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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2022

Nadia Albis Salas, Isabel Alvarez and John Cantwell

This paper explains the mechanisms underlying the generation of two-way knowledge spillovers through the interaction of subsidiaries with differentiated local…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explains the mechanisms underlying the generation of two-way knowledge spillovers through the interaction of subsidiaries with differentiated local responsibilities and domestic firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on firm-level panel data from a census of Colombian manufacturing firms for the period 2003–2012. The estimation procedure involves two stages. In the first one, total factor productivity (TFP) of foreign and domestic firms is estimated. In a second step, we estimate conventional spillovers (from foreign-owned to local firms) and reverse spillovers (from local to foreign-owned firms) separately, using a random effect approach.

Findings

This study’s findings reveal that only locally creative subsidiaries enjoy positive and significant two-way knowledge spillover effects. The connectivity of subsidiaries to local and international networks is reinforced by reciprocal relationships among actors that enhance bidirectional knowledge flows, these being favored by the dynamics of clustering effects.

Originality/value

The paper contributes with new empirical evidence about the mechanism explaining how the technological heterogeneity of subsidiaries plays a determinant role in the generation of both knowledge flows from foreign to domestic firms and to the reverse, all integrated into the same framework.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2005

David B. Audretsch, Max Keilbach and Erik Lehmann

The prevailing theories of entrepreneurship have typically revolved around the ability of individuals to recognize opportunities and act on them by starting new ventures…

Abstract

The prevailing theories of entrepreneurship have typically revolved around the ability of individuals to recognize opportunities and act on them by starting new ventures. This has generated a literature asking why entrepreneurial behavior varies across individuals with different characteristics, while implicitly holding the external context in which the individual finds oneself to be constant. Thus, where the opportunities come from, or the source of entrepreneurial opportunities, are also implicitly taken as given. By contrast, we provide a theory identifying at least one source of entrepreneurial opportunity – new knowledge and ideas that are not fully commercialized by the organization actually investing in the creation of that knowledge. The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship holds individual characteristics as given, but lets the context vary. In particular, high knowledge contexts are found to generate more entrepreneurial opportunities, where the entrepreneur serves as a conduit for knowledge spillovers. By contrast, impoverished knowledge contexts are found to generate fewer entrepreneurial opportunities. By serving as a conduit for knowledge spillovers, entrepreneurship is the missing link between investments in new knowledge and economic growth. Thus, the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship provides not just an explanation of why entrepreneurship has become more prevalent as the factor of knowledge has emerged as a crucial source for comparative advantage, but also why entrepreneurship plays a vital role in generating economic growth. Entrepreneurship is an important mechanism permeating the knowledge filter to facilitate the spillover of knowledge, and ultimately generating economic growth.

Details

University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-359-4

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Pym Manopimoke, Suthawan Prukumpai and Yuthana Sethapramote

This chapter examines dynamic connectedness among emerging Asian equity markets as well as explores their linkages vis-à-vis other major global markets. We find that…

Abstract

This chapter examines dynamic connectedness among emerging Asian equity markets as well as explores their linkages vis-à-vis other major global markets. We find that international equity markets are tightly integrated. Measuring connectedness based on a generalized Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model, more than half of all total forecast error variance in equity return and volatility shocks come from other markets as opposed to country own shocks. When examining the degree of connectedness over time, we find that international stock markets have become increasingly connected, with a gentle upward trend since the Asian financial crisis (AFC) but with a rapid burst during the global financial crisis (GFC). Despite the growing importance of Asian emerging markets in the world economy, we find that their influence on advanced economies are still relatively small, with no significant increase over time. During the past decade, advanced markets have been consistently net transmitters of shocks while emerging Asian markets act as net receivers. Based on the nature of equity shock spillovers, we also find that advanced countries are still tightly connected among themselves while intraregional connectedness within Asia remains strong. By investigating whether uncertainty plays an important role in explaining the degree of stock market connectedness, we find that economic policy uncertainty (EPU) from the US is an important source of financial shock spillover for the majority of international equity markets. In contrast, US financial market uncertainty as proxied by the VIX index drives equity market spillovers only among advanced economies.

