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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Stephen Wilkins, Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Farshid Shams and Andrea Pérez

International restaurant and fast food chains such as KFC, McDonald’s and Subway currently serve halal food in some non-Muslim countries, with mixed results. The purpose of this…

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Abstract

Purpose

International restaurant and fast food chains such as KFC, McDonald’s and Subway currently serve halal food in some non-Muslim countries, with mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that most influence the product judgements of halal food amongst non-Muslim consumers in non-Muslim countries and to assess the extent to which these judgements are related to willingness to consume halal food.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey method was adopted, using a total sample of 1,100 consumers in Canada, Spain and the UK. The proposed model was tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results suggest that it may be possible for firms to satisfy specific niche market segments with standardised mass market products. Consumer cosmopolitanism and non-Muslim religious identity were found to be positively related to halal product judgement, and consumer ethnocentrism and national identification were negatively related to halal product judgement. There was a strong relationship between product judgement and willingness to consume halal food.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that halal marketing may provide promising business opportunities for international restaurant and fast food chains, as well as food manufacturers and retailers. However, in countries or regions where there are many consumers with high levels of national identification or consumer ethnocentrism, firms should not expect non-target consumers to accept halal products.

Originality/value

This is the first study to suggest that, in non-Muslim countries, food companies may switch entirely to halal produce for certain products as an effective market segmentation strategy targeting Muslim consumers.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Troy Heffernan, Stephen Wilkins and Muhammad Mohsin Butt

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the critical relational variables of university reputation, student trust and student-university identification…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the critical relational variables of university reputation, student trust and student-university identification influence student behaviour towards transnational education partnerships.

Design/methodology/approach

Students undertaking British degrees at two transnational partnership locations (Hong Kong, n=203 and Sri Lanka, n=325) completed a quantitative survey questionnaire. A conceptual model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

University reputation and student trust were found to be significant predictors of student identification with each partner institution, and student-university identification was a significant predictor of student satisfaction, loyalty and extra-role behaviours towards both the local and foreign educational organisations.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that student relationship management strategies should focus on strengthening the higher education institution’s reputation, and increasing the students’ trust and identification with the institution. Moreover, universities should also assess potential partners for these qualities when entering into transnational education partnerships.

Originality/value

Drawing on theories of social and organisational identification, this is the first study to consider student-university identification as the linchpin between the exogenous constructs of reputation and trust, and the endogenous constructs of student satisfaction, loyalty and extra-role behaviours in both the international education and international business literatures.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Susan Rose, Stephen Wilkins and Junaid Ul Haq

Multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to compete in markets worldwide should not underestimate the influences of religion on consumer demand. Almost one quarter of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to compete in markets worldwide should not underestimate the influences of religion on consumer demand. Almost one quarter of the world’s population is Muslim so it is important for MNCs to get into the Muslim mind set when operating in countries where Islam has a large influence. The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which consumer-based brand equity in a religious market results from the psychological and behavioural characteristics of consumers rather than from product characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey method was adopted, using a total sample of 551 Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. A holistic model conceptualising three potential psychological and behavioural predictors of consumer-based halal brand equity (CBHBE) was created and then tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The strength of an individual’s religious identity was found to be a strong predictor of consumer halal choice behaviour and perceived self-expressive religious benefits. Consumers’ halal choice behaviour and perceived self-expressive benefits directly predict CBHBE. Moreover, consumer halal choice behaviour partially mediates the relationship between self-expressive benefits and CBHBE.

Practical implications

The authors conclude that firms targeting Muslim consumers can maximise CBHBE by focussing their marketing strategies on the three psychological and behavioural constructs identified in the model. For example, by using halal certification logos and providing convincing information about the halalness of their brand, businesses can facilitate Muslim consumers’ search processes in relation to their choice behaviour.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing international branding literature in two main ways. First, it introduces and defines the concept of CBHBE. Second, it identifies and empirically validates the important psychological and behavioural predictors of CBHBE.

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Kok Wei Khong and Muhammad Alam

This study aims to establish the psychometric properties of behavioural integrity scale at an organizational level from external stakeholders’ perspective and its subsequent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to establish the psychometric properties of behavioural integrity scale at an organizational level from external stakeholders’ perspective and its subsequent influence on consumer trust and commitment with a brand. Moreover, the study also examines how different crisis response strategies moderate the relationship between consumer attributions of the responsibility and corporate brand behavioural integrity in the context of emotional product harm crisis caused by alleged violation of Halal certification by an MNC.

