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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Burak Kartal, Mustafa Tepeci and Hakan Atlı

This paper aims to, by having a marketing perspective, assess the potential of Manisa for religious tourism and shed some light on the ways of increasing that potential…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to, by having a marketing perspective, assess the potential of Manisa for religious tourism and shed some light on the ways of increasing that potential and to add to the religious tourism literature and practice in general.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of depth interviews were conducted with the experts of culture, tourism, religion and religious assets in Manisa. People and institutions regarding religious tourism were called, visited and asked for the names of right interviewees. As a result, a total of 14 interviews were arranged and successfully accomplished. In addition to depth interviews, top 15 most popular travel Web sites (www.ebizmba.com/articles/travel-websites) are examined for tourist and guide opinions toward Manisa’s religious sites and its surroundings.

Findings

The findings indicate that Manisa has highly important religious monuments belonging to three major religions, including three of the seven churches mentioned in the Apocalypse section of the Bible. Many suggestions have been made regarding possible changes in products, referring to religious monuments and sites in this study, and other marketing mix elements like possible ways of promoting the product.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on a qualitative study, which limit their generalizability. Yet, the sample of interviewees is fairly large and utmost attention is given to the selection of them. In the future, more stakeholders can be involved in the data collection process. Also, the views of general public on the topic can be investigated through surveys to determine the details of religious tourism activities.

Practical implications

Preparations for selling souvenirs (like miniatures of religious monuments) and other religious and cultural goods near the sites of attraction can be made. In addition to selling souvenirs (e.g. miniatures, postcards), local food (i.e. Mesir paste, Mesir delight) and local drinks (i.e. Mesir tea, Sübye) can be offered at gift shops or stores to be opened next to religious monuments.

Social implications

With the rising popularity of experiential and event marketing, tourists coming to Manisa to see religious monuments will be better off experiencing the atmosphere of these monuments. A specific team of experts from each related organization can be formed and an action plan be prepared to determine the steps to be taken regarding religious tourism. A wise planning and an effective implementation of religious tourism efforts require an intense coordination.

Originality/value

Policy makers and managers who want to promote religious tourism need to determine the tourism products and services which appeal to a diverse types of tourists visiting any religious destination. Religious tourism products and services in other destinations can be offered in combination with such activities as camping, hiking and sightseeing or such other types of tourism as social and group tourism and adventure. Standard marketing strategies may not work for religious tourism because spiritual travel will take different forms and have different meanings. Promotional activities are utilized to make potential customers aware of products, induce demand and provide incentives to purchase.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Hendar Hendar, Moch. Zulfa, Alifah Ratnawati and Mulyana Mulyana

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and test the role of religio-centric product strategy (RPS) in mediating the relationship among marketing innovativeness (MI)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and test the role of religio-centric product strategy (RPS) in mediating the relationship among marketing innovativeness (MI), market sensing capability (MSC), customer relationship management capability (CRMC) and brand management capability (BMC) with marketing performance (MP) in a religious-based industry. This is in accordance with the conditions of Indonesian religious people and the increasing demand for Muslim fashion products.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper selected 330 small fashion businesses in Indonesia and tested the regressive relations of the 6 constructs.

Findings

The findings showed that MI, MSC, CRMC and BMC have a positive effect on RPS and RPS also has a positive effect on MP, so that RPS acts as mediation in the relationship among MI, MSC, CRMC and BMC with MP.

Research limitations/implications

In-depth research on other dimensions of the role of antecedent variable of RPS, such as NPD capability, specialized marketing capability, resource reconfiguration marketing capability, architectural marketing capability and marketing resources that are interesting to discuss (Morgan, 2012), has not been done in research.

Originality/value

By examining the literature on dynamic capability, marketing strategy, entrepreneurship and business performance, this paper offers a unique analysis of dynamic marketing capability and its impact on product strategy and MP in religious-based industries.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2010

Nazlida Muhamad and Dick Mizerski

There is limited conceptual and theoretical knowledge among marketers and practitioners regarding the measurement of religious influences in consumer market‐place…

Abstract

Purpose

There is limited conceptual and theoretical knowledge among marketers and practitioners regarding the measurement of religious influences in consumer market‐place behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to review religious factors that appear to influence buyer and consumer behaviour in the light of findings from marketing and religious psychology.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilises academic databases to search for marketing and religious psychology papers that deal with influences of religion and constructs that have been suggested to mediate them. Findings from religious psychology are utilised as the backbone for understanding religious influence. The paper also compares and groups terminologies and concepts used in marketing studies, suggesting a holistic view of religion and factors that may mediate religious influences on consumers' market‐place behaviours.