Details

Banking and Finance Issues in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-453-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Constantin Gurdgiev and Barry Trueick

At the onset of the Global Financial Crisis in 2007–2008, majority of the analysts and policymakers have anticipated contagion from the markets volatility in the advanced…

Abstract

Purpose

At the onset of the Global Financial Crisis in 2007–2008, majority of the analysts and policymakers have anticipated contagion from the markets volatility in the advanced economies (AEs) to the emerging markets (EMs). This chapter examines the volatility spillovers from the AEs’ equity markets (Japan, the United States and Europe) to the four key EMs, the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China).

Methodology

The period under study, from 2000 through mid-2014, reflects a time of varying regimes in markets volatility, including the periods of dot.com bubble, the Global Financial Crisis and the European Sovereign Debt Crisis, the Great Recession and the start of the Russian-Ukrainian geopolitical crisis. To estimate volatility cross-linkages between the AEs and BRIC markets, we use multivariate GARCH-BEKK model across a number of specifications.

Findings

We find that, the developed economies weighted return volatility did have a significant impact on volatility across all four of the BRIC economies returns. However, contrary to the consensus view, there was no evidence of volatility spillover from the individual AEs onto BRIC economies with the exception of a spillover from Europe to Brazil. The implied forward-looking expectations for markets volatility had a strong and significant spillover effect onto Brazil, Russia and China, and a weaker effect on India.

Practical Implications

The evidence on volatility spillovers from the AEs markets to EMs puts into question the traditional view of financial and economic systems sustainability in the presence of higher orders of integration of the global monetary and financial systems. Overall, data suggest that we are witnessing less than perfect integration between BRIC economies and AEs markets to-date can offer some volatility hedging opportunities for investors.

Originality

Our chapter contributes to the growing literature on volatility spillovers from the AEs to the EMs in a number of ways. Firstly, we provide a formal analysis of the spillovers to the BRIC economies over the periods of recent crises. Secondly, we make new conclusions concerning longer-term spillovers as opposed to higher frequency volatility contagion covered by the previous literature. Thirdly, we consider a new channel for volatility contagion – the trade-weighted AEs volatility measure.

Details

Lessons from the Great Recession: At the Crossroads of Sustainability and Recovery
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-743-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Paola Garrone, Lucia Piscitello and Yan Wang

Purpose – This chapter aims at investigating the impact of cross-border knowledge spillovers on technological innovation in the renewable energy sector.…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims at investigating the impact of cross-border knowledge spillovers on technological innovation in the renewable energy sector.

Methodology/approach – The analysis presented in the chapter assumes that technological knowledge exhibits several tacit elements and requires established connections to flow between countries. A new measure for knowledge spillovers is obtained by weighting international R&D stocks through bilateral trade flows. The country-level patenting activity is modelled through a knowledge production function. The sample includes 18 OECD countries over the 1990–2006 period. Estimates are obtained through panel data techniques.

Findings – Our econometric results show that international knowledge developed by other countries has positive effects on the focal country's innovation in renewable energy technologies. Cross-country linkages, rather than mere geographic proximity, are found to favour cross-country knowledge spillovers.

Impact – The research contributes to the design of energy innovation policies. Public R&D is confirmed to be a relevant input to energy innovation. Coordination between countries in energy R&D activities can be required, particularly when countries maintain mutual linkages.

Originality – This study adds empirical evidence on the effect of cross-country knowledge spillovers and on the channels through which technological knowledge diffuses globally. It contributes to the emerging empirical research on energy innovation.

Details

Entrepreneurship in the Global Firm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-115-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Takashi Matsuki, Kimiko Sugimoto and Yushi Yoshida

We examine how the degree of regional financial integration in African stock markets has evolved over the last eleven years. Despite increasing regional economic…

Abstract

We examine how the degree of regional financial integration in African stock markets has evolved over the last eleven years. Despite increasing regional economic cooperation, the process of stock market integration has been slow. To facilitate growth via developed financial markets but keep financial stability risk at a minimum, further regional integration should be promoted, and mild capital controls on non-African investors may be necessary. A Diebold-Yilmaz spillover analysis is applied to ten African stock markets for the period between August 2004 and January 2015. We examine spillovers among four regions and among individual countries. Regional integration, as measured by total spillovers in Africa, is increasing but remains very low. These spillovers were temporarily heightened during the global financial crisis. Cross-regional spillovers are high between Northern and Southern Africa. Asymmetric capital controls on African and non-African investors must be considered to foster further regional integration and to mitigate financial stability risk. This is one of the few studies to address the construction of the future architecture of regionally integrated stock markets in emerging countries.

