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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Yahiaoui Zidan, Sherazede Bouderbala, Cherrad Hayet and Bouchenak Malika

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (OC) on lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes activities of serum, red blood cells (RBCs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of olive cake (OC) on lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes activities of serum, red blood cells (RBCs) and liver, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced-diabetic rat fed cholesterol-enriched diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypercholesterolemic male rats were rendered diabetic (HC-D) by a single intraperitoneal injection dose of STZ (35 mg/kg BW). HC-D rats were divided into two groups fed for 28d a diet supplemented with OC at 7.5 percent (HC-D-OC) or not (HC-D). A control group (C) was submitted to standard diet containing 20 per cent casein for the same experimental period.

Findings

RBCs, serum and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents were significantly increased in HC-D, compared to C group (p = 0.04, p = 0.02 and 0.03). These values were significantly decreased (48 per cent and 64 per cent; p = 0.02 and p = 0.0007) in serum and liver of HC-D-OC vs HC-D group. In RBCs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were, respectively, 1.5, 2- and 1.7-fold higher (p = 0.03, p = 0.008 and p = 0.03) in HC-D group compared to HC group. In serum and liver, SOD, CAT and GST activities were, respectively, 1.3-, 2.6- and 1.6-fold increased (p = 0.03, p = 0.007 and p = 0.02). In HC-D-OC compared to HC-D group, RBCs glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), CAT and GST activities were, respectively, 2.1-, 3.3- and 2.1-fold higher (p = 0.04, p = 0.0009 and p = 0.03). In serum, SOD and CAT activities were, respectively, 1.5- and 1.9-fold increased (p = 0.02, p = 0.02). In liver, SOD, GSH-PX, CAT and GST activities were significantly increased (p = 0.005, p = 0.03, p = 0.02 and p = 0.04).

Originality/value

In diabetic rats-fed cholesterol-enriched diet, OC was able to reduce oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities in serum, RBCs and liver.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Chinu Chacko and Rajamohan Thankappan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of repeatedly heated coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil on antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The test oils were heated at 210 ± 10°C for 15 h. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In total, 15% fresh/heated oils and 1% cholesterol were mixed with the experimental diet and fed to the animals for 60 days.

Findings

Chemical analysis revealed that repeated heating of oils resulted in changes in fatty acid composition and elevated lipid peroxidation, the effects being lower in heated coconut oil. Body weight gain significantly decreased in heated coconut oil (p = 0.02), heated mustard oil (p = 0.022) and heated sunflower oil (p = 0.001) fed animals. Malondialdehyde level was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in tissues of heated oils fed animals. Concentration of protein oxidation products was significantly increased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased (p = 0.001) in heated oils fed animals. Total thiols were decreased (p = 0.001) in tissues of animals that were fed heated oils. Animals that were fed heated mustard oil and heated sunflower oil showed lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidation products when compared to those fed heated coconut oil.

Originality/value

Studies comparing the effects of thermally oxidized oils that vary in fatty acid composition are rare. The effects of fresh and heated oils that vary in fatty acid constitution, namely, coconut oil, mustard oil and sunflower oil, in cholesterol-fed rats are studied.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Sarra Dali, Djamil Krouf, Zoheir Mellouk and Nawal Taleb-Dida

This paper aims to study the effects of a diet supplemented with flaxseeds on dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, in rats consuming a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effects of a diet supplemented with flaxseeds on dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, in rats consuming a high-cholesterol diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats (n = 30) weighing (250 ± 5 g) of which 10 were control and 20 were rendered hypercholesterolemic (HC) by feeding a diet enriched with 1% of cholesterol, for 15 days. After this phase, rats were divided into two groups; hypercholesterolemic group (HC) (n = 10), fed 20% casein diet enriched with 1% cholesterol; and hypercholesterolemic rats fed the same diet (n = 10), but additionally supplemented with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) (Lu) powder, i.e. HC-Lu. Animals of the control group (n = 10) were fed the casein diet. All the animals were maintained on the respective diets for four weeks.

Findings

This study showed that in HC-Lu as compared to HC group, plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were respectively 2.4-, 1.5- and 3-fold lower. Also, the lipid peroxidation was reduced in red blood cells, organs (liver, heart and aorta) and lipoproteins (HDL2, HDL3 and VDL-LDL). A higher superoxide dismutase activity was observed in liver (+61%), heart (+62%) and aorta (+59%), whereas plasma proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) levels were decreased.

Originality/value

These results suggest that flaxseeds help to reduce hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Velid Unsal, Köksal Deveci, Zeliha Cansel Ozmen and Mehmet Kemal Tumer

The debate on the metabolic effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) continues. The deterioration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is called ER stress…

Abstract

Purpose

The debate on the metabolic effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) continues. The deterioration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is called ER stress. Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78) and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) are key markers of ER stress and the therapeutic targets of diseases. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is the most important transcription factor that regulates the expression of enzymes for fatty acid synthesis. The purpose of this paper is to research the effects of L-carnitine and trans-chalcone on ER stress and oxidative stress parameters, and to explore the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and trans-chalcone molecules.