Findings

Five factors of religious influence have been identified. These are commitment, motivation, affiliation, knowledge about a religion and awareness of the social consequences of following a religion. The characteristics, importance and applications of these factors are discussed.

Originality/value

The paper applies knowledge from the area of religious psychology to offer a holistic view in understanding factors that tend to mediate religious influences on consumer behaviours.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Sanya Ojo and Sonny Nwankwo

This paper aims to examine market-mediated transformative capacities of Black African Pentecostalism. It does this by exploring the interface between religion, culture and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine market-mediated transformative capacities of Black African Pentecostalism. It does this by exploring the interface between religion, culture and identity to generate a fresh interpretation of how marketing is ritualized among UK’s Black Africans on the platform of Pentecostalism.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology is based on in-depth interviews with respondents drawn from the African Pentecostal movements in London, UK. This paper shows how adherents’ responsiveness to Pentecostal dogmas generated market advantages.

Findings

The paper reveals the interconnectedness of religion, faith and culture which, in turn, coalesced into a dense network that defines the reproduction, organization and approach to entrepreneurial marketing.

Originality/value

Pentecostal practices unveil the marketing notion of “Pentepreneurship”, which combines both spiritual and enterprise activities to formulate a fused space of engagement straddling the sacred and the secular. This fusion points to a unique platform of entrepreneurial marketing that bestrides ethno-cultural, religious and economic identities.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Susan Rose, Stephen Wilkins and Junaid Ul Haq

Multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to compete in markets worldwide should not underestimate the influences of religion on consumer demand. Almost one quarter of…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to compete in markets worldwide should not underestimate the influences of religion on consumer demand. Almost one quarter of the world’s population is Muslim so it is important for MNCs to get into the Muslim mind set when operating in countries where Islam has a large influence. The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which consumer-based brand equity in a religious market results from the psychological and behavioural characteristics of consumers rather than from product characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey method was adopted, using a total sample of 551 Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. A holistic model conceptualising three potential psychological and behavioural predictors of consumer-based halal brand equity (CBHBE) was created and then tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The strength of an individual’s religious identity was found to be a strong predictor of consumer halal choice behaviour and perceived self-expressive religious benefits. Consumers’ halal choice behaviour and perceived self-expressive benefits directly predict CBHBE. Moreover, consumer halal choice behaviour partially mediates the relationship between self-expressive benefits and CBHBE.

Practical implications

The authors conclude that firms targeting Muslim consumers can maximise CBHBE by focussing their marketing strategies on the three psychological and behavioural constructs identified in the model. For example, by using halal certification logos and providing convincing information about the halalness of their brand, businesses can facilitate Muslim consumers’ search processes in relation to their choice behaviour.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing international branding literature in two main ways. First, it introduces and defines the concept of CBHBE. Second, it identifies and empirically validates the important psychological and behavioural predictors of CBHBE.

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2018

Mohsin Abdur Rehman, Sarminah Samad and Muhammad Kashif

This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 63 consumers, recruited by means of a purposive sampling technique. The interviews focused on exploration of Islamic services and religious symbols which were later categorized as high and low religious symbols and services.

Findings

The results reveal a typology of religious symbols and Islamic religious services as perceived by Muslim informants. They recalled Mosque for prayer, Hijab for promotion of Islamic education and Khana Kaaba for performance of Hajj and Umrah services. Furthermore, the spiritual and emotional connections via consumption of Islamic acts as services are explored.

Practical Implications

The marketing managers need to understand and realize the importance of these classifications. A symbol which is perceived as non-religious must be avoided while branding various services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to advocate performance of religious activities in addition to consumption of various service brands. This can really add value to the lives of Muslim consumers – a realization that can emotionally connect consumers with service brands. However, religion is of paramount importance while designing, offering and promoting services.

