Table of contents(26 chapters)
Part I: Theoretical Foundations of Studying Modern Business Systems
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to specify the concept of business system, which allows overcoming the multitude of its treatments and contradiction of scientific research, devoted to its research and allows building the conclusions into the economic theory.
Methodology: A generalized notion of business as a clearly organized corporate economic subject that conducts entrepreneurial activities for the purpose of obtaining income (profit) is offered. For studying it, the methodology of the systemic approach is used.
Conclusions: The specified concept of business system allowed unifying within the common scientific category the existing concepts of economic subject (organizations, companies, corporations, and business structures).
Originality/value: Advantages of the offered concept of business system is systemic character (category “business system” could be used during research in the sphere of management, economics, and law), universal character (the offered concept allowed reflecting internal and external environment of the business system, which allows conducting microeconomic and macroeconomic research on its basis), and clarity (the offered concept reflects the essence of notions of business and illustrated them). The offered conceptual model of modern business system is to be a foundation for theoretical and empirical research, including interdisciplinary.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to study the process of evolution of modern business systems, to distinguish its main stages, and to determine the peculiarities of the modern stage of this process. For compiling a fuller dynamic model of evolution of modern business systems, this research is performed by the example of modern Russia – which is one of the most vivid representatives of countries with transitional (forming) economy and which is thus peculiar for very intensive transformation processes in business as compared to the countries that implement the concept of market economy.
Methodology: The methodology of the research is based on the method of logical analysis (analysis of causal connections) and the method of comparative historical analysis, with the help of which regularities of development of modern business systems are distinguished and stages of their evolution are determined. The method of formalization is used for graphic presentation of genesis of modern business systems.
Conclusions: As a result, four stages of evolution of modern business systems are distinguished: paternalism (1991–1997), commercialization (1998–2007), balancing (2008–2017), and technologization (since 2018). Each of the distinguished stages has its peculiarities, and the following regularities and tendencies of development of modern business systems are observed in the process of their evolution: increase of competition in business environment, increase of regulation of business from the state and society, and growth of size of business systems, which leads to complication of their structure, with increase of flexibility of business culture. Sufficiency of adaptation means with modern business systems is substantiated.
Originality/value: The determined outlines of the current stage of evolution of modern business systems allow compiling two following forecast scenarios of their further development, oriented at the period until 2025: scenario of well-balanced development of modern business systems and scenario of increase of disproportions in development of modern business systems. Implementation of these scenarios is possible in any socioeconomic system. Depending on strategic goals and priorities, each system may select the most optimal scenario and conduct the corresponding management of development of modern business systems.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the approaches to classification of modern business systems from business managers through the prism of making of managerial decisions.
Methodology: The methods of classification, comparative and systemic analysis, induction, deduction, and formalization are used.
Conclusions: As a result of the research, five conceptual approaches to classification of modern business systems are distinguished: organization-oriented, externally-oriented, management-oriented, socially-oriented, and innovations-oriented. Within each of them, various (mutually supplementing) criteria of classification are used, which allow distinguishing a lot of types of modern business systems. In the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which includes transition to Industry 4.0, a new classification of modern business systems according to the criteria of their technological mode is offered, and the systems of the mode 3.0 and 4.0 are distinguished. Transition to the new technological mode is connected to additional business risks, which complicates the process of making of managerial decisions.
Originality/value: The performed analysis of classification of modern business systems from business managers showed that all peculiarities of these systems influence the process of making of managerial decisions in them, including the sectorial structure of business environment, size of business systems, sphere in which business systems function, involvement in business environment, internal and external integration of business systems, scale and complexity of business environment, organizational and legal form, business structure and business culture of business systems, types of benefits that they sell, level of legitimacy, responsibility, innovational activity, and technological mode of business systems.
Part II: The Concept of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to determine the basic principles of functioning and development of modern business systems.
Methodology: The author uses the method of logical analysis (analysis of causal connections), the method of systematization, and the method of formalization.
