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Article

Mhamed Biygautane, Stewart Clegg and Khalid Al-Yahya

Existing public–private partnership (PPP) literature that explicitly adopts neo-institutional theory, tends to elucidate the impact of isomorphic pressures and…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing public–private partnership (PPP) literature that explicitly adopts neo-institutional theory, tends to elucidate the impact of isomorphic pressures and organizational fields and structuration on PPP projects. This paper advances this literature by presenting the institutional work and micro-level dynamics through which actors initiate and implement a new form of project delivery. The authors show how actors enact responses to institutional structuration in the expansion and transformation of an airport from a public entity into a PPP in Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a single case study design that offers an empirically rich and thick description of events such as the dynamic processes, practices and types of institutional work carried out by actors and organizations to deliver the project under investigation.

Findings

Religious symbolic work as social integration triggered system integration work, which expanded the power capabilities of individual actors leading the project. Repair work then followed to alleviate the negative effects of disempowering the agency of actors negatively affected by the PPP model and to streamline the project implementation process.

Practical implications

This research offers several practical implications. For PPPs to operate successfully in contexts similar to the Gulf region, policymakers should provide strong political support and be willing to bear a considerable risk of losses or minimal outcomes during the early phases of experimentation with PPPs. Also, policymakers should not only focus their attention on technical requirements of PPPs but also associate new meanings with the normative and cultural-cognitive elements that are integral to the success of PPP implementation. In order to design strategies for change that are designed to fit the unique cultural and sociopolitical settings of each country, policymakers should empower capable individual actors and provide them with resources and access to power, which will enable them to enforce changes that diverge from institutionalized practices.

Social implications

This research connected the PPP literature with theoretical frameworks drawn from neo-institutional theory and power. It would be valuable for further research, however, to connect ideas from the PPP literature with other disciplines such as psychology and social entrepreneurship. PPP research examines a recent phenomenon that can potentially be combined with non-traditional streams of research in analyzing projects. Expanding the realm of PPP research beyond traditional theoretical boundaries could potentially yield exciting insights into how the overall institutional and psychological environments surrounding projects affect their initiation and implementation.

Originality/value

The paper contributes new insights regarding the roles of religious symbolic work, allied with social and system integration of power relations in implementing PPP projects. It suggests a theoretical shift from structures and organizational fields – macro- and meso-levels of analysis – to individuals – micro-level – as triggers of new forms of project delivery that break with the status quo.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Ernest Cyril de-Run, Ammen U-Din and Dilip Mutum

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 (Religion: Muslims versus Non-Muslims) x 3 (Religious identity primes: Low versus Medium versus High) factorial design was used. Both target and non-target groups were randomly exposed to factitious advertisements of an Islamic bank embedded with low, medium and high intensity of religious cues.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that within target group the manipulation did result into a more favourable attitudes towards the advertisement (Aad) and attitudes towards the brand (Ab) for the medium intensity advertisement; however, for high intensity advertisement, only Aad was more favourable compared to low intensity advertisement. Relatively strong evidence was found in case of non-target group negative reactions in term of Aad, Ab and purchase intention. The direct comparison between target and non-target groups suggest a general pattern of more positive response from target group as compared to non-target group.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide an important insight into the effectiveness of identity salience messages in financial service marketing. The study provide empirical evidence that intensifying the rhetoric beyond a certain point will generate negative results from both target and non-target respondents.

Originality/value

The authors integrated the research on symbolism, social identity and target and non-target effects to analyse the attitudinal and behavioural differences between and within target and non-target groups of financial service advertisements with different intensity of religious cues.

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Article

Daniel J. O'Neil

There exists a rich sociological literature dealing with secularisation. Such nineteenth‐century sociologists as Weber and Durkheim and twentieth‐century sociologists as…