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Lamina Ben Hamida and Philippe Gugler

This chapter examines intra-industry spillover effects from inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Swiss manufacturing firms. It suggests that (a) the assessment of…

Abstract

This chapter examines intra-industry spillover effects from inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Swiss manufacturing firms. It suggests that (a) the assessment of spillovers calls upon a detailed analysis of these effects according to the mechanisms by which they occur (viz. the increase of competition, demonstration effects, and worker mobility), and (b) spillovers depend on the interaction between their mechanisms and the levels of domestic absorptive capacity. Results are affirmative in that high-technology firms benefit from FDI heightening competition, while mid-technology firms benefit from demonstration effects. And low-technology firms, which are not able to benefit from foreign affiliates via demonstration effects alone, manage to reap the benefit via the recruitment of MNCs labor. In addition, only firms which largely invest in absorbing foreign technology benefit from spillovers.

Details

New Perspectives in International Business Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-279-1

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2022

N. Kundan Kishor

This study aims to know to what extent do the commercial and residential estate markets move together in different economies? Do the shocks originating in one of these…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to know to what extent do the commercial and residential estate markets move together in different economies? Do the shocks originating in one of these markets spillover to the other markets?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply a modified version of the dynamic factor model to commercial and residential real estate prices in the Euro area, Hong Kong, Singapore and the USA. This modified dynamic factor model decomposes price growth in these two real estate markets into common, spillover and idiosyncratic components.

Findings

The results show significant heterogeneity in the relative importance of different components in the evolution of commercial and residential price growth across different economies. The findings suggest that the spillover from the residential to commercial real estate market dominates the spillover from the commercial to real estate market for all the economies in our sample. The authors also find that the common component accounts for a large fraction of the price movements in the residential markets in the European Union (EU) area and the USA, whereas spillover and common components together explain more than two-thirds of the variations in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results suggest that the role of spillover from one market to another increased significantly during the financial crisis of 2008–2009.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature on how the transmission of shocks takes place across commercial and residential real estate markets. The transmission of shocks can take place in two directions in the proposed framework. There may be a direct spillover from a shock from one market to another. This corresponds to a shock to the idiosyncratic component affecting the other idiosyncratic component. In this paper, the authors are mainly interested in indirect spillover where the shock would transmit from the idiosyncratic factor to the common factor, and then from the common factor to the other idiosyncratic factor.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2013

Panagiotis Dontis-Charitos, Orla Gough, K. Ben Nowman and Sheeja Sivaprasad

We investigate the return and volatility spillovers from major UK banks to Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 (FTSE 100) index using Gaussian estimation and continuous…

Abstract

We investigate the return and volatility spillovers from major UK banks to Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 (FTSE 100) index using Gaussian estimation and continuous time models as well as discrete time multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) modelling approaches. Using daily, weekly and monthly data over the period December 1999–December 2010, which includes the recent 2007–2009 global financial crisis, empirical estimates of uni- and/or bi-directional return and volatility spillovers are provided. The bivariate MGARCH results reveal strong return spillovers from the FTSE to the banks, and no return spillover from the latter to the FTSE. Nevertheless, strong bi-directional volatility transmission is verified. The continuous time analysis provides mixed evidence of feedback effects over the different models.

Details

Global Banking, Financial Markets and Crises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-170-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Muhammad Yasir and A. Özlem Önder

This study aims to investigate herding spillover in BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries and Turkey under different regimes by using a time-varying approach.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate herding spillover in BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries and Turkey under different regimes by using a time-varying approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the structural change model of Bai and Perron (1998).

Findings

The results indicate that there is an evidence of herding behaviour in the Chinese stock market in two different regimes. These regimes cover the recent global financial crisis and the period of Hong Kong protests. We also report the evidence of herding behaviour in the Turkish stock market in the regime covering the COVID-19 period. Findings of herding spillover show that there is a two-way herding among Russia and China during crises and high volatile regimes. Similarly, there exists a cross-country herding among Brazil and India during crisis regimes. Also, there is herding spillover from Turkey to Russia, China and Brazil during the global financial crisis, post-European debt crisis and COVID-19 periods respectively. Furthermore, it is also evident that there is a herding spillover from Russia and China to India during the period covering COVID-19.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that uses structural change approach to identify herding behaviour spillovers from the US stock market to BRIC countries and Turkey and to investigate the cross-country herding behaviour among BRIC countries and Turkey.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

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