups fed a casein diet supplemented (D-OC) or not (D) with OC (7.5 per cent), for four weeks.

Findings

In D-OC compared with D, glycaemia, total cholesterol and triglycerides values (−40 per cent; p = 0.007, 27 per cent; p = 0.007 and −27 per cent; p = 0.0019). In erythrocyte, liver, kidney, heart, muscle and brain, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents were respectively, (−19 per cent; p = 0.03, −32 per cent; p = 0.002, −20 per cent; p = 0.04, −68 per cent; p = 0.003, −74 per cent; p = 0.0003 and −38 per cent; p = 0.04). In erythrocyte, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities were respectively, (+14 per cent; p = 0.01, +74 per cent; p = 0.012 and +34 per cent; p = 0.0009). In the liver, kidney, heart and muscle, SOD activity was respectively, (+31 per cent; p = 0.004, +12 per cent; p = 0.038, +43 per cent; p = 0.001 and +23 per cent; p = 0.18). GSH-Px activity was respectively, (+121 per cent; p = 0.0009, 89 per cent; p = 0.0006, + 95 per cent; p = 0.008, +71 per cent; p = 0.02 and +26 per cent; p = 0.01), in the liver, kidney, heart, muscle and brain. Catalase activity was (+21 per cent; p = 0.008) in the liver, (+88 per cent; p = 0.0002 in the kidney, +53 per cent; p = 0,002 in the heart and 83 per cent; p = 0.00004 in the muscle).

Originality/value

In diabetic rats, OC reduces hyperglycaemia induced by STZ and attenuates triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia. This residue is able to decrease the oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in erythrocytes and tissues. The high contents of phytoconstituents present in OC are considered to be responsible for this effect.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Yahiaoui Zidan, Sherazede Bouderbala, Cherrad Hayet and Bouchenak Malika

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (OC) on lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes activities of serum, red blood cells (RBCs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (OC) on lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes activities of serum, red blood cells (RBCs) and liver, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced-diabetic rat fed cholesterol-enriched diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypercholesterolemic male rats were rendered diabetic (HC-D) by a single intraperitoneal injection dose of STZ (35 mg/kg BW). HC-D rats were divided into two groups fed for 28d a diet supplemented with OC at 7.5 percent (HC-D-OC) or not (HC-D). A control group (C) was submitted to standard diet containing 20 per cent casein for the same experimental period.

Findings

RBCs, serum and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents were significantly increased in HC-D, compared to C group (p = 0.04, p = 0.02 and 0.03). These values were significantly decreased (48 per cent and 64 per cent; p = 0.02 and p = 0.0007) in serum and liver of HC-D-OC vs HC-D group. In RBCs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were, respectively, 1.5, 2- and 1.7-fold higher (p = 0.03, p = 0.008 and p = 0.03) in HC-D group compared to HC group. In serum and liver, SOD, CAT and GST activities were, respectively, 1.3-, 2.6- and 1.6-fold increased (p = 0.03, p = 0.007 and p = 0.02). In HC-D-OC compared to HC-D group, RBCs glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), CAT and GST activities were, respectively, 2.1-, 3.3- and 2.1-fold higher (p = 0.04, p = 0.0009 and p = 0.03). In serum, SOD and CAT activities were, respectively, 1.5- and 1.9-fold increased (p = 0.02, p = 0.02). In liver, SOD, GSH-PX, CAT and GST activities were significantly increased (p = 0.005, p = 0.03, p = 0.02 and p = 0.04).

Originality/value

In diabetic rats-fed cholesterol-enriched diet, OC was able to reduce oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities in serum, RBCs and liver.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Khaled M. M. Koriem and Mahmoud S.S. Arbid

This paper aims to evaluate hematological parameters, blood glutathione (GSH), serum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD) and liver function in favism animals' models…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate hematological parameters, blood glutathione (GSH), serum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD) and liver function in favism animals' models after oral intake with a mixture of pickled olives and Vicia faba (V. faba) seeds.

Design/methodology/approach

Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic crisis. It results from the ingestion of V. faba by the individuals. The hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), serum glucose, blood GSH, serum G6-PD, serum thiobarbaturic acid reactive substances (TBARS), liver protein and liver function were evaluated after oral administration with a mixture of pickled olives with V. faba seeds in favism animals' models.