Conclusions: The basic principles of functioning of a modern business system are determined: uniqueness, marketing activity, effectiveness, openness, and flexibility. They form under the influence of such factors of the business environment as competition, marketing relations, deficit of resources, globalization, and innovational economy. Only under the condition of observation of all these principles, a business system can achieve and preserve competitiveness and function and development in the business environment. A system of basic principles of functioning and development of a modern business system, which form under the influence of the above factors of the business systems, and results of observation of these principles are shown.
Originality/value: Peculiarities of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, predetermined by observation of the basic principles, are shown: constant monitoring of external environment for determining new possibilities and actual problems and determining the need for managerial decisions; founding on materials of marketing research, conduct of marketing communications for informing and supporting loyalty of interested parties in the process of implementation of decisions; and striving for increasing or at least preserving the uniqueness and effectiveness of business system during decision making (criterion of optimality of decisions).
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the essence and to determine the algorithm and methodology of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives according to the scientific approach to this process of management of modern business systems.
Methodology: The research is conducted with the help of the method of process analysis, which allows determining the stages of the process of decision making in modern business systems and determining its algorithm; the method of formalization, which allows presenting the obtained algorithm; and the method of comparative analysis, which allows comparing the existing methods of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives.
Conclusions: As a result of generalization and systematization of the existing scientific knowledge in the sphere of managerial decisions in modern business systems and reconsideration (logical analysis) of this process, its algorithm is compiled. Four stages of the algorithm of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems are distinguished – determining the needs of business system for managerial decisions, determining the possibilities of business system in making of managerial decisions, compiling alternative variants of managerial decisions, and implementation of the made managerial decision and further evaluation of its optimality. Also, methodological tools of each stage are determined.
Originality/value: The developed algorithm possesses the following advantages as compared to the existing scientific descriptions of this process: completeness, complex solution of the problems of the business system through managerial decisions, connection of the methodology of managerial decisions to each stage of the algorithm, and systemic character of the methodology of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives.
The purpose of the chapter is to distinguish the process of formation of algorithm of making of managerial decisions in the age of constant changes. The methodology of the chapter includes the method of theoretical foundations, the method of theoretical differentiations of categorical tools, the method of algorithmization, and the method adaptive perception. The research results include the following theses: the problems of the research are current and important; categorical structure of definition “making of managerial decisions” is reflected within functions of management, the process of managerial activities, and decision making on the basis of the risk; actions on solving problems; the aspect of making of managerial decision is limited; authors' algorithm of making of managerial decision reflects rationality and irrationality of the formed situation. This article could be supplemented with practical recommendations in the sphere of making of managerial decisions.
The purpose of the study is to determine the nature, specificity, and role of management decisions in the management of modern enterprises. The problem of making effective management decisions is crucial in the organization of modern enterprises in the face of uncertainty and high risks of business, complex economic situations, and the increasing importance of strategic decisions. As a result of the development of the science of management decisions, business has received technologies and techniques for making effective management decisions that improve the ability of management to make informed, objective decisions in situations of exceptional complexity. Some scholars argue with the statement that the essence of management is revealed in the ability to make decisions, to reflect the real problems, relationships and relationships that have developed in the organization. The stability of the modern enterprise depends on the controllability of the control system, the transfer of the system from any initial state to any other specified state, the ability to determine the state of the system by the controlled value, and the control effect. It is proposed to assess the quality of management decisions made by the efficiency of the tasks performed and the problems solved. The lack of an unambiguous approach to determining the factors affecting the quality of development and management decision making means the need for management to determine the specifics and logic of decisions based on the assessment of the situation, the structuring of tasks and problems, the level of management culture, available tools and mechanisms for the implementation of decisions, and performance discipline.