Originality/Value

The study of services marketing based on consumption of religious symbols and services in a Muslim context are unique to this study. The typology of low and high religious services and symbols is also significant contribution of this study.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Tanti Handriana, Praptini Yulianti and Masmira Kurniawati

This study aims to extract information and analyze the antecedents of Muslims following pilgrimage tours. Data from the Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia shows that…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extract information and analyze the antecedents of Muslims following pilgrimage tours. Data from the Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia shows that 87.18 per cent of the total population of Indonesia are Muslims. In addition to running the ruling of Islam and the pillars of Faith, Muslims also maintain the religious tourism. The form of religious tourism which is widely followed by the Muslims of Indonesia is to follow a pilgrimage to the tomb of the wali (Guardian), both wali limo and wali songo.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a qualitative approach. Data collection was done using in-depth interviews of Muslims in Indonesia who had already attended pilgrimages to wali limo and/or wali songo.

Findings

The tourists are satisfied and have an intention to revisit the destination, and the interest of the community to follow religious tours is very large, as well as the opportunities to do business in this sector are still wide open. Various motives and benefits of following religious tours, as well as suggestions for improvements for religious tourism destination managers, as well as advice for the government were uncovered. Thus, the results of this study are expected to provide a theoretical contribution related to marketing management in religious tourism and a practical contribution for the managers of religious tourism.

Research limitations/implications

Further research can be done with a quantitative approach, as well as comparative studies between pilgrimages in Indonesia (developing countries) and pilgrimages in other developing countries or in developed countries can also be conducted.

Practical implications

For marketing practitioners, the results of this study can be used as a consideration to continue to improve services in the field of religious tourism in the country, given the potential for development is very large.

Social implications

There is a contribution from this study to the development of marketing science, particularly related to marketing management on religious tourism services.

Originality/value

This study offers new insight regarding factors influencing Muslims pilgrimage tourism in Indonesia.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Markus Wiesenberg

While the relevance and rationale of strategic communication in organized religion are prevalent in academic and professional literature, there exists a dearth of both…

Abstract

While the relevance and rationale of strategic communication in organized religion are prevalent in academic and professional literature, there exists a dearth of both theoretical concepts and empirical knowledge, especially from a European perspective. Therefore, this chapter examines how strategic communication can be modelled in organized religion with its specific characteristics and logics by building a framework for strategic communication in this field of research. The framework questions perspectives of strategic communication and communication management that only concentrate on entities like famous persons, groups, movements or organizations and less on belief systems, organized and less organized entities interacting with each other. Religious organizations follow other rationalities like companies or non-profit organizations. Therefore, theories of corporate communication or public relations do not fit within the realm of organized religion, whose mission goes far beyond the organization. Taking into account religious institutions in strategic communication, this chapter delivers new theoretical insights by demonstrating how strategic communication can contribute to the specific purposes of organized religion. Furthermore, the study indicates the specific challenges communication professionals working in the area of religion are confronted with. Finally, it offers practical solutions for the specific field of organized religion by evolving specific target horizons of organized religion. Activating and developing the communication function of more or less independent bodies are main tasks for communication professionals working in organized religion and other meta-organizations.

Details

Big Ideas in Public Relations Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-508-0

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Amalia Triantafillidou, Christos Koritos, Kalliopi Chatzipanagiotou and Aikaterini Vassilikopoulou

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the most important characteristics of the religious package tour as perceived by consumers who travel to the Holy Land and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the most important characteristics of the religious package tour as perceived by consumers who travel to the Holy Land and to examine the marketing components that play an important role for pilgrims.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews were conducted with Greek Orthodox travellers who were about to leave for a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Content analysis was used in order to analyse the transcribed interviews.

Findings

Results show that regarding the product mix, hotel ratings and extra benefits are considered of minor importance by the interviewed travellers. However, the tour guide and the trip's schedule and program are the most important factors that influence consumer decisions regarding the purchase of a specific tourism product. In addition, the travel agent's reputation for organising religious trips plays a crucial role. Alternatively, price does not seem to influence travellers to sacred places.

Practical implications

Travel agents that offer tour packages to pilgrims, as well as tourism companies wishing to promote pilgrimages can take into consideration these findings in order to design effective marketing plans.

Originality/value

Although tour packages for pilgrims are profitable, only few studies have focused on this type of traveller. As travel for religious purposes increases, the design of an effective marketing plan may help to further develop the market for pilgrimages.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Nejdet Delener

Reports on a study designed to explore the effects of religion andreligiosity on perceived risk in purchase decisions. Asserts thatreligious values represent the most…

Abstract

Reports on a study designed to explore the effects of religion and religiosity on perceived risk in purchase decisions. Asserts that religious values represent the most basic element of a consumer′s cognitive world, and can be meaningfully related to lifestyles. Concludes that religious individuals tend to perceive higher risks in their purchase decisions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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