Findings

The favism-, vicine- and convicine-treated animals showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in Hb (6.42, 7.23 and 5.96 g/dl), Hct (25.4, 26.4 and 25.1%), RBCs (2.56, 2.45 and 2.60 106 cells/mm3, WBCs (4.35, 4.25 and 4.30 103 cells/mm3), serum glucose (95.8, 97.1 and 96.5 mg/dl), blood GSH (24.7, 26.6 and 23.8 mg/dl), serum G6-PD (15.8, 15.9 and 15.7 U/L), serum aspartate aminotransferase (6.35, 6.59 and 5.97 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (4.49, 4.61 and 4.50 U/L), total protein (6.54, 6.59 and 6.40 g/dl), albumin (3.84, 3.91 and 3.75 g/dl), globulin (2.70, 2.48 and 2.65 g/dl) and liver protein (3.37, 3.10 and 3.42 g/g tissue) but a significant increase (p < 0.01) in serum TBARS (38.7, 38.9 and 39.4 nmol/dl), alkaline phosphatase (275, 271 and 281 U/L) and total bilirubin (0.93, 0.89 and 0.91 mg/dl) compared to Hb (16.3 g/dl), Hct (45.3%), RBCs (5.80 106 cells/mm3), WBCs (9.45 103 cells/mm3), serum glucose (96.5 mg/dl), blood GSH (39.7 mg/dl), serum G6-PD (36.1 U/L), serum TBARS (18.0 nmol/dl), serum aspartate aminotransferase (19.8 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (9.23 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (214 U/L), total bilirubin (0.57 mg/dl), total protein (8.76 g/dl), albumin (4.85 g/dl), globulin (3.91 g/dl) and liver protein (6.28 g/g tissue) in control group. The oral administration with pickled olives + V. faba, pickled olives + vicine and pickled olives + convicine into favism animals' models, vicine-treated animals and convicine-treated animals, respectively pushed all the above-mentioned parameters to near the control levels.

Originality/value

V. faba contains vicine and convicine glycosides. Vicine and convicine glycosides in V. faba are hydrolyzed by intestinal microflora to aglycones divicine and isouramil, respectively. Divicine and isouramil are highly reactive compounds generating free radicals where divicine and isouramil are the main factors of favism. The ß-glucosidase in pickled olives converts both vicine and convicine glycosides into aglycones divicine and isouramil, respectively, in aerobic condition outside the human body (in inactive forms) and prevent these glycosides to cause favism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Maria Kniazeva

This paper aims to: better understand the country of origin (COO) construct by adopting a lens of marketplace mythology; and develop a conceptual framework delineating the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to: better understand the country of origin (COO) construct by adopting a lens of marketplace mythology; and develop a conceptual framework delineating the process of mythologizing a country through the use of packaging.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of narratives on food product packages that claim a connection to Italy lets this qualitative study join two streams of research – on COO effect and marketplace mythology.

Findings

The work proposes four mythological properties of the country of origin construct, discusses their major dimensions, establishes their relationship, and develops a conceptual framework delineating the mythological nature of the country of origin construct.

Research limitations/implications

Several directions for future research may enhance this study. For example, the interpretation of the narratives by the consumers of food products claiming an Italian connection will allow exploring how the mythic structures employed by marketers are read by the intended readers.

Practical implications

The importance of COO effects on consumer decision making is expected to become even stronger with current globalization trends that increasingly move products across countries and force marketers to engage in a battle to differentiate their brands – in many cases by capitalizing on the origin of products.

Originality/value

By exploring food package stories, the paper focuses on the carrier of mythic meaning that is under‐researched in both COO and marketplace mythology studies. The present study adds to the understanding of how geography ceases being a mere informational “Made in” statement and is transformed into a powerful cultural marker, full of symbolically framed meaning.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Abel Duarte Alonso

The purpose of this paper is to examine the links between olive growing, hospitality and tourism in an emerging olive growing region, as well as challenges olive grove…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the links between olive growing, hospitality and tourism in an emerging olive growing region, as well as challenges olive grove operators face.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach is taken in the form of face‐to‐face and telephone interviews among 23 olive grove operators in Western Australia from a sample of 33 operations identified.

Findings

Almost half of the respondents indicated being open to the public in some form, including cellar door sales and hospitality facilities, such as a café. Other respondents are currently in the process of developing hospitality facilities or plan to be associated to tourism. However, some responses identified existing marketing issues and outside competition from cheaper products as current constraints.