Part III: Methodological Provision of Studying the Process of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
The aim of the study is to determine the nature and specificity of methodological approaches to management decision making in modern business systems. Management decisions are among the creative operations in the technology of management work. The methodology of decision making is of great applied importance and inevitably increases with the complexity of economic situations and management tasks. It is argued that on the one hand, decision making is a logical thinking activity and is implemented by senior staff and, on the other hand, is a management procedure and, therefore, should have a deep methodological study and be carefully organized and regulated by legislative and regulatory framework. It is proposed to consider approaches to management decision making as a set of basic methods of obtaining new knowledge, methods, and tools for solving problems of achieving the best result on the basis of in-depth study and compliance with the principles of organization of work in the chosen direction. The variety of approaches to management decision making reflects the different aspects of management processes taking place at the state and industry level, in the management of a particular business system. The practice of developing effective management solutions requires knowledge of universal and special approaches to the management of modern business systems and is a necessary competence of the management of a modern company.
The issues of development of decisions are very important during formation of the system of management of modern business systems in the conditions of turbulence of external conditions. The ideas of rational structuring of information flows, which are used for decision making, are related to the necessity for development of communicative culture of companies. Quality of interaction between persons that participate in decision making should be assessed by analyzing the ratio of probabilities that characterize quality of information and correctness of decisions and development of a special model.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the dependence of the process of decision making in modern business systems on their organizational structure and to substantiate the necessity for considering the requirements to the process of decision making during designing the organizational structure of a business system.
Methodology: A new simplified classification of the organizational structure of business systems according to the criterion of complexity is offered, and its two main types are distinguished – organizational structure of low complexity and organizational structure of high complexity.
Conclusions: According to the offered classification, dependence of the process of decision making in modern business systems on complexity of their business structure at each stage of making of managerial decisions is determined. As a result of analysis of statistical data, it is determined that business systems with organizational structure of low complexity dominate in Russia. By the example of modern Russian business systems with the organizational structure of high complexity – Sberbank, Lukoil, Gazprom, and Rosneft – it is shown that formation of the structure of this type and supporting its functioning requires resources and thus is inaccessible for most modern business systems. Moreover, the expected advantages, related to high probability of making of optimal managerial decisions, are not always gained in practice.
Originality/value: It is substantiated that the process of decision making in modern business systems largely depends on the complexity of their organizational structure. With increase of complexity of a business system, resource intensity of decision making and duration of this process increase, but the risk of nonoptimal decisions decreases. Organizational structure of low complexity is peculiar for business systems that have deficit of financial and human resources, which does not allow using the means of optimization and fully control the process of decision making. However, in this case, managerial decisions are made much quicker. In the conditions of modern market economy, it is necessary to make quick optimal decisions, which cannot be achieved within the organizational structure of either low or high complexity. Thus, it is necessary to find a way to make quick optimal managerial decisions beyond the design of organizational structure.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the connection between organizational culture and specifics of the process of decision making in modern business systems and to determine the directions of managing the organizational culture depending on the set criteria of decision making.
Methodology: A proprietary classification of the types of organizational culture of modern business systems according to the criterion of employees' involvement into decision making is offered. This classification uses two dimensions of employees' involvement into decision making for classification of the types of organizational culture of modern business systems. First dimension: interest of business manager in involvement of employees into the process of decision making. Second dimension: employees' inclination for participation in the process of making of managerial decisions. The factors that influence these dimensions are determined.
Conclusions: Connection between organizational culture and specifics of decision making in modern business systems according to the criterion of employees' involvement in decision making is determined. The minimal level of involvement envisages independent decision making by business manager without participation of employees. In this case, a lot of problems of the business system remain unsolved and possibilities remain unused. Resource intensity of decision making is the highest, and their practical implementation is complicated by employees' dissatisfaction, but this process is conducted very quickly. The medium level of involvement envisages either collective discussion, but decision making by business manager, or collection of feedback by business manager with low interest in it from employees. In this case, resource intensity of decision making is lower, and decisions could be made and implemented faster. The highest level of involvement is connected to collective decision making by employees and business manager. This allows determining problems and using possibilities of the business system with minimal resources. Though the duration of the process of decision making is the highest, solutions are implemented quickly due to employees' support.