Design/methodology/approach

Forty male wistar albino rats randomly selected were divided into five groups. All groups are fed with standard chow (ad libitum). While Group I was fed with drinking water, Group II, III, IV and V were fed with water containing 15% HFCS. L-carnitine was given to Group IV and trans-chalcone to Group V, and both were dissolved with DMSO and given intraperitoneally. Group III was not given anything additional.

Findings

While the amount of water consumption of HFCS-fed rats has increased, the amount of feed consumption has decreased. The weights of rats in Group II and Group III have increased significantly compared to Group I (p = 0.001, p = 0.001 respectively). In Group III, GRP78, XBP-1; malondialdehyde level (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.041); total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL levels (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.009, p = 0.001, respectively) have increased significantly.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first report to show that excessive HFCS consumption causes oxidative stress and ER stress. The antioxidant and antiobesity properties of trans chalcone have been demonstrated. Extensive experimental and clinical studies should be conducted.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Cassiane da Silva Oliveira, Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Maria Spínola Miranda and Eliete da Silva Bispo

Due to the importance attributed to the phenolic compounds present in cocoa samples for their beneficial effects on health, the purpose of this paper was to analyze four…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the importance attributed to the phenolic compounds present in cocoa samples for their beneficial effects on health, the purpose of this paper was to analyze four samples of organically and conventionally cultivated cocoa from the south area of Bahia for their composition of phenolics, flavonoids and their antioxidant activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Non‐fermented beans, fermented beans, roasted nibs and cocoa liquor were analyzed using spectrophotometry.

Findings

In general, the samples that contained a higher level of phenolics and flavonoids were the roasted nibs and the non‐fermented samples in both cultivation systems. The fermented beans and the liquor contained a lower level.

Practical implications

The relationship between the concentration of total phenols and the capacity to “mop up” free radicals from the cocoa extracts appears to be highly significant. The extracts with a higher concentration of phenols also show higher antioxidant activity (non‐fermented beans extracts and organically and conventionally cultivated nibs).

Originality/value

This work brings an important contribution in the field of agriculture at a time when organic systems of cultivation are an alternative to the conventional system and that pollutes the environment and produces food that contains quantities of chemical contaminants that can damage the health of the consumer. The comparison in phenolic compounds content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in organic and conventional systems is original and of great importance, showing that the ecological cropping systems are less harmful to the environment and promote improvements to the chemical composition of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2019

Ardiansyah, Wahyudi David, Dody Dwi Handoko, Bram Kusbiantoro, Slamet Budijanto and Hitoshi Shirakawa

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of three varieties of Indonesian fermented rice bran (RB) (Inpari 6, Inpari 30 and Inpara 1).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of three varieties of Indonesian fermented rice bran (RB) (Inpari 6, Inpari 30 and Inpara 1).

Design/methodology/approach

Three types of RB were fermented using Rhizopus oligosporus. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau method, and antioxidant activity was analyzed by measuring the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (RSA). For in vivo analyses, one week after acclimatization, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 4, 12 weeks of age) were divided into two groups and orally administered fermented RB (40 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water as a control after 16 h of fasting. Blood pressure (BP) was measured before and 2, 4 and 6 h after administration with a BP monitor without warming. Six days later, the rats were subject to the same procedure and sacrificed after 6 h of oral administration. Blood was collected and the plasma was separated to measure nitric oxide, glucose and insulin levels.

Findings

The highest TPC and RSA of fermented RB were obtained from Inpari 30 after incubation for 72 h (260.33 ± 0.39 mg GAE/100 g dry basis and 83.71 ± 0.61 per cent), respectively. Furthermore, single oral administration of fermented RB improved BP (p < 0.05) and glucose metabolism after 6 h of administration (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

This is the first study to evaluate the effects of fermented RB on improving high BP and glucose profiles by using a spontaneously hypertensive animal model.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Azadeh Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham Ranjbar Nedamani and Azadeh Salimi

Human health is strongly affected by diet. By the increased use of food industries products, public knowledge about health factors and side effects of chemical additives…

Abstract

Purpose

Human health is strongly affected by diet. By the increased use of food industries products, public knowledge about health factors and side effects of chemical additives, the concepts of human health founded an important aspect during past years, and application of natural-based ingredients such as coloring, flavoring, texturizing and anti-oxidative agents was increased.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of the present paper is to review the published scientific research studies about lycopene health benefits in different human disease or disorders and bold the necessity of study the health effects of lycopene after its formulation in food industrial products. About 190 papers were searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science databases and 72 relevant papers were used. It was found that in medical studies, the lycopene oleoresin or powder is used directly to the subjects. However, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of lycopene in diet food products.

