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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Audrey N. Scarlata, Kelly L. Williams and Brandon Vagner

The increasing availability of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) financial statements motivates additional investigation of whether XBRL’s search-facilitating…

Abstract

The increasing availability of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) financial statements motivates additional investigation of whether XBRL’s search-facilitating technology (SFT) and enhanced viewing capabilities facilitate information search and improve financial analysis decision quality and efficiency. This experiment investigates how using XBRL technology to view financial statements influences novice investors’ decision quality by affecting decision processes such as search strategy and effort, as well as decision efficiency (accuracy/effort) in a financial statement analysis task. In the experiment, randomly assigned student participants (n = 102) invested in companies using either static PDF-formatted or XBRL-enabled financial statements. No differences in decision quality (i.e., accuracy) due to technology use were observed. However, participants in the XBRL condition examined less information, used more directed search processes, and evidenced greater efficiency than did participants assigned to the PDF condition. Hence, the results suggest that XBRL SFT affects the use of differing decision processes relative to PDF technology.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-346-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Bruno Chiarini and Elisabetta Marzano

Crime games cannot be simply read with mixed strategies. These strategies are inconclusive of how the players act rationally. This is undeniably true for the crime of tax…

Abstract

Purpose

Crime games cannot be simply read with mixed strategies. These strategies are inconclusive of how the players act rationally. This is undeniably true for the crime of tax evasion, where dishonest taxpayers are rational agents, motivated by the comparison of payoffs, when considering the risk of non-compliance. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that in the presence of a small “private disturbance” of the players’ payoff, the Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies provides us with the necessary information on equilibria in pure strategies that will be played.

Design/methodology/approach

In tax-evasion games, an equilibrium must necessarily be interpreted in pure strategies, and the only way to do this is to insert some private information into the game and reinterpret it in a Bayesian scheme. We show that taxpayers’ private,subjective considerations on the effective implementation of the penalty and the revenue agency’s private information on the cost of monitoring and conviction can lead to Bayesian equilibria in pure strategies. The present paper takes issue with this Bayesian equilibrium and the implications for comparative-statics results.

Findings

In this context, tougher sentencing deters crime, although, as the Italian experience teaches, the necessary condition required is the certainty of punishment and the ability of the government to enforce it. The equilibrium strategies with incomplete information reveal whether it is convenient for the two agents to maintain their “private disturbance” as private information or, on the contrary, it is convenient to expect it to be “common knowledge.”

Originality/value

A distinct set of studies has adopted a game theoretic approach and shows that the standard economic approach to crime deterrence inspired by Gary Beker’s seminal paper might be flawed. See, among others, Saha and Poole (2000), Tsebelis (1989) and Andreozzi (2010). This paper shows that a greater severity of the penalty and a higher certainty of punishment (a lower possibility of appealing against sanctions and no discounts on due penalties) necessarily lead to a unique Bayesian equilibrium without evasion.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Katia M. Galdino, Sérgio Fernando Loureiro Rezende and Bruce T. Lamont

By bringing together the IB and IE literatures, the purpose of this paper is to examine the internationalization process as an entrepreneurial process related to the…

Abstract

Purpose

By bringing together the IB and IE literatures, the purpose of this paper is to examine the internationalization process as an entrepreneurial process related to the development of international opportunities. It explicitly connects different types of knowledge (i.e. market and internationalization), international opportunities and the internationalization process comprising both new foreign market entry and sequential moves that happen after entry.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that reviews the literature on knowledge, opportunities and the internationalization process. Moreover, the paper identifies the current gaps in the literature and builds new theory that sheds light into how these three concepts are related. The paper also presents a model and propositions that should guide future research.

Findings

The proposed model shows that market and internationalization knowledge combine to form the international knowledge stockpile of the firm, which moderates the relationship between the development of international opportunities and the internationalization process, comprising not only new foreign market entry but also sequential moves that happen after entry using either mode continuation or modal shift. Moreover, it shows that the development of opportunities only leads to modal shifts after a certain threshold is achieved.