Design/methodology/approach

A quasi-experimental design was applied to test the impact of firm crisis response strategies on its corporate brand behavioural integrity.

Findings

The results provide evidence that behavioural integrity scale can be used to measure consumer perceptions of a corporate brand behavioural integrity. In addition, results indicate that crisis response strategies offer some moderating influence on the relationship between consumer attribution processes and corporate brand behavioural integrity.

Research limitations/implications

Results indicate that existing corporate crisis response strategies are not very helpful in the context of emotional product harm crisis. This study demonstrates that behavioural integrity positively impacts customer relationship-oriented constructs. Furthermore, behavioural integrity scale offers excellent psychometric properties when used at the corporate level.

Practical implications

Organizations can use this proposed conceptual model to monitor and manage behavioural integrity of its corporate brand and its influence on customer-brand relationship constructs.

Originality/value

This study is first of its nature that underscores the importance of measuring and monitoring corporate brand behavioural integrity as a customer trust-building mechanism. It is also the first study that investigates consumer reaction towards alleged brand transgression of its Halal certified product.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Ernest Cyril de-Run, Ammen U-Din and Dilip Mutum

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 (Religion: Muslims versus Non-Muslims) x 3 (Religious identity primes: Low versus Medium versus High) factorial design was used. Both target and non-target groups were randomly exposed to factitious advertisements of an Islamic bank embedded with low, medium and high intensity of religious cues.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that within target group the manipulation did result into a more favourable attitudes towards the advertisement (Aad) and attitudes towards the brand (Ab) for the medium intensity advertisement; however, for high intensity advertisement, only Aad was more favourable compared to low intensity advertisement. Relatively strong evidence was found in case of non-target group negative reactions in term of Aad, Ab and purchase intention. The direct comparison between target and non-target groups suggest a general pattern of more positive response from target group as compared to non-target group.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide an important insight into the effectiveness of identity salience messages in financial service marketing. The study provide empirical evidence that intensifying the rhetoric beyond a certain point will generate negative results from both target and non-target respondents.

Originality/value

The authors integrated the research on symbolism, social identity and target and non-target effects to analyse the attitudinal and behavioural differences between and within target and non-target groups of financial service advertisements with different intensity of religious cues.

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2023

Stephen Wilkins, Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Joe Hazzam and Ben Marder

Breakout rooms are commonly used by lecturers as a means to achieve collaborative learning in online lessons. Although breakout rooms can be effective at encouraging student…

Abstract

Purpose

Breakout rooms are commonly used by lecturers as a means to achieve collaborative learning in online lessons. Although breakout rooms can be effective at encouraging student engagement, interaction and learning, many students dislike being forced to interact with peers, and for some students, it can lead to feelings of anxiety and stress. Successful collaborative learning depends upon having the “right” individuals working together, so the purpose of this research is to identify specific learner attributes that are associated with purposeful interpersonal interaction in breakout rooms.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was used to obtain data from 664 higher education students in the USA, which were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

Students' technology readiness, social identification and intercultural communication competence are each significantly related to the achievement of purposeful interpersonal interaction, which is strongly related to students' perceived learning.

Practical implications

The findings of this research emphasize the importance of lecturers considering learner attributes when forming breakout room groups.

Originality/value

The breakout room represents a unique and specific context for collaborative learning, where there may be minimal lecturer supervision and where students may choose to disengage by turning off their cameras and microphones or simply listen without participating (known as lurking). The existing literature has given little attention to how lecturers allocate students to online breakout rooms.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Muhammad Mohsin Butt and Muhammad Aftab

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influence of consumer attitude towards Halal banking on e‐service quality and e‐satisfaction, in an online Islamic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influence of consumer attitude towards Halal banking on e‐service quality and e‐satisfaction, in an online Islamic banking context. The proposed model also aims to investigate the relationships among e‐service quality, e‐satisfaction, e‐trust and e‐loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed to collect data from the regular users of online services of Islamic banks in Pakistan. Convenience sampling method was adopted to collect data from the existing customers of six Islamic banks, residing in five major urban centres of Pakistan. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 292 returned questionnaires were suitable for further analysis. Structural equation modelling procedure was used to test the proposed research model.