Originality/value: The determined specifics show the necessity for considering the influence of the organizational culture on specifics of the process of decision making in modern business systems. It is substantiated that no type of organizational culture of modern business systems according to the criterion of employees' involvement in decision making can provide a guarantee of decisions' optimality. The directions of managing the organizational culture depending on the set criteria (completeness, speed, resource intensity) of decision making are recommended.
Part IV: Managerial Aspects of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the characteristics of leadership and to determine its value in the process of decision making in modern business systems, as well as to determine the possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of this process through changing the characteristics of leadership.
Methodology: Target study of the influence of leadership on the process of decision making in modern business systems on the basis of the methodology of the systemic approach is performed, and two additional characteristics of leadership are determined, apart from management style, in the aspect of making of managerial decisions: contradiction of leaders in business system and authority of a formal leader (business manager) in business system and his competence as to involvement of employees into the process of making of managerial decisions, which includes capabilities. Depending on combination of these characteristics, classification of leadership in modern business systems as to criterion of decision making is offered.
Conclusions: It is substantiated that the most preferable type of leadership in a modern business system as to criterion of decision making is highly effective involvement of employees in the process of making of managerial decisions. Capabilities of increasing the effectiveness of the process of making of managerial decisions in a modern system through changing the characteristics of leadership are connected to transition to this type of leadership through overcoming the contradiction of leaders in a business system and increase of competence of the formal leader (business manager) in a business system as to involvement of employees in the process of making of managerial decisions through his training.
Originality/value: It is substantiated that leadership in business system determines only certain characteristics of the process of making of managerial decisions, and no type of leadership can guarantee optimal decisions. With highly effective involvement of employees in the process of making of managerial decisions, the probability of optimal decisions is the highest, so this type of leadership is the most perspective for modern business systems.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to determine the possibilities and consequences of decision making in modern business systems by the principles of outsource.
Methodology: During studying the perspectives of decision making in modern business systems by the principles of outsource, the method of logical analysis (analysis of causal connections), the method of structural and functional analysis, and the method of formalization are used.
Conclusions: Perspective directions, advantages, and drawbacks of application of outsource for decision making in modern business systems at different stages of this process are determined. Possible variants of decision making in a modern business system by the principles of outsource and their consequences are determined: information and consultation decision support, business system's overcoming a crisis, optimization of certain business processes, and loss of independence of business system and path to its reorganization.
Originality/value: As a result, it is substantiated that outsource is a perspective tool of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems. Various directions of application of this tool are accessible at each stage of the process of making of managerial decisions in a modern business system. The advantages of decision making by the principles of outsource are attraction of additional resources, access to possibilities of automatization, and low expenses, and the drawbacks include the complexity of organization of this process and temporary character of obtained advantages. Too active usage of outsource and transfer of most managerial decisions to it may lead to loss of independence of the business system and increase of the risk of its reorganization. That's why the principles of outsource are recommended for making of certain managerial decisions by business systems in the period of crisis and by newly formed business systems and those that experience deficit of resources.
The purpose of the chapter is to develop and substantiate the necessity for delegating authorities in the process of decision making in modern business systems, as well as conditions, principles, and criteria of successful delegation in view of the applied approach. The methodology of the chapter is based on the method of analysis of causal connections, which is used for determining the necessity and essence of delegation, evaluating and comparison of the possible concepts and means of its implementation in the process of decision making, and studying the managers' opinions for determining the problems of delegation. This allows determining the conditions and criteria of successful delegation and developing an optimal set of principles that allow for effective implementation of the process of delegating authorities. As a result, the authors determine conditions and limitations that determine the possibility of delegating authorities in the process of decision making and offer criteria of successfulness of the process: preliminary task setting, interest and readiness of employees, briefing, written form of delegating authorities for complex and responsible tasks, accessibility of any necessary information, support from manager, and controllability of the process and result. The concepts of delegation are studied, and priority of its new model is established. Based on this, 11 principles of successful delegation were formulated: determination of goal, certainty, parity of rights and responsibility, adequate support, motivation of effective solutions, participation, “finite character,” structural limitations, complex nature of tasks, succession, and vision of perspective.
