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Article

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Ernest Cyril de-Run, Ammen U-Din and Dilip Mutum

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 (Religion: Muslims versus Non-Muslims) x 3 (Religious identity primes: Low versus Medium versus High) factorial design was used. Both target and non-target groups were randomly exposed to factitious advertisements of an Islamic bank embedded with low, medium and high intensity of religious cues.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that within target group the manipulation did result into a more favourable attitudes towards the advertisement (Aad) and attitudes towards the brand (Ab) for the medium intensity advertisement; however, for high intensity advertisement, only Aad was more favourable compared to low intensity advertisement. Relatively strong evidence was found in case of non-target group negative reactions in term of Aad, Ab and purchase intention. The direct comparison between target and non-target groups suggest a general pattern of more positive response from target group as compared to non-target group.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide an important insight into the effectiveness of identity salience messages in financial service marketing. The study provide empirical evidence that intensifying the rhetoric beyond a certain point will generate negative results from both target and non-target respondents.

Originality/value

The authors integrated the research on symbolism, social identity and target and non-target effects to analyse the attitudinal and behavioural differences between and within target and non-target groups of financial service advertisements with different intensity of religious cues.

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Article

Catherine Nickerson and Anup Menon Nandialath

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of religious salience on consumer purchase intentions in the multicultural environment of the UAE, more specifically on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of religious salience on consumer purchase intentions in the multicultural environment of the UAE, more specifically on the willingness of a Muslim consumer to purchase a product labelled or packaged to include an Islamic appeal, i.e. an appeal with a heightened religious salience. While some attempts have been made in the literature to examine the impact of religious salience on purchase intentions, research amongst Muslim consumers remains under-explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a randomized survey experiment administered to 148 Emirati educated female nationals. The survey consisted of pairs of advertisements, where each advertisement promoted the same product and the same brand, varying on whether they included an Islamic appeal or not in the labelling, packaging or slogan. The respondents were asked about their attitude to the different versions of the advertisements, as well as their willingness to purchase the product. The authors used causal mediation analysis to explore the mechanisms through which causal effects on purchase intentions are determined.

Findings

This study shows that including an Islamic appeal, and therefore increasing the religious salience in product promotion, leads to higher purchase intentions amongst Muslim consumers. The authors also identified a number of additional moderating factors that influenced the consumer’s purchase intentions, such as product and/or brand awareness and the type of product being promoted, as well as the nature of the artefact that was included in the ad as the Islamic appeal. Finally, the causal mediation analysis suggests that Islamic appeals increases product attractiveness, which in turn leads to higher purchase intentions.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the effect of religious salience on consumer behaviour and their purchase intentions. This paper makes an empirical contribution to understanding consumer behaviour with particular relevance to retail hubs with a majority Muslim population.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Book part

Mehree Iqbal and Nabila Nisha

This study aims to explore the presumed relationship between religion and purchase behavior of consumers in the context of Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the presumed relationship between religion and purchase behavior of consumers in the context of Bangladesh.

Methodology/approach

This research is divided into two main parts. In the first one, the authors reviewed some of the most important studies relative to religion and marketing and those specifically relative to Islamic marketing. In the second part, this research shows the findings of a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of Muslim consumers currently residing in the capital city of Bangladesh – Dhaka. The questionnaire also sought to find out the respondents’ attitude towards the modern marketing tactics, in terms of the physical and visual appearance of local products, their perception of religious principles in the purchase decision and their attitude towards imported products of non-Muslim countries.

Findings

Results of this study highlight that religion often represents an essential reference point in influencing the perception and purchase behavior of consumers in the context of Bangladesh. This implies that marketing strategies based on Islamic ethics is going to be quite instrumental in order to reach out to the consumers in Muslim countries. As such, there is largely a strong positive relationship between religion and the purchase behavior of Muslim consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of research on Islamic marketing limits the intensity of arguments in this study. For this reason, the literature review is not completely exhaustive. A small sample size has also been used due to time and resource constraints. Future research can be done on a bigger sample size of Bangladesh or other Islamic countries across the world. Other research avenues may include the study of Islamic marketing mix and exploring the factors that can influence non-Muslim consumers to select products and services based on Islamic ethics.

Practical implications

It is very important for businesses to introduce healthy practices in countries like Bangladesh and this can be rightly achieved through the use of Islamic marketing. Furthermore, the use of Islamic ethics in marketing strategies can eventually influence the religious perception of consumers and make them loyal towards any brands, products, and services in the context of Bangladesh.

Originality/value

The chapter draws attention to Bangladesh as one of the potential markets where the concept of Islamic market mechanism can be established. It also highlights the challenges that global marketers can face with Islamic marketing in Muslim countries like Bangladesh. Besides, it is the only study to date that focuses upon the relationship of religion, marketing, and consumer behavior for consumer products of the manufacturing industry.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

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Article

Mohsin Abdur Rehman, Sarminah Samad and Muhammad Kashif

This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 63 consumers, recruited by means of a purposive sampling technique. The interviews focused on exploration of Islamic services and religious symbols which were later categorized as high and low religious symbols and services.

