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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli and Michael Alan Krawitz

“Cannabis” and “cannabis resin” are derived from the Cannabis plant, used as herbal medications, in traditional medicine and as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Since…

Abstract

Background

“Cannabis” and “cannabis resin” are derived from the Cannabis plant, used as herbal medications, in traditional medicine and as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Since 1961, they have been listed in Schedule IV, the most restrictive category of the single convention on narcotic drugs. The process to scientifically review and reschedule them was launched by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 2 December 2016; it survived a number of hindrances until finally being submitted to a delayed and sui generis vote by the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs on 2 December 2020, withdrawing “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” from Schedule IV.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate WHO’s scheduling recommendations, the process leading to the Commission vote and subsequent implications at global, national and patient/clinician levels. Narrative account of the four-year proceedings; review of the practical implications of both rejected and accepted recommendations.

Findings

The process was historically unprecedented, of political relevance to both medical Cannabis and evidence-based scheduling generally. Procedural barriers hampered the appropriate involvement of civil society stakeholders. The landscape resulting from accepted and rejected recommendations allow countries to continue creating decentralised, non-uniform systems for access to and availability of “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” for medical purposes.

Originality/value

Perspective of accredited observers; highlight of institutional issues and the lay of the land; contrast of stakeholders’ interpretations and engagement.

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Manoj Arora, Harpreet Singh and Sanjay Gupta

In the era of digitalization and technology, tremendous changes have taken place in the taxi industry worldwide. The traditional taxi service has transformed into the…

Abstract

Purpose

In the era of digitalization and technology, tremendous changes have taken place in the taxi industry worldwide. The traditional taxi service has transformed into the latest innovative technology-based e-hailing service. There are innumerable factors that drive the user adoption of e-hailing apps. This study aims to primarily concentrate on identifying, analyzing and ranking these factors which have an impact on the user intention toward using e-hailing apps.

Design/methodology/approach

The e-hailing app users in the state of Punjab and Chandigarh are the target population for the study. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process technique has been applied to analyze and codify the determinants that influence the user intention of adopting e-hailing apps. The primary factors that have been considered for the study are social influence, perceived usefulness, facilitating conditions, perceived ease of use, self-efficacy, perceived risk, compatibility and trust.

Findings

The study revealed that “Perceived Usefulness” is the factor that influences user intention to use e-hailing apps the most, while “Perceived Risk” the least. The sub-criteria codified in the top priority was as follows: “Overall, I find the e-hailing app useful in booking a taxi (C15)”; “I do not need some people to use e-hailing apps (C52); “I believe e-hailing app is compatible with existing technology (C61).” The sub-criterion “E-hailing app service provider keeps its promise (C72)” was demonstrated to have the least impact on the user intention of adopting e-hailing apps.

Research limitations/implications

The study has been confined to only eight factors selected from the extended technological acceptance model framework and some related technology acceptance theories. Some more other factors may have an impact on user adoption of e-hailing apps, which need to be added further. Also, the scope of the study should be enhanced by expanding the geographical area beyond the selected region.

Practical implications

The findings of the study enable the e-hailing service providers and marketers to understand the users’ intention in a better way, to make improvements in e-hailing apps and formulate strategies accordingly.

Originality/value

The previous literature provides the base to the present study for identifying the factors affecting user behavioral intention toward e-hailing apps and information technology. The findings and results of the present research make value addition to the existing knowledge base.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

F. Aziz, K. Sulaiman, Wissam Khayer Al-Rawi, Z. Ahmad, M.H. Sayyad, Kh. S. Karimov, L.L. Wei and M. Tahir

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) on improvement of physical and electrical properties of vanadyl…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) on improvement of physical and electrical properties of vanadyl phthalocyanine derivative. The correlation between the physical characteristics of the active layers, comprising vanadyl 2,9,16, 23-tetraphenoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO) and PCBM, and the electrical properties of metal/organic/metal devices have been studied. The use of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanine derivative makes it very attractive for a variety of applications due to its tunable properties and high solubility.