Complexities of the process of delegation in the process of decision making in business systems are described – their knowledge helps developing own styles of delegation and improving it.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the regularities and tendencies of decision making in business systems by the example of modern Russia.
Methodology: The method of logical analysis (analysis of causal connections) and the method of dynamic analysis of development of socioeconomic systems are used. These methods are applied with the current statistical and analytical information. The information and analytical basis of the research is the materials of the Federal State Statistics Service for 2018.
Conclusions: The factors of functioning and development of modern business systems, related to development of E-commerce, liberalization of state regulation of business systems, growth of their competition and corporate responsibility, change of technological mode, and crisis are determined. Influence of these factors on managerial decisions is connected to reduction of resource provision of business systems, accessibility of new managerial tools, complication of made decisions (growth of the number of accessible decisions), growth of the number of new technologies of decision making, and increase of the risk component of decisions. Regularities and tendencies of decision making are determined: striving for saving resources during decision making, more active usage of new managerial tools during decision making, striving for acceleration of the process of making of more complicated managerial decisions, more active usage of new technologies during decision making, and striving for minimization of risks of made decisions.
Originality/value: It is substantiated that the determined regularities and tendencies of decision making lead to increase of contradiction during making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, connected to growth of complexity of this process and simultaneous reduction of resources and time that are accessible to business managers. In order to solve this contradiction, it is necessary to implement cardinal changes into the process of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, which allow – with minimum managerial cost – determining multiple alternative variants of solutions of the whole specter of current problems of a business system and comparing them as to mutually excluding criteria, thus making complex decisions.
Part V: Regional Models of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to study the peculiarities of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems in countries of Asia and to compile an Asian model of this process, as well as to determine the possibilities and perspectives of making of optimal decisions according to this model.
Methodology: The chapter is devoted to studying the microeconomic aspect of economic development of countries of Asia; it is based on the methods of logical and systemic analysis, modeling of socioeconomic processes and systems, and formalization.
Conclusions: In the course of studying the practice of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems in countries of Asia, an Asian model of this process is compiled – it has the following features: independent making of tactical decisions by linear managers, foundation on model decisions, strong control, marketing only at the level of top management, and feedback with linear managers. The determined peculiarities are oriented at maximum acceleration of the process of making of managerial decisions in business systems. Another aspect of this advantage is insufficient consideration of internal (due to absence of involvement of employees into the process of discussion of decisions) and external (due to weak marketing support) possibilities of the business system.
Originality/value: It is substantiated that Asian model is most adapted and fitting for making of managerial decisions in the conditions of dynamic business environment, when the most important criterion of optimality is the speed of decision making.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to analyze the experience of managerial decisions in modern North American business systems, to develop an American model of decision making in modern business systems, to determine the possibilities of making of optimal decisions according to this model, and to substantiate the perspectives of its improvement.
Methodology: The authors use the methods of systemic, problem, and logical analysis, as well as modeling and formalization.
Conclusions: An American model of decision making in modern business systems is compiled – it is based on divisional organizational structure. This model is contradictory and, like other regional models, has advantages and drawbacks. On the one hand, an important advantage of the American model is making of well-balanced managerial decisions that conform to the interests of all interested parties in the business system (investors, management, employees) and beyond it (consumers, society). This advantage is achieved due to active and systemic marketing, which ensures the fullest consideration of the possibilities of business environment and high adaptability of business systems to its changes. Managers' readiness to take a risk allows them to make nonstandard decisions, thus strengthening the uniqueness and competitive advantages of the business system. On the other hand, high risk component of managerial decisions leads to unsustainable development of business systems in countries of North America and their strong susceptibility to internal and external crises. Another drawback of the American model of decision making in modern business systems is duration of this process due to necessity for consideration of opinions of all interested parties and marketing at all stages.
Originality/value: It is determined that in the conditions of crisis, the American model cannot ensure timely decision making, and this leads to their nonoptimality, which defines the perspectives of improving this model.
Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to determine the specifics of making of managerial decisions in business systems of modern countries of Europe, to compile a European model of decision making in modern business systems, and to determine its capabilities for ensuring optimal decisions.
Methodology: The authors use the method of systemic and problem analysis, the method of comparative analysis (for comparing the European practice of managerial decisions to practices of other regions of the world), and the methods of modeling and formalization.
Conclusions: A European model of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems is compiled; it has the following peculiarities: collective offering, discussing, and making managerial decisions; presence of independent marketing committee that conducts systemic marketing; internal communications of business entities only with the production committee; and sustainability of horizontal connections between committees with the linear organizational structure.
Originality/value: Due to determined peculiarities, such advantages of the European model as making of well-balanced managerial decisions from positions of all interested parties, low expenditures for decision making due to usage of internal outsource, high effectiveness of marketing activities, and integration of managerial staff that allows solving current problems of the business system are achieved. However, in the European model, the process of making of managerial decisions is the longest as compared to other studied regional models. That's why application of the European model of decision making in modern business systems allows achieving high effectiveness of this process in a period of stability, and in case of downward wave of economic cycle, this model cannot ensure high effectiveness of managerial decisions.
Part VI: Meso-Level Results of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
The policy of strategic diagnostics in the modern economy of Russia's regions is built in a contradiction. The expected growth of the share of material production in GRP was not confirmed. Analysis of economic indicators allows stating the expected tendency in dynamics of development of tertiary spheres. A dominating element of structural changes of economy is consumer market.
Several methodological approaches to defining the category “consumer market” are distinguished: marketing, institutional, reproduction, and economic.
For formation of methodological foundations of evaluation of consumer market, several methodologies are systematized. A methodology including two stages of evaluation of development of consumer market is offered: diagnostics (first stage) and forecasting (second stage) of the region's consumer market.
According to evaluations obtained by the authors, a strategic factor of structural changes in Russia's economy is regions' consumer market. Its well-balanced development ensures acceleration of progressive structural changes in economy. A dominating factor in the structure of consumer market is trading sphere, and a tool of structural changes is trading the goods of local and domestic manufacturers.
The chapter studies the problems of formation of regional mechanisms of modernization and development of infrastructure of regions and the country, which are determined by complexity of attracting private capital in financing of infrastructure, which is limited by a long return period and the level of profitability of projects. The mechanism of public–private partnership is offered, which allows leveling high risks of implementation of infrastructural projects under guidance of the state. Also, the methodology of foresight control is studied, which is the last stage of modernization and development of infrastructure of regions and the country, as innovational tools of forecasting the future, which is aimed at leveling the risks, allows determining and neutralizing the danger of nontarget usage of invested financial resources, and seeing the threats to internal environment and external environment.
The chapter dwells on barriers for restoration and development of country's infrastructure on the platform of individual physical and practical forces, which are peculiar for the states with developing and transitional economy, as well as for developed countries. Directions of formation of the organizational model of restoration and development of country's infrastructure on the platform of individual physical and practical forces are presented; forms of public–private partnership are studied, as well as possibilities of financing. An important aspect is finding the mechanisms of leveling the risks according to the given classification. A mechanism of organizational model of controlling development of country's infrastructure and its structural elements are provided.
The chapter presents a mechanism of innovational development of cluster of the hospitality industry in the system of region's economic security, which formation takes place in the conditions of complex turbulent state of economy, which leads to crises of various scales and volumes. Cluster is treated as a platform that unifies efforts and partnership interactions between large, medium, and small business and synthesizes expectations of consumers on the basis of territorial concentration of readiness to care about a customer in the form of provision of the need: (1) selection and readiness of consumer to accept a specific complex service of the hospitality industry (with tourist service complexes); (2) movement (with transport complex); (3) accommodation (with hotel complex), (4) readiness for catering (with catering complex); (5) entertainment (with participation of complex of entertainment); (6) security (with security complex). The process of clustering leads to a new treatment of the notion of competition, development of capabilities to be a business partner, and finding advantages in generation of innovations together with intermediaries and neighbors.