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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Clinton Amos, Jesse King and Skyler King

Past research has demonstrated a health halo for food product labels (e.g. organic), resulting in inflated perceptions of a product’s healthfulness (e.g. low fat). While…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research has demonstrated a health halo for food product labels (e.g. organic), resulting in inflated perceptions of a product’s healthfulness (e.g. low fat). While past studies have focused on labeling and related health claims, the health halo of brand names has scarcely been investigated. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the health halo of brand names featuring morality- and purity-signifiers.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research uses two experiments to examine the health halo of morality- and purity-signifying brand names on perceptions of nutritional and contaminant attributes. Mediation analysis is performed to investigate perceived naturalness as the mechanism for the brand name effects while moderated mediation analysis examines this mechanism across product types (healthy vs unhealthy).

Findings

The findings reveal that both the morality- and purity-signifying brand names produce a health halo on nutritional and contaminant attributes, regardless of product healthiness. Further, mediation and moderated mediation analysis provide evidence for perceived naturalness as the underlying mechanism driving these effects.

Social implications

This research highlights unwarranted consumer inferences made based upon food brand names and, thus has implications for consumers, public policy and marketing managers.

Originality/value

While much health halo research has focused on labeling, this research examines the health halo of two brand name types which symbolically convey either morality or purity. This research provides additional contributions by investigating perceived naturalness as the underlying mechanism for the effects and is one of the few studies to investigate the health halo for both healthy and unhealthy products.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Intiyas Utami, Indra Wijaya Kusuma, Gudono Gudono and Supriyadi Supriyadi

The purpose of this paper is to test the existence of the halo effect caused by the presentation of information scope (holistic/specific), which can eventually lead to an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the existence of the halo effect caused by the presentation of information scope (holistic/specific), which can eventually lead to an inaccurate risk assessment of material misstatement. Empirical evidence is provided to demonstrate that methods of knowledge acquisition (explanatory feedback and self-explanation) are able to mitigate the halo effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an experimental research, which focused on control and experimental groups in order to determine if the halo effect caused by the information scope (holistic/specific) can be mitigated via the explanatory feedback or self-explanation method.

Findings

It was found that auditors who received information from the holistic scope tend to experience the halo effect and eventually, their risk assessments of material misstatement also became less accurate when compared to auditors who received information from the specific scope. The explanatory feedback was found to be effective in mitigating the halo effect. However, the self-explanation knowledge acquisition method was not reliable in mitigating the halo effect.

Research limitations/implications

This research use self-explanation with a manual technique but, in practice, most auditors use audit tools based on computer. Experimental setting with computer to self-explanation cannot held because there is limitation of seminar setting. This research used individual decision; in practice most of audit decision with discussion in audit team.

Practical implications

CPA firms can use explanatory feedback, which comes in the form of managers’ review as a form of knowledge acquisition method as a mitigation strategy for the halo effect.

Social implications

The social implication of this research is the halo effect that can influence the decision in many aspects. Individuals must increase their professional values with many trainings that are useful to mitigating the halo effect.

Originality/value

The outcome of this paper was derived from the first accounting study that relied on learning methods as a mitigation strategy for the halo effect. In other words, this study used explanatory feedback and self-explanation as methods to test the halo effect. Previous literature on mitigating the halo effect had used audit experiences, implying that CPA firms’ intervention was unnecessary. Moreover, such study periods had been much longer, thereby, deteriorating the effectiveness of the research. Previous studies had only used the learning method to increase human capital quality and this was not related to any method as a mean to mitigate individual bias, for example, the halo effect, and an issue that was covered by this study.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Jochen Wirtz and John E.G. Bateson

Many service firms measure satisfaction or quality on an attributelevel. Halo effects between attributes have been shown to exist in manycontexts mainly in social…

Abstract

Many service firms measure satisfaction or quality on an attribute level. Halo effects between attributes have been shown to exist in many contexts mainly in social psychology and human resource management. In marketing, halo effects have been examined nearly exclusively in consumer decision making. Examines for the first time the existence of halo effects in consumer satisfaction. Employs a true experimental design. Expectations and performance of a single service attribute were manipulated and all other attribute levels were held constant. Finds the existence of strong halo effects which could have led to wrong conclusions and managerial actions in an applied context.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Lance Leuthesser, Chiranjeev S. Kohli and Katrin R. Harich

