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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Xiaojing Zhang and Yulin Zhang

This study highlights the effect of an inductee's altruism on referral reward programs (RRPs) on an online shopping guide platform to determine the optimal RRP and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study highlights the effect of an inductee's altruism on referral reward programs (RRPs) on an online shopping guide platform to determine the optimal RRP and referral reward allocation under a Cashback and Referral RRP.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider a Stackelberg game with a platform, seller, inductor and inductee, where the inductee's altruism plays a vital role in determining the optimal RRP in equilibrium.

Findings

The authors show that the conditions under which it is optimal to reward the inductor only or reward both inductor and inductee are equal or unequal depending on the degree of the inductee's altruism. Suppose the platform is unable to dynamically decide the commission fee. In that case, the platform may not always be involved in RRPs and will gradually reduce the rewards for inductees as the altruism increases.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on a free-to-consumers model where sellers pay membership fees. Thus, this study has limitations regarding other pricing schemes such as a model in which consumers pay a fee while sellers do not or a model in which both types of users pay fees.

Practical implications

This analytical work can help platforms optimize referral reward strategies and referral reward allocation considering the influence of an inductee's altruism.

Originality/value

In a Cashback and Referral RRP on a shopping guide platform, the authors provide applicable conditions for the platform to involve in the RRPs when rewarding an equal bonus for the inductor and inductee first. Further, the authors show the optimal referral reward strategy and referral reward allocation when giving the different bonuses to the inductor and inductee.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Markus König, Christian Pfarr and Peter Zweifel

Preferences of both Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers are related to a willingness-to-pay (WTP) measure which is used to test for the presence of mutual…

Abstract

Purpose

Preferences of both Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers are related to a willingness-to-pay (WTP) measure which is used to test for the presence of mutual (rather than conventional unilateral) altruism.

Methodology

Contingent valuation experiments were conducted in 2000–2002, involving 126 Alzheimer patients and their caregiving spouses living in the Zurich metropolitan area (Switzerland). WTP values for three hypothetical treatments of the demented patient were elicited. The treatment Stabilization prevents the worsening of the disease, bringing dementia to a standstill. Cure restores patient health to its original level. In No burden, dementia takes its normal course while caregiver’s burden is reduced to its level before the disease.

Findings

The three different types of therapies are reflected in different WTP values of both caregivers and patients, suggesting that moderate levels of Alzheimer’s disease still permit clear expression of preference. According to the WTP values found, patients do not rank Cure higher than No burden, implying that their preferences are entirely altruistic. Caregiving spouses rank Cure before Burden, reflecting less than perfect altruism which accounts for some 40 percent of their total WTP. Still, this constitutes evidence of mutual altruism.

Value

The evidence suggests that WTP values reflect individuals’ preferences even in Alzheimer patients. The estimates suggest that an economically successful treatment should provide relief to caregivers, with its curative benefits being of secondary importance.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Michael Jenkins

Abstract

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Expert Humans: Critical Leadership Skills for a Disrupted World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-260-7

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Merja Lähdesmäki and Tuomo Takala

The purpose of this study is to examine corporate philanthropy from the perspective of small business owner‐managers to find out whether there is room for altruism in…

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9454

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine corporate philanthropy from the perspective of small business owner‐managers to find out whether there is room for altruism in business life.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on 25 thematic interviews with small business owner‐managers. The data analysis is based on a method of qualitative content analysis.

Findings

Based on the analysis, it is shown that reactivity, an emphasis on personal interests, the willingness to utilize philanthropy as part of marketing and lack of planning are typical of philanthropy in the small business context. Small businesses often emphasize strategic business reasons as the main motive for their philanthropic engagements. Nevertheless, in some cases the philanthropic decisions are based on mere willingness to contribute to the welfare of others. Thus, the paper suggests that there is room for altruism in the small business context. The existence of altruism in the context of small business philanthropy is closely related to owner‐managers' values and business ambitions. Indeed, the organizational context does not usually hinder the existence of altruism to any great extent among small businesses, as it might do in the large business context. Similarly, based on the results of this study, the authors suggest that close relationships between a small business and its stakeholders increase the probability of altruism in business.