Design/methodology/approach

The sandwich type structures Al/VOPcPhO/Al and Al/VOPcPhO:PCBM/Al were fabricated by spin casting the active organic layers between the top and bottom (aluminum) electrodes. The stand-alone (VOPcPhO) and composite (VOPcPhO:PCBM) thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy. The electronic properties of the metal/organic/metal devices were studied using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark at room temperature.

Findings

The values of barrier height for Al/VOPcPhO/Al and Al/VOPcPhO:PCBM/Al devices were obtained from the forward bias I-V curves and were found to be 0.7 eV and 0.62 eV, respectively. The present study indicates that the device employing VOPcPhO:PCBM composite film as the active layer, with better structural and morphological characteristics, results in reduced barrier height at the metal-organic film interface as compared to the one fabricated with the stand-alone film.

Research limitations/implications

It is shown that doping VOPcPhO with PCBM improves the crystallinity, morphology and junction properties.

Practical implications

The spin coating technique provides a simple, less expensive and effective approach for preparing thin films. The soluble VOPcPhO is conveniently dissolved in a number of organic solvents.

Originality/value

The physical properties of the VOPcPhO:PCBM composite thin film and the electrical properties of the composite thin-film-based metal/organic/metal devices have not been reported in the literature, as far as our knowledge is concerned.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Kindness A.M. Uyanga, Modestus Okechukwu Okwu, A.O. Adeoye and S.E. Ogbeide

The study aims to carry out the production of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell in a laboratory scale using a blend of poly (3-hexylthiopene) (P3HT) and [6…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to carry out the production of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell in a laboratory scale using a blend of poly (3-hexylthiopene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl (C61) butyric acid methyl ether (PCBM).

Design/methodology/approach

Four inverted geometry organic solar cells were prepared based on 1:1 ratio of P3HT to PCBM and subjected to post annealing at different temperatures of 32, 120, 130 and 140°C. Solar cells were fabricated with structure glass/ITO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Au and characterized using Keithley 2400 series sourcemeter and a multimeter interfaced to a computer system with a LabVIEW software, which showed both dark and illumination current–voltage characteristic curves. Four reference cells were also fabricated with structure soda lime glass/P3HT:PCBM and annealed at different temperatures of 32, 120, 130 and 140°C.

Findings

The third organic solar cell prepared, Sample CITO, had the best performance with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.0281 per cent, fill factor (FF) of 0.392, short circuit current of −0.0133 A and open circuit voltage of 0.389 V. Annealing of active layer was found to improve cell morphology, FF and PCE. Annealing of the active layer at 140°C resulted in a decrease of the PCE to 2.01 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

These findings are in good agreement with previous investigation in literature which reported that best annealing temperature for a 1:1 ratio blend of active material is 130°C. Ultraviolet–visible spectra on reference cells showed that sample CITO had wider absorption spectra with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 508 nm.

Originality/value

This research is purely original.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

Jinesh Jain, Nidhi Walia and Sanjay Gupta

Research in the area of behavioral finance has demonstrated that investors exhibit irrational behavior while making investment decisions. Investor behavior usually…

2491

Abstract

Purpose

Research in the area of behavioral finance has demonstrated that investors exhibit irrational behavior while making investment decisions. Investor behavior usually deviates from logic and reason, and consequently, investors exhibit various behavioral biases which impact their investment decisions. The purpose of this paper is to rank the behavioral biases influencing the investment decision making of individual equity investors from the state of Punjab, India. This research would provide valuable insight into the different behavioral biases to investors and other participants of the capital market and help them in improving investment decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is conducted on the individual equity investors of Punjab, India. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was applied to rank the factors influencing the decision making of individual equity investors of Punjab. The primary factors considered for the study are overconfidence bias, representative bias, anchoring bias, availability bias, regret aversion bias, loss aversion bias, mental accounting bias and herding bias.