Findings

The results of this research suggest that attitude towards Halal banking positively influences perceived e‐service quality and overall e‐satisfaction with the online services of Islamic banks. Furthermore, perceived online service quality enhances customer e‐satisfaction and their e‐loyalty towards the bank. Similarly, e‐trust mediates the relationship between e‐satisfaction and e‐loyalty.

Practical implications

This study enhances our understanding of how specific religious attitudes can positively influence consumer assessments of a bank's perceived e‐service quality and their overall e‐satisfaction with it.

Originality/value

Much of the previous research on Islamic banking has been descriptive in its nature. This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the causal effect of attitude towards Halal banking on consumer perceptions about the e‐service quality and e‐satisfaction with the online services of Islamic banks.

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Arshia Mukhtar and Muhammad Mohsin Butt

Muslims living in multi-religious societies are considered more conscious about the permissibility (Halal) of products and thus the majority of Halal research in the non-financial…

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Abstract

Purpose

Muslims living in multi-religious societies are considered more conscious about the permissibility (Halal) of products and thus the majority of Halal research in the non-financial sector was conducted in multi-ethnic societies. Nonetheless, the global trade is changing the way we perceive the origin of products and brands and their permissibility under Islamic Sharia laws. This apparently has serious implications for international companies operating in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of Muslim attitude towards Halal products, their subjective norms and religiosity in predicting intention to choose Halal products.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured question was designed to elicit consumer attitude, subjective norms, intention to choose Halal products and degree of inter and intra personal religiosity. Data were collected from 180 adult respondents using a convenience sampling method. Only 150 responses were deemed suitable for further analysis, yielding a response rate of 83 per cent. Stepwise regression analysis was used to test the proposed model.

Findings

The results indicated that theory of reasoned action (TRA) is a valid model in predicting intention to choose Halal products. The results further indicate that subjective norms (β=0.455, p, 0.001), attitude towards the Halal products (β=0.265, p, 0.001) and intra personal religiosity (β=0.167, p, 0.001) positively influence attitude towards the Halal products. Interestingly, subjective norm appears to be the strongest of all the predictors for choosing Halal products.

Research limitations/implications

The data collected for the current study investigate global attitude towards Halal products. It would be interesting if future researchers examine consumers ' attitude towards specific Halal products for specific product categories.

Practical implications

It is argued in this research that the presence of strong attitude towards Halal products in Muslim consumers might play an important role in exclusion or inclusion of brands, based on their conformance to Halal requirements.

Originality/value

The paper extends the applicability of the theory of reasoned action model by investigating the role of inter-personal and intra-personal religiosity in intention to choose Halal products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2013

Amjad Shamim and Muhammad Mohsin Butt

The purpose of this paper is to explore the direct and indirect influence of brand experience on a customer's brand attitude, brand credibility and customer-based brand equity…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the direct and indirect influence of brand experience on a customer's brand attitude, brand credibility and customer-based brand equity. Design/methodology/approach

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 400 users of mobile hand sets, using convenience sampling technique. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling procedure to test the proposed relationships in the model. Findings

Findings

The results indicate that the data were a good fit to the proposed model. All the paths in the model remained statistically significant. Although, Chi square test was not significant (6.10, df, 2, p

Research limitations/implications

This research investigates the proposed model for a single product category. Future researchers can test the model for other product and service categories. Also, this research only explores the three most critical outcomes of brand experience; however future researchers can incorporate satisfaction, loyalty and commitment as the possible outcome of brand experience.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates that brand experience can directly and indirectly influence some of the most important concepts in branding literature. This model will help managers to understand how investments in different aspects of branding process lead towards brand differentiation.

Originality/value

This research is the first of its type that incorporates brand credibility, attitude and equity as the consequences of brand experience in a single causal model.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Mohsin Muhammad Butt and Ernest Cyril de Run

This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study consists of 340 randomly selected participants visiting a private healthcare facility during a three‐month data collection period. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the modified SERVQUAL scale's reliability, underlying dimensionality and convergent, discriminant validity.

Findings

Results indicate a moderate negative quality gap for overall Malaysian private healthcare service quality. Results also indicate a moderate negative quality gap on each service quality scale dimension. However, scale development analysis yielded excellent results, which can be used in wider healthcare policy and practice.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were skewed towards a younger population, causing concern that the results might not represent all Malaysian age groups.

Originality/value

The study's major contribution is that it offers a way to assess private healthcare service quality. Second, it successfully develops a scale that can be used to measure health service quality in Malaysian contexts.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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