Research limitations/implications

It is acknowledged that corporate philanthropy is but one possible context in which to study altruism.

Originality/value

The study provides useful information on whether there is room for altruism in business life from the perspective of small business owner‐managers.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Niti Singh and Venkat R. Krishnan

To explore the mediating role of altruism in the relationship between self‐sacrifice and transformational leadership, and to look at the effect of all three on followers'…

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4294

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the mediating role of altruism in the relationship between self‐sacrifice and transformational leadership, and to look at the effect of all three on followers' collective identity and perceptions of unit performance.

Design/methodology/approach

For Study 1, survey responses were collected from 127 managers in India. They answered questions on their leader's self‐sacrifice, altruism, and transformational leadership, and on their own collective identity and perceptions of unit performance. Study 2 used a scenario experiment and 161 students to manipulate self‐sacrifice and altruism and measure their effects on transformational leadership, collective identity and perceived unit performance.

Findings

It is possible to distinguish between self‐sacrifice and altruism empirically. Altruism mediates the relationship between self‐sacrifice and transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is positively related to followers' collective identity and perceived unit performance.

Research limitations/implications

Common source bias may have affected the findings. Use of student sample in Study 2 limits the generalizability of findings.

Practical implications

Other‐orientedness (altruism) of a manager enhances transformational leadership, which in turn leads to higher collective identity and perceived unit performance. Self‐sacrifice could be a good starting point in this chain of events.

Originality/value

Studies have shown that self‐sacrifice enhances transformational leadership. This paper highlights the mediating process through altruism. This is the first empirical study to look at the relationship between altruism and transformational leadership. This is also the first study to look at self‐sacrifice and altruism simultaneously.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Diego Costa Pinto, Márcia Maurer Herter, Patrícia Rossi, Walter Meucci Nique and Adilson Borges

This study aims to reconcile previous research that has provided mixed results regarding motivation for sustainable behaviors: pure altruism (cooperation) or competitive…

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1024

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to reconcile previous research that has provided mixed results regarding motivation for sustainable behaviors: pure altruism (cooperation) or competitive altruism (status). Drawing on evolutionary altruism and identity-based motivation, the authors propose that a match between pure (competitive) altruism and individualistic (collectivistic) identity goals enhance consumers’ motivations to engage in recycling (green buying).

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies show how pure and competitive altruism are associated with specific sustainable consumption (Study 1) and how altruism types should be matched with identity goals to motivate sustainable consumption (Studies 2 and 3).

Findings

Study 1 shows that pure altruism is associated with recycling but not with green buying. Studies 2 and 3 show that pure (competitive) altruism and individualistic (collectivistic) goals lead to higher recycling (green buying) intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The present research extends previous findings by showing that pure and competitive are indeed associated with specific sustainable behaviors. The authors suggest that the interaction between motives and identity goals can lead to a greater impact on recycling and green buying intentions.

Practical implications

Public policymakers and companies will benefit by better understanding how specific combinations of altruism types and identity goals can foster recycling or green buying intentions.

Originality/value

This research is the first to show how matches between pure and competitive altruism types and individualistic and collectivistic identity goals affect consumers’ motivations to engage in recycling and green buying.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Fermín Mallén, Emilio Domínguez-Escrig, Rafael Lapiedra and Ricardo Chiva

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of leader humility in firm innovativeness. The study highlights the importance of promoting altruism within…

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1149

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of leader humility in firm innovativeness. The study highlights the importance of promoting altruism within organizations as a mechanism that may explain why leader humility fosters innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in a sample frame of 11,594 Spanish companies. In total, 568 valid questionnaires were obtained and 284 different companies participated in the study. Structural equations were used to validate the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

All the hypotheses proposed in the conceptual model were confirmed. Results provide empirical evidence of the positive relationship between leader humility and firm innovativeness, as well as the mediating role played by altruism. In other words, leader humility promotes altruism and, in turn, firm innovativeness.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of companies is heterogeneous in terms of firm turnover, size, export ratio and age. The study is focused on firm innovativeness and only studies altruism as a mediating variable in the relationship between leader humility and firm innovativeness.