Findings

The three most influential criteria were herding bias, loss aversion bias and overconfidence bias. The five most influential sub-criteria were “I readily sell shares that have increased in value (C61),” “News about the company (Newspapers, TV and magazines) affects my investment decision (C84),” “I invest each element of my investment portfolio separately (C71)” and “I usually hold loosing stock for long time, expecting trend reversal (C52).”

Research limitations/implications

Although sample survey conducted in the present study was based on a limited sample selected from a particular area that truly represented the total population, it is considered as the limitation of this study.

Practical implications

The outcome of this research provides investors with a better understanding of behavioral biases that influence their decision making. This study provides them a guideline on different behavioral biases that they should consider while making investment decisions.

Originality/value

The research model is based on the available literature on behavioral finance and the research results and findings would add value to the existing knowledge base.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Tony A. Harvell

With the passage of the Caribbean Basin Initiative in 1983, there has been an increased interest in obtaining information useful to businesses considering expansion in the…

Abstract

With the passage of the Caribbean Basin Initiative in 1983, there has been an increased interest in obtaining information useful to businesses considering expansion in the region. This selective guide to current sources addresses that interest.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Víctor Giménez, Diego Prior and Jorge R. Keith

This paper aims to investigate the efficiency implications of belonging to a strategic hospital alliance (SHA) and measuring the effects over capacity utilization of such…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the efficiency implications of belonging to a strategic hospital alliance (SHA) and measuring the effects over capacity utilization of such agreements in a Mexican healthcare context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the nonparametric methodology used, which supports both objectives. Technological gaps ratios are calculated by using DEA-metafrontier approach to compare efficiency between SHA members and a hospital’s control group. Also, hospital capacity utilization ratios are used as the maximum rate of output possible from fixed inputs in a frontier setting using directional distance functions. Data were collected from an alliance called Consorcio Mexicano de Hospitales in México, which has 29 general private hospitals and a group of 47 hospitals with same characteristics from a database made by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía for year 2014.

Findings

The results indicate that efficiency is better at hospitals that belong to an alliance; it also shows an improvement of installed capacity management for hospital alliances in México.

Originality/value

The results can be useful for both private health organization managers and regulators themselves to adopt management practices that may end up having a favorable impact on cost and prices containment. Additionally, there are no previous studies neither in Mexico nor in Latin America that analyze the impact of strategic hospitality alliances on the efficiency and utilization of the capacity of private hospitals.

Propósito

Este documento tiene como objetivo investigar las implicaciones de pertenecer a una alianza hospitalaria estratégica (AHE) en la eficiencia, así como cuantificar los efectos sobre la utilización de la capacidad de dichos acuerdos en el contexto mexicano de atención médica.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA) es la metodología no paramétrica utilizada para lograr ambos objetivos. Las brechas tecnológicas se estiman empleando meta-fronteras calculadas mediante modelos DEA, comparando la eficiencia entre los miembros de la AHE y un grupo de control de hospitales. El nivel de utilización de la capacidad hospitalaria se calcula, utilizando funciones direccionales de distancia, a partir del máximo output alcanzable a partir de la dotación de inputs fijos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la alianza Consorcio Mexicano de Hospitales en México, integrada por 29 hospitales privados generales, y de un grupo de 47 hospitales con las mismas características obtenidos de una base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía para el año 2014.

Resultados

adosLos resultados indican que los niveles de eficiencia son superiores en los hospitales pertenecientes a la alianza, así como una mejor gestión de la capacidad instalada en la alianza hospitalaria en México.

Originalidad/valor

Los resultados pueden ser útiles tanto para los administradores de las organizaciones de salud privadas como para los reguladores, de forma que puedan adoptar prácticas de gestión con un impacto favorable en la contención de costos y precios. Asimismo, no existen estudios previos ni en México ni en América Latina que analicen el impacto de las alianzas estratégicas hospitalarias en la eficiencia y la utilización de la capacidad de los hospitales privados.