Research limitations/implications

The propositions suggest that market and internationalization knowledge are positively related to international opportunities, which, in turn, are related to foreign market entry and sequential moves using mode continuation. International opportunities, however, are related to modal shifts only beyond a threshold. Moreover, the international knowledge stockpile of the firm moderates the relationship between international opportunities and the internationalization process. Because this is a conceptual paper, the propositions have not been tested and, therefore, lack empirical validation. Nonetheless, the model is a starting point to new research on internationalization distinguishing different types of knowledge as well as different sequential moves.

Originality/value

This study shows that the internationalization process is contingent on the different types of knowledge associated with it. It also introduces the idea of a threshold that shapes the internationalization process. The bulk of the research on internationalization suggests that such a process is gradual and incremental. This study offers a non-linear alternative.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Patricia Ann Marcellino

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an action‐research study of metaphors and metaphoric fragments composed by graduate students in 17 teams in two business (MBA) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an action‐research study of metaphors and metaphoric fragments composed by graduate students in 17 teams in two business (MBA) and three educational administration courses taught by the same instructor and action‐researcher.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of the paper was action‐research conducted directly by the instructor and indirectly by the business and education graduate students who participated in the study. Participants (74) were aspiring leaders in business and educational leadership programs at a private university in New York. The instructor and action‐researcher utilized participants' metaphors or metaphoric fragments (i.e. glimpses of a metaphor) as an instructional technique to compare and further understand the team process in both disciplines.

Findings

The findings in the paper indicated that an analysis of metaphors or metaphoric fragments enabled the instructor to develop a multiple perspective of various team stages and revise an action‐plan (or syllabus) that would expand the use of metaphors as a diagnostic tool for team development.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper is that it is cross‐disciplinary, and compares metaphors from aspiring leaders within the disciplines of business and education. The value of the study is that it may influence the development of other action‐research team studies on the university level.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Anne Douglas and Melehat Nil Gulari

The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: in what sense does experimentation as improvisation lead to methodological innovation? What are the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: in what sense does experimentation as improvisation lead to methodological innovation? What are the implications of artistic experimentation as improvisation for education and learning?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tracks the known concept within research of “experimentation” with a view to revealing how practice-led research in art works distinctively with experimentation. It proposes experimentation as improvisation drawing on a research project Sounding Drawing 2012 as an example. The paper situates art experimentation as improvisation in art (Cage, 1995) anthropology (Hallam and Ingold, 2007; Bateson, 1989) and the theoretical work of Arnheim (1986) on forms of cognition.

Findings

Arts research as improvisation is participatory, relational and performative retaining the research subject in its life context. The artist as researcher starts with open-ended critical questions for which there are no known methods or immediate answer. By setting up boundary conditions from the outset and understanding the situatedness and contingencies of those conditions, the artist as improviser seeks ways of not only avoiding chaos and the arbitrary but also being trapped by what is already known.

Originality/value

This approach is important within and beyond the arts because it consciously draws together different forms of cognition – intuition and relational knowledge and also sequential knowledge. It is also significant because it offers a different epistemology in which new knowledge emerges in the relationship between participants in the research taking form in co-creation. These qualities all position improvisation as a research paradigm and a counterpoint to positivism.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

David Tucker and Ray Hackney

In an increasingly uncertain marketplace manufacturing organisations are striving to find new ways to meet customer requirements for competitively priced, customised…

Abstract

In an increasingly uncertain marketplace manufacturing organisations are striving to find new ways to meet customer requirements for competitively priced, customised products, delivered in shorter lead times. It is argued that to meet these demands there is a need to integrate the design, development and production functions within a concurrent engineering (CE) environment. The literature reports many cases of failed CE projects. One of the main reasons for this failure is believed to be a lack of formal methodologies to assist organisations with the processes required to move from sequential to concurrent product development phases. This paper describes the Cougar methodology which has been developed specifically to address this issue. The paper initially outlines briefly the progression of ideas within organisational theory from classical to contemporary strategy. It then considers the development and application of the Cougar methodology. Finally, a case study is described detailing the success of the concept within a leading UK engineering company with observations and proposals for further organisational analysis.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Yongtae Do