Findings

According to the literature, it has beneficial effects on cancers, glands, reproductive system, bone, gastric system, liver and fat reduction in the body. Also, it was concluded from the literature that lycopene oxidative cleavages make also its chemo protective effects which is a lost key element to study different food processing on lycopene products or its isomers in final food products and on human health.

Originality/value

Many ingredients in food formulations are substituted by natural products. Lycopene is a colorant but also, according to the literature, has a strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect to reduce the risk of most important human disease and disorders. Future research in food science can emphasize the effect of different unit operations or formulations on lycopene effects on human health.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

E. Turley, A. McKeown, L. Harvey, S.J. Fairweather‐Tait, H.M. Crews and J.J. Strain

Notes that, despite its abundance as an essential trace element in the body, relatively little is known about dietary copper requirements. Looks at factors such as copper…

Abstract

Notes that, despite its abundance as an essential trace element in the body, relatively little is known about dietary copper requirements. Looks at factors such as copper metabolisms and minimum dieting requirements. Reports on studies funded by MAFF in this area.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 97 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Muhammad Fakhruddin Irfan Sazali, Maleeka Abdullah Hilmy, Norshafarina Shari, Lilik Herawati, Nurul Izza Nordin and Zulhabri Othman

Calorie restricted diets are known to improve health and promote healthy aging. This happens because of controlled inflammation and metabolism in the body. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Calorie restricted diets are known to improve health and promote healthy aging. This happens because of controlled inflammation and metabolism in the body. This study aims to evaluate the differences in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats because of consumption of a calorie restricted diet.

Design/methodology/approach

The study divided SD rats (n = 15) into 3 groups consuming high calorie intake (HCI), medium calorie intake and low calorie intake (LCI). Anthropometric parameters were determined through measurement of abdominal circumference (AC), thoracic circumference (TC), body length and body weight (BW). Biochemical parameters analyzed in this study were fasting blood glucose level and full blood lipid profile. Nutritional status was obtained based on food consumption, energy intake (EI) and food efficiency rate. Measurements were taken for a period of four weeks.

Findings

Analysis on anthropometric parameters indicates a significant difference in mean BW between HCI (230.44 ± 1.47 g) and LCI (188.54 ± 1.50 g). There is a significant difference in abdominal TC ratio (p < 0.001; F = 13.599) in the LCI group (1.01 ± 0.00714) compared to the HCI group (1.04 ± 0.00858). Post hoc for nutrition parameters indicates a significant difference in mean EI between HCI (9.71 ± 0.006 kJ) and LCI (3.21 ± 0.001 kJ). There is a significant effect (p < 0.0001; F = 3042872.02) of EI on rats in all three groups. HDL levels were significantly higher (p < 0.0001; F = 1536.89) in the LCI group (68.60 ± 0.55 mg/dL) compared to the HCI group (49.40 ± 0.55 mg/dL). The Pearson’s correlation results show a strong positive correlation in EI with BW (p < 0.01; r = 0.988), AC (p < 0.01; r = 0.970) and body mass index (p < 0.01; r = 0.972).

Originality/value

Low calorie diet has been proven to affect anthropometric development and has shown improvements in biochemical parameters of the rats. This may result in healthy aging which could prevent later-life diseases.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Vellingiri Vadivel and Hans Konrad Biesalski

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the antioxidant and type II diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phenolic extract from raw and traditionally processed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the antioxidant and type II diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phenolic extract from raw and traditionally processed Indian under‐utilized food legume grains, Bauhinia purpurea L. (purple camel's foot seeds).

Design/methodology/approach

The methanolic extract was prepared from the raw and traditionally processed seed samples and analyzed for total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity and type II diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of methanolic extract and their relationship with phenolic content was demonstrated.

Findings

The methanolic extract of raw seed materials contained total free phenolic content of 14.45±1.62 g catechin equivalent/100 g extract DM. Encouraging levels of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 1203 mmol Fe[II]/mg extract), inhibition of ß‐carotene degradation (45.37 percent) and scavenging activity against DPPH (63.60 percent) and superoxide (42.14 percent) radicals were exhibited by the raw samples. Further, it also recorded 80.69 percent of α‐amylase and 63.74 percent of α‐glucosidase enzyme inhibition characteristics under in vitro starch digestion bioassay. Sprouting+oil‐frying caused an apparent increase on the total free phenolic content, antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity, while soaking+cooking as well as open‐pan roasting treatments show diminishing effects.

Originality/value

Identification of suitable processing technique offered a good strategy to improve the phenolic content and health relevant functionality of B. purpurea seeds, which could be envisaged as a dietary ingredient in the formulation of supplementary foods with therapeutic value to manage type II diabetic patients.

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