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2005

Guojun Ji

In the development processes of a product’s market life cycle, there are three phases of an enterprise’s innovation: new product development, production processes, and…

Abstract

In the development processes of a product’s market life cycle, there are three phases of an enterprise’s innovation: new product development, production processes, and product management. In this article, the analyses of benefit and costs, value, and profit to companies are discussed in different stages. New logistics features that appear in an enterprise’s supply chain based on innovative modeling are discussed. Then a logistics model and its technical system based on the classified logistics center are established, which are appropriate for innovative modeling within an agile supply chain. Using the basic theory and techniques of ‘extenics’, the formal conception of innovative modeling-based manufacture in logistics is presented, and the matter-element models are established. Finally, a case study demonstrates the results.

Details

Journal of International Logistics and Trade, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1738-2122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2015

Süleyman Kale, Mehmet Hasan Eken and Hüseyin Selimler

To investigate the effects of regulations, macroeconomic changes, and political events on the efficiency of the Turkish banks during the period 1997-2013, when crucial…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effects of regulations, macroeconomic changes, and political events on the efficiency of the Turkish banks during the period 1997-2013, when crucial changes were experienced. To analyze the effects of an extensive set of bank-specific and environmental factors on the efficiency, since the diversions could not only be related to new regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-stage procedure is employed. First, the productivity changes of each bank and of the whole sector are measured by a DEA-based Malmquist Productivity Index (DEA-MPI). Second, the effects of selected internal and external factors on productivity are analyzed with regression analysis. The sector is especially handled before and after 2001, when one of the most catastrophic crises is observed and moment after which a series of new regulations are implemented.

Findings

During the period 1997-2001, the efficiency deteriorated due to the 2001 crisis; after the crisis, an improvement was observed. All models indicate the source of improvements as efficiency instead of technological changes. Rather than external, internal factors seem to be more effective on productivity. Therefore, the importance of regulations for the soundness of banks, management quality and monitoring may be more crucial than what is thought. In general, a new macroeconomic environment, particularly new regulations, have positive effects on productivity. Tighter regulations, monitoring, restrictions, strong supervision, more capital, and new reforms have a positive impact on efficiency.

Originality/value

The study spans a wide period to analyze the sector using three different perspectives. It analyzes the effect of the 2001 financial crisis and subsequent regulations. It handles an extensive set of internal and external factors; and it tests each factor with nine different DEA-MPI models for consistency. Turkey's unique environmental factors, such as the unstable macroeconomic conditions, high inflation and a subsequent disinflation period, high interest rates, new regulations and crisis experience, among others, also make the study distinctive.

Details

Journal of Centrum Cathedra: The Business and Economics Research Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1851-6599

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Olga G. Tretyakova, Olga P. Osadchaya, Elena I. Kostyukova, Mikhail V. Sirotenko and Irina V. Gimelshtein

Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the essence and to determine the algorithm and methodology of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the essence and to determine the algorithm and methodology of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives according to the scientific approach to this process of management of modern business systems.

Methodology: The research is conducted with the help of the method of process analysis, which allows determining the stages of the process of decision making in modern business systems and determining its algorithm; the method of formalization, which allows presenting the obtained algorithm; and the method of comparative analysis, which allows comparing the existing methods of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives.

Conclusions: As a result of generalization and systematization of the existing scientific knowledge in the sphere of managerial decisions in modern business systems and reconsideration (logical analysis) of this process, its algorithm is compiled. Four stages of the algorithm of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems are distinguished – determining the needs of business system for managerial decisions, determining the possibilities of business system in making of managerial decisions, compiling alternative variants of managerial decisions, and implementation of the made managerial decision and further evaluation of its optimality. Also, methodological tools of each stage are determined.

Originality/value: The developed algorithm possesses the following advantages as compared to the existing scientific descriptions of this process: completeness, complex solution of the problems of the business system through managerial decisions, connection of the methodology of managerial decisions to each stage of the algorithm, and systemic character of the methodology of decision making as a choice of the existing alternatives.

Details

Specifics of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-692-7

Keywords

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