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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Rachel S. Rauvola, Cort W. Rudolph and Hannes Zacher

In this chapter, the authors consider the role of time for research in occupational stress and well-being. First, temporal issues in studying occupational health…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors consider the role of time for research in occupational stress and well-being. First, temporal issues in studying occupational health longitudinally, focusing in particular on the role of time lags and their implications for observed results (e.g., effect detectability), analyses (e.g., handling unequal durations between measurement occasions), and interpretation (e.g., result generalizability, theoretical revision) were discussed. Then, time-based assumptions when modeling lagged effects in occupational health research, providing a focused review of how research has handled (or ignored) these assumptions in the past, and the relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches were discussed. Finally, recommendations for readers, an accessible tutorial (including example data and code), and discussion of a new structural equation modeling technique, continuous time structural equation modeling, that can “handle” time in longitudinal studies of occupational health were provided.

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Examining and Exploring the Shifting Nature of Occupational Stress and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-422-0

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Robert J. Elliott, Tak Kuen Siu and Alex Badescu

The purpose of this paper is to consider a discrete‐time, Markov, regime‐switching, affine term‐structure model for valuing bonds and other interest rate securities. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider a discrete‐time, Markov, regime‐switching, affine term‐structure model for valuing bonds and other interest rate securities. The proposed model incorporates the impact of structural changes in (macro)‐economic conditions on interest‐rate dynamics. The market in the proposed model is, in general, incomplete. A modified version of the Esscher transform, namely, a double Esscher transform, is used to specify a price kernel so that both market and economic risks are taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

The market in the proposed model is, in general, incomplete. A modified version of the Esscher transform, namely, a double Esscher transform, is used to specify a price kernel so that both market and economic risks are taken into account.

Findings

The authors derive a simple way to give exponential affine forms of bond prices using backward induction. The authors also consider a continuoustime extension of the model and derive exponential affine forms of bond prices using the concept of stochastic flows.

Originality/value

The methods and results presented in the paper are new.

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Michael Preece

This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge…

Abstract

This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge management in the service industry is sparse. This research seeks to examine absorptive capacity and its four capabilities of acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation and their impact on effective knowledge management. All of these capabilities are strategies that enable external knowledge to be recognized, imported and integrated into, and further developed within the organization effectively. The research tests the relationships between absorptive capacity and effective knowledge management through analysis of quantitative data (n = 549) drawn from managers and employees in 35 residential aged care organizations in Western Australia. Responses were analysed using Partial Least Square-based Structural Equation Modelling. Additional analysis was conducted to assess if the job role (of manager or employee) and three industry context variables of profit motive, size of business and length of time the organization has been in business, impacted on the hypothesized relationships.

Structural model analysis examines the relationships between variables as hypothesized in the research framework. Analysis found that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities correlated significantly with effective knowledge management, with absorptive capacity explaining 56% of the total variability for effective knowledge management. Findings from this research also show that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities provide a useful framework for examining knowledge management in the service industry. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the perceptions held between managers and employees, nor between respondents in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Furthermore, the size of the organization and length of time the organization has been in business did not impact on absorptive capacity, the four capabilities and effective knowledge management.

The research considers implications for business in light of these findings. The role of managers in providing leadership across the knowledge management process was confirmed, as well as the importance of guiding routines and knowledge sharing throughout the organization. Further, the results indicate that within the participating organizations there are discernible differences in the way that some organizations manage their knowledge, compared to others. To achieve effective knowledge management, managers need to provide a supportive workplace culture, facilitate strong employee relationships, encourage employees to seek out new knowledge, continually engage in two-way communication with employees and provide up-to-date policies and procedures that guide employees in doing their work. The implementation of knowledge management strategies has also been shown in this research to enhance the delivery and quality of residential aged care.

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Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2019

Denis Stijepic

The three-sector framework (relating to agriculture, manufacturing and services) is one of the major concepts for studying the long-run change of the economic structure…

Abstract

Purpose

The three-sector framework (relating to agriculture, manufacturing and services) is one of the major concepts for studying the long-run change of the economic structure. This paper aims to discuss the system-theoretical classification of the structural change in the three-sector framework and, in particular, its predictability by the Poincaré–Bendixson theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study compares the assumptions of the Poincaré–Bendixson theory to the typical axioms of structural change modeling, the empirical evidence on the geometrical properties of structural change trajectories and the methodological arguments referring to the laws of structural change.

Findings

The findings support the assumption that the structural change phenomenon is representable by a dynamical system that is predictable by the Poincaré–Bendixson theory. This result implies, among others, that in the long run, structural change is either transitory or cyclical and can be used in further geometrical/topological long-run structural change modeling and prediction.

Originality/value

Although widespread in mathematics, geometrical/topological modeling methods have not been used in modeling and prediction of long-run structural change, despite the fact that they seem to be predestined for this purpose owing to their global, system-theoretical nature, allowing for a reduction of ideology content of predictions and greater robustness of results.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Annika Sorg and Manfred Bischoff

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to model entire structures on a large scale, at the same time taking into account localized non-linear phenomena of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to model entire structures on a large scale, at the same time taking into account localized non-linear phenomena of the discrete microstructure of cohesive-frictional materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element (FEM) based continuum methods are generally considered appropriate as long as solutions are smooth. However, when discontinuities like cracks and fragmentation appear and evolve, application of models that take into account (evolving) microstructures may be advantageous. One popular model to simulate behavior of cohesive-frictional materials is the discrete element method (DEM). However, even if the microscale is close to the macroscale, DEMs are computationally expensive and can only be applied to relatively small specimen sizes and time intervals. Hence, a method is desirable that combines efficiency of FEM with accuracy of DEM by adaptively switching from the continuous to the discrete model where necessary.