The halo effect is a systematic bias in attribute ratings resultingfrom raters′ tendency to rely on global affect rather than carefullydiscriminating among conceptually…

Abstract

The halo effect is a systematic bias in attribute ratings resulting from raters′ tendency to rely on global affect rather than carefully discriminating among conceptually distinct and potentially independent brand attributes. Traditionally, researchers have regarded the halo effect as a source of measurement error to be avoided. Discusses how halo measurement can serve as a useful indicator of brand equity. Uses consumer rating data in three categories of commonly purchased household products to demonstrate the approach.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Hongjoo Woo, Byoungho Jin and Bharath Ramkumar

Country image determines consumers’ beliefs toward the country’s products, through halo effect. While the relevant literature is predominantly focused on the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

Country image determines consumers’ beliefs toward the country’s products, through halo effect. While the relevant literature is predominantly focused on the context of well-known products from traditionally leading exporters, the purpose of this paper is to examine the two levels of halo effect (i.e. country image as halo and a well-known product category as halo) on a less-known product category from a recently developed country.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of study was carried out by using a quantitative approach. Survey responses were collected from 253 US consumers who are aged between 18 and 67 years. This study only examined South Korea and used the two selected product categories (i.e. cell phones and apparel) as samples for the study.

Findings

The results of a series of regression analyses confirmed that the positive images of South Korea and Korean cell phones served as halo, thereby enhancing the respondents’ beliefs toward Korean apparel, which is a less-known product category that they have not yet experienced. Further, the respondents’ positive beliefs toward both cell phones and apparel increased their purchase intentions of those two products.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study imply that the general country image and the country’s well-known product images are critical in introducing the country’s less-known product to foreign markets.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in its unique focus on relatively less-known product category of a recently developed country (i.e. Korean apparel), which received limited attention in the past research. This study is also one of the few attempts to examine the role of a country’s well-known products on the country’s less-known products, another level of halo effect in country image.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Jochen Wirtz

Many firms measure customer satisfaction on an attribute‐by‐attribute level. Past research has shown that halo errors can pose a serious threat to the interpretability of…

Abstract

Many firms measure customer satisfaction on an attribute‐by‐attribute level. Past research has shown that halo errors can pose a serious threat to the interpretability of such data. Examines three factors that potentially reduce halo, using a combination of an experimental and quasi‐experimental research design. Three conclusions were drawn. First, measurement after consumption showed less halo than delayed measurement. Second, relative rating scales contained less halo than standard satisfaction scales. Third, an interaction effect was found between the number of attributes to be evaluated and the rating scale used. The evaluation of many attributes reduced halo in comparison to an evaluation of few attributes when a standard satisfaction rating scale was used. However, when the more complex relative rating scale was used, halo was not reduced when subjects had to evaluate a large number of attributes, perhaps due to the increased complexity of the task.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Nguyen Pham, Maureen Morrin and Melissa G. Bublitz

This paper aims to examine how repeated exposure to health-related products that contain flavors (e.g. cherry-flavored cough syrup) create “flavor halos” that can bias…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how repeated exposure to health-related products that contain flavors (e.g. cherry-flavored cough syrup) create “flavor halos” that can bias perceptions about the healthfulness of foods that contain the same flavors (e.g. cherry-flavored cheesecake).

Design/methodology/approach

Six experiments, using both between- and within-subjects designs, explore the effects of flavor halos in hypothetical and actual consumption settings. They test the underlying mechanism, rule out competing explanations and identify an opportunity to correct the cognitive biases created by flavor halos.

Findings

Flavor halos can be created via repeated exposure to flavored medicinal products in the marketplace. These flavor halos bias dieters’ judgments about the healthfulness of vice foods containing such flavors. Dieters are motivated toward a directional conclusion about food healthfulness to mediate the guilt associated with consuming indulgent products. Providing dieters with corrective information mitigates these effects.

Research limitations/implications

The authors examine one way flavor halos are created –via repeated exposure to flavored medicinal products. Future research should explore other ways flavor halos are created and other ways to mitigate their effects.