Findings

The results reveal a typology of religious symbols and Islamic religious services as perceived by Muslim informants. They recalled Mosque for prayer, Hijab for promotion of Islamic education and Khana Kaaba for performance of Hajj and Umrah services. Furthermore, the spiritual and emotional connections via consumption of Islamic acts as services are explored.

Practical Implications

The marketing managers need to understand and realize the importance of these classifications. A symbol which is perceived as non-religious must be avoided while branding various services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to advocate performance of religious activities in addition to consumption of various service brands. This can really add value to the lives of Muslim consumers – a realization that can emotionally connect consumers with service brands. However, religion is of paramount importance while designing, offering and promoting services.

Originality/Value

The study of services marketing based on consumption of religious symbols and services in a Muslim context are unique to this study. The typology of low and high religious services and symbols is also significant contribution of this study.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Mehdi Behboudi, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Kobra Najafi and Mina Najafi

– The purpose of this study is to verify the factors affecting the use of emotional and rational appeals in online advertising among Muslim customers in Iran.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to verify the factors affecting the use of emotional and rational appeals in online advertising among Muslim customers in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing the literature of advertising appeals and developing a comprehensive theoretical model, the effect of rational and emotional appeals on online advertising was examined. Expert questionnaire was administered to verify the validity of collected features. The Student's t-test was utilized to analyze the data collected from 271 participants.

Findings

Five latent variables, namely user type, product involvement, e-lifestyle, advertising strategies, and internet motives were examined to explain factors affecting online advertising appeals among Muslim customers in Iran. It was found that “advertising strategies” and “user type” are the most effective factors influencing Muslims customers in developing an online advertising campaign.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of this study was Iranian experts and it is necessary to conduct a survey with a larger sample size.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into factors affecting the selection of emotional and rational appeals in Muslims countries. Moreover, it reports the primary columns of online advertising appeals.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Catur Sugiarto and Virginie de Barnier

This paper aims to shed new light on the consumer response toward sex appeal in advertising and investigates ad skepticism in a culturally diverse context.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to shed new light on the consumer response toward sex appeal in advertising and investigates ad skepticism in a culturally diverse context.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the qualitative research methodology, the following study draws upon informant opinions regarding the extent of graphic nudity in print advertising is needed to avoid undesirable reactions from potential consumers and how religiosity influences their attitudes toward sexually appealing advertisements. The information was obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 interviewees from four groups, namely, academia, advertising practitioners, religious figures and general consumers.

Findings

The remarkable findings to emerge from the interviews relate to the following: the role of religiosity vis-à-vis nudity and the “lowering of the gaze” concept in Islam, the objectification and stereotypical portrayals of women, the irrational depiction of sexuality and intimacy and factors that lead to contextual interpretation.

Research limitations/implications

The result provides further evidence that skepticism does not only exist on a cognitive basis but also on an emotional level as a response to the exaggeration, unrealistic and irritating claims made in some adverts.

Practical implications

This study suggests that advertisers should advance their cultural comprehension by taking into account the moral and social differences.

Originality/value

This has been the first study to investigate the skepticism toward sex appeal in advertising and integrate both cognitive and affective context of skepticism.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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Article

Nurdin Sobari, Andyan Kurniati and Hardius Usman

This study aims to analyze the behavior of Indonesian Muslim consumers toward halal wellness services, especially to determine the effect of Islamic attributes providing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the behavior of Indonesian Muslim consumers toward halal wellness services, especially to determine the effect of Islamic attributes providing halal wellness services and customer religious commitment as a moderating variable on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out by surveying 260 respondents from 13 Muslim salon outlets in the Jabodetabek area as research samples. Furthermore, a quantitative approach with moderated regression analysis is used as an analytical tool to test the research hypothesis.

Findings

The study found that embedding Islamic attributes in a halal service correlated positively with customer satisfaction. Four of the six dimensions of Islamic attributes that provide halal wellness services have a significant influence on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In addition, it was found that the moderating effect of religious commitment variables was only significant on two Islamic attributes, namely, Muslim goods and services and halal labeled products.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted with samples taken from only one brand of muslimah salon in Jabodetabek area. So that generalization needs to be done with caution.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the marketing strategy of halal wellness services industry including the importance of experiential marketing strategy, the moderation between fiqh law compliance and customer convenience and the service customization based on customer preferences.