Practical implications

The present study provides some guidelines which may help companies to improve their competitiveness, enhancing workplace conditions.

Originality/value

There are few empirical studies that analyze the effect of humble leaders or leader humility on innovation. The main value of the present research is to further the current knowledge of this relationship by disentangling the mediating effect of altruism within organizations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Michael Babula, Max Tookey, Glenn Muschert and Mark Neal

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, “Can particular types of altruism influence people to make unethical decisions?” The purpose of seeking to answer this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, “Can particular types of altruism influence people to make unethical decisions?” The purpose of seeking to answer this question is to better understand those cases in personal, public and commercial life whereby a decision-maker is influenced by what is widely perceived to be a positive thing – altruism – to make unethical choices.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was designed to test the influence of different categories of altruism on decision-making about whether to find another guilty for a regulatory transgression. This involved the establishment and running of a student panel at a UK university, which was given the task of determining the guilt or otherwise of two students accused of plagiarism – one from a poor background; one from a rich background. Through a survey of both the decision-makers and their judgments, and by analyzing the data using t-tests and Mann–Whitney tests, the associations between different categories of altruism and the decisions made could be ascertained.

Findings

A total of 70.7% of the participants voted “not-guilty” for the poor student, whereas 68.3% voted “guilty” for the wealthy student. This indicated that self-interested, namely, egoistic altruism complemented by social and self-esteem needs gratification was significantly associated with violating foundational ethical principles.

Originality/value

This is the first study to be done that attempts to evaluate the relationships between different categories of altruism and ethical decision-making. The findings here challenge aggregating all forms of empathy together when exploring the antecedents of unethical behavior.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Raymond A. Hopkins and Thomas L. Powers

The purpose of this paper is show how altruism provides a basis for understanding motivations that consumers may possess, especially as it relates to their response to…

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2331

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is show how altruism provides a basis for understanding motivations that consumers may possess, especially as it relates to their response to buy‐national marketing campaigns. The paper aims to report research that examines traditional measures of altruism to determine whether there are differing or additional dimensions of altruism.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a survey of 212 consumers and their responses to previously validated altruism scales. These scales were factor‐analyzed to identify new dimensions of altruism.

Findings

Eight dimensions of altruism are empirically identified and are demonstrated to be different by demographic groupings and their responses to altruism‐based marketing programs.

Originality/value

Patterns of altruistic behavior can enable marketers to estimate the relative size and behavioral patterns of altruism‐based market segments.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Jacob Guinot, Ricardo Chiva and Fermín Mallén

This paper aims to, prompted by a recent paradigm shift in the organizational sciences, to explore some antecedents of organizational learning capability, focusing on…

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1863

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to, prompted by a recent paradigm shift in the organizational sciences, to explore some antecedents of organizational learning capability, focusing on altruism and relationship conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, the structural equation technique was applied to data from a survey of Spanish firms with recognized excellence in human resource management.

Findings

The results of this research show that, in these firms, altruism facilitates learning capacity both directly and indirectly (through relationship conflict). Relationship conflict is posited as a mediating variable that explains how altruism improves organizational learning.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study include excessive heterogeneity of the sample size and industrial sector and the type of firm included in the sample. Due to the potential benefits that altruism seems to have for organizations, future research could continue to investigate the consequences of altruism in organizations.

Practical implications

Altruism provides organizations with a value that can facilitate organizational learning capability not only directly, but also by reducing relationship conflict. Altruism may offer organizations a tool they can use to improve their success in dealing with the challenges of today’s uncertain and constantly changing economic environment.

Originality/value

This study proposes a common altruistic approach that is far removed from traditional self-interested models in organizational literature. This study identifies altruism and relationship conflict as antecedents of organizational learning capability.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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