Abstract

There exists a rich sociological literature dealing with secularisation. Such nineteenth‐century sociologists as Weber and Durkheim and twentieth‐century sociologists as Greeley, Bellah, Berger and Wilson have contributed. Berger refers to secularisation as “the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols”, while Wilson defines it as “the process whereby religious thinking, practices and institutions lose social significance”. These definitions represent the thrust of academic thinking about secularisation. Generally, social scientists interpret secularisation as the decline of religiosity — a movement from faith to reason. They cite numerous indicators of the change: decline in such areas as church attendance, praying, use of religious rites and rituals, recruitment to the church bureaucracy, church construction. Often they suggest a kind of inevitability relating to urbanisation and industrialisation. The focus of the process involves man becoming less concerned with the spiritual and more concerned with the mundane. Eventually, the spiritual becomes irrelevant; the Age of Enlightenment triumphs over the Age of Faith.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Rajeev Kumra, Madhavan Parthasarathy and Shafiullah Anis

The key research issue addressed in this paper is whether individuals perceive advertisements featuring themes from their own religion more positively, and advertisements…

Abstract

Purpose

The key research issue addressed in this paper is whether individuals perceive advertisements featuring themes from their own religion more positively, and advertisements featuring religious themes from other religions less positively, than neutral ads. In the process, this paper aims to test whether the in-group bias theory (IGBT) and the polarized appraisal theory (PAT) apply in a religious context.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents in a large Indian University were shown advertisements featuring Hindu and Muslim themes as well as a neutral advertisement in the context of pet adoption. Cognitive and affective response measures were used for evaluation.

Findings

Respondents did not evaluate advertisements with their own religion’s symbols any more positively than neutral advertisements but did evaluate advertisements with themes from other religions more negatively than neutral ads. In sum, religious advertisements did not have any positive effect on in-group respondents, but rather worked in antagonizing out-group respondents.

Research limitations/implications

Both IGBT and PAT did not work as predicted when tested on in-group respondents but worked as expected on out-group respondents.

Practical implications

In the Indian market, using religious themes has largely negative consequences in terms of alienating out-group members, with no commensurate advantage on in-group members. Firms are better off not using religious advertising, and this decision would likely have a positive impact on a firm’s bottom line.

Originality/value

Though, the general topic of religious advertising has been much researched, but this paper deals with the role of religious symbols in advertising in the Indian context, which is done for the first time in a multi-religious context. Further, the applicability of IGBT and PAT is also tested for the first time in religious advertisement context.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

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Article

Jane Davison

Accounting research has mirrored the annual report in its eclecticism. There remain, however, notable gaps in the research profile, including theological perspectives and…

Abstract

Accounting research has mirrored the annual report in its eclecticism. There remain, however, notable gaps in the research profile, including theological perspectives and the analysis of visual images. The contribution of this present study is twofold: to advance a general philosophical reading of sacred vestiges within financial reporting, and to add to the interpretation of visual images within financial reporting. The examination takes as its primary guide the philosopher and religious historian, Mircea Eliade, and also draws on the work of C.G. Jung. The paper first suggests that archaic traces of a sacred concept of cyclical and repeatable time may be perceived in the periodic preparation of financial statements and associated ritual. It is further contended that the visual space of financial reporting may bear traces of archaic religious attitudes; specific images are analysed and illuminated by religious and cultural associations with ascension.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Mohsin Abdur Rehman, Sarminah Samad and Muhammad Kashif

This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how consumers gain identity from consumption of religious symbols in a Muslim, collectivist cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 63 consumers, recruited by means of a purposive sampling technique. The interviews focused on exploration of Islamic services and religious symbols which were later categorized as high and low religious symbols and services.

Findings

The results reveal a typology of religious symbols and Islamic religious services as perceived by Muslim informants. They recalled Mosque for prayer, Hijab for promotion of Islamic education and Khana Kaaba for performance of Hajj and Umrah services. Furthermore, the spiritual and emotional connections via consumption of Islamic acts as services are explored.

Practical Implications

The marketing managers need to understand and realize the importance of these classifications. A symbol which is perceived as non-religious must be avoided while branding various services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to advocate performance of religious activities in addition to consumption of various service brands. This can really add value to the lives of Muslim consumers – a realization that can emotionally connect consumers with service brands. However, religion is of paramount importance while designing, offering and promoting services.