Originality/value

This paper gives an understanding of the behavior of halal wellness service users on how halal service attributes affect user satisfaction and loyalty.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Murat Ustaoğlu

This study aims to investigate the participation bankings’ financial services with the Islamic precepts in consideration of the doubts and questions in the minds of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the participation bankings’ financial services with the Islamic precepts in consideration of the doubts and questions in the minds of the public and religious people on this matter. The study further analyzes the differences between the conventional and Islamic financial services. The PBing, referred to as interest-free banking services, is analyzed in respect to Turkey and the public awareness on these practices are also surveyed empirically to offer some plausible findings and conclusions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data in this study are collected via survey method. The participants are picked randomly in the study. The priority of the study is the level of public awareness in terms of education level and financial preference. The findings are further empirically analyzed. The participants have been categorized based on their education level, income level and their religiosity. The significance between the Pearson’s chi-square test and the responses has also been tested. Only significant results have been included in the study.

Findings

The findings in the study suggest that the “Islamic” identity of the Islamic finance (IF) institutions has been hurt seriously and that a growing number of people now start considering these institutions as “non-Islamic.” The IF institutions which emerged to respond to the needs of the religious people who are keen to comply with the precepts of Islam have converged to their counterparts in the conventional banking system, particularly in secular countries like Turkey.

Originality/value

Some studies focusing on the consumers in Muslim countries reveal that the greatest expectation out of the Islamic Finance is that it will help the Islamic financial thought take root. One of the initial goals of it is to meet the financial expectations of the Muslims who are eager to follow the Islamic rules in their economic activities. But today, whether IF fulfills this major objective remains unclear. This study offers some empirical view on problem. Participation banks are also considered institutions of IF, which is part of the conventional banking system in Turkey. These institutions have been criticized because of the similarities to the banks in the conventional system, the proximities between the interest rates in the regular banks and the profit shares of these institutions and the unpopularity of the profit-loss sharing (PLS). Critics particularly argue that it is not proper to call these institutions “Islamic.” Currently, whether these banks are truly Islamic remains a controversy. This study analyzes the public perception of the IF as IF institutions by reliance empirical findings through survey. For the analysis, a diverse group of participants selected randomly (in terms of age, income, education and religiosity) in Turkey has been surveyed. The significance in the responses to the questions in the survey was measured empirically to draw conclusions based on the responses and the empirical results.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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Article

Michael S. Bennett and Zamir Iqbal

Islamic finance and socially responsible investing (SRI) have been two of the most rapidly growing areas of finance over the last two decades. During this period, they…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic finance and socially responsible investing (SRI) have been two of the most rapidly growing areas of finance over the last two decades. During this period, they have each grown at rates that far exceed that of the financial markets as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to find similarities and commonalities of both markets and identifies how both could benefit from each other.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a comparative approach in comparing and contrasting two markets. The paper reviews the progress and driving forces in both markets and makes policy recommendations.

Findings

Islamic finance has grown at a very impressive rate over the last two decades, but the Islamic fixed income market remains under‐developed. SRI has become an increasingly common investment strategy during that same time period, but there is still insufficient supply of SRI fixed income instruments. The convergence of these two facts creates the opportunity for a fixed income product to be developed that could appeal to both SRI and Shariah (Islamic Law) compliant investors, and thereby serve as a bridge between the Islamic and conventional financial markets. The paper believes the product that could play this role is Sukuk for which the proceeds are used to fund economic development.

Research limitations/implications

The paper takes a view from a financial expert's point of view which could be different from the scholars of Islamic legal system.

Practical implications

The paper provides an innovative view to two different markets and suggests that there are commonalities which need to be exploited for the benefit of both markets.

Originality/value

This is probably the first known attempt to related SRI financing to Islamic financing particularly Islamic capital markets.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Book part

Sarah A. Tobin

This paper uses the case of Islamic banking in Amman, Jordan, to assess the wide moral range of expectations, levels of satisfaction, and means of evaluating banks’ “Islamicness.”

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses the case of Islamic banking in Amman, Jordan, to assess the wide moral range of expectations, levels of satisfaction, and means of evaluating banks’ “Islamicness.”

Design/methodology/approach

The information is gathered from interviews conducted during over 21 months of ethnographic research and one month in participant observation and research access as an intern at the Middle East Islamic Bank (MEIB) in Amman, Jordan.

Findings

I found three modes for evaluating “Islamicness” when actors decide whether or not to become customers of Islamic banks.

Research implications

These modes demonstrate that Islamic banking is no longer the cultural protectionism of a relatively homogeneous community of Muslims. Rather it is a fraught and tense field for actors’ debates about types of moralities in the markets and modes of moral assessments of “Islamicness.”

Originality/value

The amplification of the individual and individual choice and authority in the moral assessments of Islamic banking may ultimately serve to unseat prior dichotomous theoretical framings of morality’s presence or absence as “Islamic” or “not Islamic” and “good” and “bad.” By unleashing to individuals the construction of morality in the markets, moral rights and wrongs, and moral evaluations, fragmentation of moral consensus in market practices will occur.

Details

Production, Consumption, Business and the Economy: Structural Ideals and Moral Realities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-055-1

Keywords

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