Research limitations/implications

That only 23 respondents participated in the study does clearly limit the generalisability of the findings in regards to olive growing in Western Australian or elsewhere. Despite this limitation, this exploratory study provides first insights into an unexplored emerging and increasingly multifunctional industry.

Practical implications

In view of some operators' concerns of being able to market their products in the future, the findings illustrate that the mix of strategies combining the olive products, hospitality and/or tourism could have several positive impacts on this emerging industry for those operators willing and able to pursue such paths.

Originality/value

The current developmental stage of olive growing and its potential for further extending into “olive tourism” or related concepts suggests opportunities for future research.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1902

Mr. LEVENSTEIN, the President of the Society of Chemical Industry, in his address delivered at Liverpool recently, dealt very fully with the question of the commercial…

Abstract

Mr. LEVENSTEIN, the President of the Society of Chemical Industry, in his address delivered at Liverpool recently, dealt very fully with the question of the commercial position of Great Britain as compared with other countries, more especially Germany, and emphasised the fact that if this country is to compete successfully with her contemporaries she must, to use the words of the Prince of Wales at the Gúildhall, “wake up.” After reviewing the chief factors making for Germany's advance in industry and commerce Mr. LEVENSTEIN says: “How are we to defend ourselves? Shall we rest content as we are or bestir ourselves and awake to the irresistible fact that continued apathy and indifference mean ruin to our national position?” This is strong language but not stronger than the occasion demands, for the statistics by which these observations are backed clearly indicate a marked decadence in the national prosperity notwithstanding the years of apparent “record” trade, which, however, cannot be regarded so favourably when subjected to detailed analysis and comparison. Mr. LEVENSTEIN'S suggestions to meet this situation are as follows: (1) The appointment of a competent and expert Minister of Commerce. (2) The nationalisation and extension of our canals and waterways. (3) A measure for greatly extending and improving our secondary education. (4) A sensible reform of our patent laws.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 4 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1968

The Protection of Consumers (Trade Descriptions) bill which, owing to the General Election, did not quite make the Statute Book in the last Parliament, is, at the moment…

Abstract

The Protection of Consumers (Trade Descriptions) bill which, owing to the General Election, did not quite make the Statute Book in the last Parliament, is, at the moment of writing, passing through its readings, with every likelihood of becoming law in the near future. It has been criticised for the extent of the control to be exercised over general trading and that in “coddling the customer” it will place unreasonable responsibilities upon retailers. In fact, it is impossible to foresee just how far its provisions may extend, but there will be few who will disagree that new and more searching requirements are long overdue.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Tomás López‐Guzmán and Sandra Sánchez‐Cañizares

Gastronomy has become one of the key factors in the development and promotion of tourism, and offers the opportunity for certain locations to become specialised in…

Abstract

Purpose

Gastronomy has become one of the key factors in the development and promotion of tourism, and offers the opportunity for certain locations to become specialised in culinary tourism. This paper aims to analyse the kind of tourist whose reason for travelling to a certain destination is to enjoy the local cuisine. In this case, the destination is Córdoba (Spain).

Design/methodology/approach

A list of restaurants and eating establishments offering dishes typical of Córdoba was compiled. A questionnaire was designed with the aim of analysing and defining tourists' opinions of Córdoba's cuisine. This questionnaire was filled out by a random sample of tourists in one of ten different restaurants. Of these ten establishments, four were classified as restaurants, three as tabernas, and three as a mixture of both restaurant and taberna. In each restaurant, the questionnaire was distributed randomly among Spanish and foreign tourists in the city on a daily basis. A total of 213 questionnaires was obtained. The fieldwork was carried out in October and November 2009. The tabling and analysis of the data obtained was carried out through the development of an appropriate database. The results were obtained using uni‐variant and bi‐variant analysis techniques (contingency tables, chi‐square contrasts and correlations).

Findings

The results of the study reflect the high level of education of the tourists surveyed, the length of their stay, the high percentage of foreign tourists, and the high level of satisfaction with both the local cuisine and with other tourist attractions Córdoba has to offer.

Practical implications

The results imply that there is scope for developing food tourism products which would attract such tourists and could be used to promote Córdoba as a centre for culinary tourism.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first studies on culinary tourism to be carried out in an important destination for cultural tourism in Europe, namely the city of Córdoba. This paper also tries to create a profile of the “food tourist”, a tourist whose primary motivation for visiting a given location is to explore the local cuisine.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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