Practical implications

Considering the prevalence of obesity, organizations striving to help consumers pursue health goals (e.g. weight watchers) can use flavors to improve dietary compliance. Health-care organizations can help consumers understand and correct the cognitive biases associated with flavor halos.

Originality/value

By identifying flavor halos, this work adds to the literature investigating how flavors influence consumers’ judgments about healthfulness. The results suggest dieters apply flavor halos as they engage in motivated reasoning to license their indulgent desires.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2019

Clinton Amos, James C. Hansen and Skyler King

This paper aims to investigate inferences consumers make about organic and all-natural labeled products in both food and non-food contexts using the health halo effect as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate inferences consumers make about organic and all-natural labeled products in both food and non-food contexts using the health halo effect as a theoretical foundation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses three experiments to test the effects of organic and all-natural labeling across three product types, food, personal hygiene and household cleaning, while controlling for environmental attitudes.

Findings

The results of the experiments in the context of food, personal hygiene and household cleaning products suggest that both organic and all-natural labeling produce halo effects. Distinct findings are presented across the three product types.

Research limitations/implications

Findings indicate that consumers may make unwarranted inferences about both organic and all-natural labeled products and demonstrates that the health halo effect is a potentially robust phenomenon, pervasive across a diverse array of products. This research used a crowdsourcing platform for sample recruitment. Future research should validate the results of these experiments with other sample types.

Practical implications

This research suggests that consumers may make similar unwarranted inferences for diverse products bearing organic and all-natural labels. These inferences are particularly intriguing given the differing regulatory requirements for the labels

Originality/value

Organic and all-natural labels are ubiquitous in both food and non-food products. However, research on either label primarily exists in a food context and has not directly compared the labels. Understanding the inferences consumers make based on the labels across product types is imperative for both marketing and public policy.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

James R. Van Scotter, Karen Moustafa, Jennifer R. Burnett and Paul G. Michael

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of acquaintance on performance rating accuracy and halo.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of acquaintance on performance rating accuracy and halo.

Design/methodology/approach

After expert ratings were obtained, US Air Force Officers (n=104) with an average of six years experience rated the performance of four officers who delivered 6‐7 minute briefings on their research projects; 26 raters reported being acquainted with one or more of the briefers. Raters were randomly assigned to use a rating format designed to encourage between‐ratee comparisons on each dimension or a format in which each ratee was separately rated on all dimensions.

Findings

Ratings made by acquainted raters were more accurate than ratings by unacquainted raters. Accuracy was positively correlated with halo for both sets of ratings. Rating format had no discernible effect on accuracy or halo.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that the measure of acquaintance was not designed as a surrogate for familiarity. Development of a multi‐item, psychometrically‐valid measure of acquaintance should be the first step in pursuing this research. The use of a laboratory design where only a small percentage of the sample was acquainted with those being rated also limits the study's generalizability.

Practical implications

The results show that prior acquaintance with the ratee results in more accurate ratings. Ratings were also more positive when raters had prior contact with the person they rated.

Originality/value

The hypothesis is that the cognitive processes used to produce ratings are different for raters who have had no prior contact with a ratee and raters who are in some manner acquainted with a ratee. In the past, a positive halo effect from acquaintance between raters and ratees has been a concern. However, this limited study indicates that acquaintance may actually result in more accurate ratings.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Jochen Wirtz

Firms usually measure customer satisfaction on an attribute‐by‐attribute basis in order to identify and improve potential weaknesses, and to fortify their strengths in…

Abstract

Firms usually measure customer satisfaction on an attribute‐by‐attribute basis in order to identify and improve potential weaknesses, and to fortify their strengths in service delivery. However, research has shown that halo can threaten the interpretability of such data. Also, halo is particularly acute in satisfaction measurement of services with a high degree of ambiguous and credence attributes. This paper examines three halo‐reducing methods developed in psychology and organizational behavior in the context of customer satisfaction. The perceived purpose of evaluation (evaluative vs developmental) and the number of attributes measured (few vs many) were examined in an experimental design, and the level of product involvement (low vs high) was examined using a quasi‐experimental design. The data showed reduced halo when the respondents were presented with a developmental rather than evaluative purpose, when more rather than fewer attributes were measured, and when subjects were highly involved with the service.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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