Originality/Value

The study of services marketing based on consumption of religious symbols and services in a Muslim context are unique to this study. The typology of low and high religious services and symbols is also significant contribution of this study.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part

Sharon Erickson Nepstad

State-oriented models of collective action are too narrow to encompass expressive movements that challenge religious authority structures. These limitations are evident as…

Abstract

State-oriented models of collective action are too narrow to encompass expressive movements that challenge religious authority structures. These limitations are evident as I explore the tactics of the Plowshares movement. Inspired by the Catholic Left, Plowshares activists have distinguished themselves from other peace groups by their controversial methods of nonviolent sabotage. I argue that the tactical choices of this movement defy state-centered theories that assume political instrumentality, tactical neutrality, and rational calculation of costs and benefits. The Plowshares case reveals that expressive groups and religious movements may not select their methods solely on the basis of efficacy. Rather, tactical choice and innovation are influenced by the opponent’s source of power as well as activists’ beliefs, values, and moral commitments. I also call for greater attention to the effects of tactics on the movement itself, moving beyond an exclusive focus on outcomes. Particularly when controversial methods of action are employed, tactical consequences may include ideological refinement and unanticipated cultural developments that can pose further challenges.

Details

Authority in Contention
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-037-1

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Book part

Anna Grasso

This paper aims to explore the significance of the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia for wider questions of democratization, interrogating in particular the question of the…

Abstract

This paper aims to explore the significance of the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia for wider questions of democratization, interrogating in particular the question of the relationship between religion and politics in the aftermath of the revolutionary event. The political landscape emerging after the 14th of January Tunisian Revolution has witnessed the emergence of a new political class competing in the country’s first free democratic elections on October 23. The moderate Islamist Ennahda Party emerged victorious and obtained the majority of seats in the National Constituent Assembly. These developments in the revolutionary aftermath re-opened questions over the future of “secular Tunisia” and re-ignited the political struggle between modernist and traditionalist visions of society. As a result, religious actors have increasingly been taking to the streets alongside the general population via participation in public protests, creation of new unions and associations, presence in the media, militancy in new or pre-existent political parties, etc. In this context, this research focuses on the way in which the 2011 uprisings impacted on democratization by seeking to explain how and why religious leaders are re-emerging as influential figures in the political landscape of post-revolutionary Tunisia.

Details

Protest, Social Movements and Global Democracy Since 2011: New Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-027-5

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Article

Gerald Vinten

Religions, throughout their existence, have found it difficult to formulate a balanced approach to wealth and the world of business. They have tended to comment more on…

Abstract

Religions, throughout their existence, have found it difficult to formulate a balanced approach to wealth and the world of business. They have tended to comment more on poverty, with parables about camels fitting through needles demonstrating their ambivalence. Perhaps then, surprisingly, and particularly if we live in a secular, post‐modern society, there has been a persistent trickle of use of religious metaphor which shows no sign of abating. Equally, the language of business is infiltrating the religious sphere, as religions seek to maximize income, as well as, and as a means of, maintaining their essential missions. Advertising agencies draw on religious metaphor, and business leaders sometimes go into religious mode for the high‐spot achievements of corporate life. Work is not always pleasurable fulfilment, but this periodic spiritual underpinning does witness to the potential for self‐actualisation.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part

Marion Coddou

Scholars have long argued that churches play a critical role in mobilizing communities marginal to the political process, primarily by pooling resources, disseminating…

Abstract

Scholars have long argued that churches play a critical role in mobilizing communities marginal to the political process, primarily by pooling resources, disseminating information, and providing opportunities for members to develop community networks, leadership, and civic skills. However, recent research suggests that churches only serve as effective mobilizing institutions when they engage in direct political discussion and recruitment. Even so, churches may face economic, legal, and institutional barriers to entering the political sphere, and explicit political speech and action remain rare. Through an analysis of two years of ethnographic fieldwork following faith-based community organizers attempting to recruit Spanish speakers throughout a Catholic Archdiocese into a campaign for immigrant rights, this paper explores the institutional constraints on church political mobilization, and how these are overcome to mobilize one of the most politically marginal groups in the United States today: Hispanic undocumented immigrants and their allies. I argue that scholars of political engagement must look beyond the structural features of organizations to consider the effects of their institutionalized domains and practices. While churches do face institutional barriers to political mobilization, activists who specialize their recruitment strategy to match the institutional practices of the organizations they target can effectively overcome these barriers to mobilize politically alienated populations.

Details

On the Cross Road of Polity, Political Elites and Mobilization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-480-8

Keywords

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