Findings

An existing method which allows smooth transition between discrete and continuous models is the quasicontinuum method, developed in the field of atomistic simulations. It is taken as a starting point and its concepts are extended to applications in structural mechanics in this paper. The kinematics in the method presented herein is obtained from FEM whereas DEM yields the constitutive behavior. With respect to the constitutive law, three levels of resolution – continuous, intermediate and discrete – are introduced.

Originality/value

The overall concept combines model adaptation with adaptive mesh refinement with the aim to obtain a most efficient and accurate solution.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Larry J Williams, Mark B Gavin and Nathan S Hartman

The objective of this chapter is to provide strategy researchers with a general resource for applying structural equation modeling (SEM) in their research. This objective…

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to provide strategy researchers with a general resource for applying structural equation modeling (SEM) in their research. This objective is important for strategy researchers because of their increased use of SEM, the availability of advanced SEM approaches relevant for their substantive interests, and the fact that important technical work on SEM techniques often appear in outlets that may not be not readily accessible. This chapter begins with a presentation of the basics of SEM techniques, followed by a review of recent applications of SEM in strategic management research. We next provide an overview of five types of advanced applications of structural equation modeling and describe how they can be applied to strategic management topics. In a fourth section we discuss technical developments related to model evaluation, mediation, and data requirements. Finally, a summary of recommendations for strategic management researchers using SEM is also provided.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-235-1

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Azizah Ahmad

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive…

Abstract

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive advantage provided by BI capability is not well researched. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for successful BI deployment and empirically examines the association between BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage. Taking the telecommunications industry in Malaysia as a case example, the research particularly focuses on the influencing perceptions held by telecommunications decision makers and executives on factors that impact successful BI deployment. The research further investigates the relationship between successful BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage of the telecommunications organizations. Another important aim of this study is to determine the effect of moderating factors such as organization culture, business strategy, and use of BI tools on BI deployment and the sustainability of firm’s competitive advantage.

This research uses combination of resource-based theory and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to examine BI success and its relationship with firm’s sustainability. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and a two-phase sequential mixed method consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. The chapter presents a qualitative field study to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. The study includes a survey study with sample of business analysts and decision makers in telecommunications firms and is analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling.

The findings reveal that some internal resources of the organizations such as BI governance and the perceptions of BI’s characteristics influence the successful deployment of BI. Organizations that practice good BI governance with strong moral and financial support from upper management have an opportunity to realize the dream of having successful BI initiatives in place. The scope of BI governance includes providing sufficient support and commitment in BI funding and implementation, laying out proper BI infrastructure and staffing and establishing a corporate-wide policy and procedures regarding BI. The perceptions about the characteristics of BI such as its relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, and observability are also significant in ensuring BI success. The most important results of this study indicated that with BI successfully deployed, executives would use the knowledge provided for their necessary actions in sustaining the organizations’ competitive advantage in terms of economics, social, and environmental issues.

This study contributes significantly to the existing literature that will assist future BI researchers especially in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In particular, the model will help practitioners to consider the resources that they are likely to consider when deploying BI. Finally, the applications of this study can be extended through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Yasser Sharifi and Hamed Aviz

Nowadays, with the expansion of terrorist operations around the world and also the dangers of accidental explosions, the need to design structures resistant to this…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, with the expansion of terrorist operations around the world and also the dangers of accidental explosions, the need to design structures resistant to this phenomenon for the protection and safety of its citizens is inevitable. Tall buildings are one of the most important issues because of which those behavior should be investigated against the blast loading.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors used a simple method for investigating the dynamic response of tall buildings with the combined system of framed tube, shear core and outrigger-belt truss located at different heights of the building’s that were subjected to blast loading. This proposed model is based on the development of a continuum model and the ruling equations that have been obtained using the energy principle predict the whole structure idealized as a shear and flexural cantilever beam with rotational springs at the belt truss location.

Findings

The mathematical procedure shows a good understanding of the structural behavior and is suitable for a quick evaluation during the preliminary design stage, which requires less time. Moreover, it was concluded that the present blast load idealization can be used to reasonably assess the response of tall buildings subjected to blast load.

Originality/value

The comparative analysis in this paper could give other engineers a simple analysis method for the preliminary analysis and design of tall building analysis. Numerical example is given to illustrate the ease of application and the accuracy of the suggested model.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

B.J. Henz, K.K. Tamma, R. Kanapady, N.D. Ngo and P.W. Chung

The resin transfer molding process for composites manufacturing consists of either of two considerations, namely, the fluid flow analysis through a porous fiber preform…

Abstract

The resin transfer molding process for composites manufacturing consists of either of two considerations, namely, the fluid flow analysis through a porous fiber preform where the location of the flow front is of fundamental importance, and the combined flow/heat transfer/cure analysis. In this paper, the continuous sensitivity formulations are developed for the process modeling of composites manufactured by RTM to predict, analyze, and optimize the manufacturing process. Attention is focused here on developments for isothermal flow simulations, and various illustrative examples are presented for sensitivity analysis of practical applications which help serve as a design tool in the process modeling stages.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from…

Abstract

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.

The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.

The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

Keywords

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