Fire is a common disaster. Even though simple sensors such as those detecting smoke or heat are popularly employed, they require close proximity to fire. In order to…

Abstract

Purpose

Fire is a common disaster. Even though simple sensors such as those detecting smoke or heat are popularly employed, they require close proximity to fire. In order to obtain more reliable and more complete information, fire detection by vision sensing has recently acquired increasing attention. In the vision-based fire sensing, colour is usually used as an important cue for flame detection. However, considering there are still a large number of black-and-white (B/W) CCTV cameras installed for security purposes, a technique that can detect flame reliably in grey-scale images will be useful to protect human lives and property from the fire disaster. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This article describes the automatic detection of fire flames in the grey-scale image sequences by a two-level image processing scheme: pixel-level and frame-level. In pixel-level processing, an evaluation function is devised to extract pixels that possibly belong to the flame region, particularly to its boundaries. Extracted fire pixel candidates are verified in frame-level processing by monitoring their distribution variations in sequential images. A circle is fitted to the candidate pixels in each image for efficient monitoring, and the presence of flame is reasoned when the position and size of the circle increase with high fluctuations.

Findings

Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect flame quite reliably using the intensity information and its temporal variations in grey-scale image sequences.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel technique of vision-based flame detection. Unlike most existing techniques, the proposed technique is based on the grey-scale images of a B/W camera. To the best of the author's knowledge, it may be the first of its kind developed for general application to indoor and outdoor scenes.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Michel Soto Chalhoub

This paper develops and proposes a game theory model that illustrates the effect of privatization on firm competitiveness using cases from the automotive industry. We…

Abstract

This paper develops and proposes a game theory model that illustrates the effect of privatization on firm competitiveness using cases from the automotive industry. We first provide the mathematical derivation of the model for a competitive industry then address the special case of a duopoly. We chose the automotive industry as it is a relevant illustration of global competitive pressures pushing firms to develop strategic alliances or consolidate. The model shows that privatization has (1) a positive effect on firm performance given that managerial incentives are well defined, and (2) facilitates the firmʼs entry into strategic alliances. We then turn to discuss Renaultʼs empirically observed success factors in the European - and gradually global - markets over the last three decades despite the economic cycles.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Sasan T. Khorasani, Maryam Keshtzari, Md Saiful Islam and Ramyar Feizi

The cost of pharmaceutical supply chain due to drug waste is one of the current major issues in health care. Drug waste associated with intravenous (IV) fluid form of…

Abstract

Purpose

The cost of pharmaceutical supply chain due to drug waste is one of the current major issues in health care. Drug waste associated with intravenous (IV) fluid form of medication is one of the crucial issues for many pharmacies. The purpose of this paper is to apply a cross-docking model to minimize the IV delivery lead time to reduce drug waste by scheduling staff in a local hospital’s inpatient pharmacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed integer linear programming model is applied to the IV delivery system of a hospital. The parameters are selected based on the observations made in the inpatient pharmacy.

Findings

The result implies that cross-docking approach can be effectively applied to IV delivery system. In fact, the cross-docking optimization model employed in this case study reduces the IV delivery completion time of the inpatient pharmacy by 41 percent.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this research is limited to the activities performed after IV preparation.

Practical implications

The application of cross-docking system in staff scheduling will be beneficial for health care organizations that aim to minimize medication waste.

Originality/value

The prime value of this study lies in the introduction of a cross-docking concept in an internal hospital ordering process. Cross-docking models are widely used in general supply chain systems; however, their application for specific activities inside hospitals is the novelty of this study, which can fill the research gap in terms of drug waste management within the inpatient pharmacy.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Massimo Egidi

Abstract

Details

Cognitive Economics: New Trends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-862-9

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