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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Peter Shanahan and Jenny McParlane

To provide a past, current and future perspective of transnational higher education for academics and managers engaged in this area of education provision, to heighten

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1464

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a past, current and future perspective of transnational higher education for academics and managers engaged in this area of education provision, to heighten awareness of the current trends and issues involved.

Design/methodology/approach

An Australian/Hong Kong case study and reference to current literature are used to highlight the main issues concerning this rapidly expanding phenomenon in the provision of higher education.

Findings

Identifies and discusses the main issues for consideration when planning new transnational activities, including the need for strategic approaches and risk management.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focuses on Australia and the Asian region, although material related to the UK and the USA is included in some sections. Whether a country is the provider or the receiver of transnational education, the issues raised will be relevant.

Practical implications

This paper provides a very useful source of information for those currently involved in or planning to become involved in a transnational higher education activity.

Originality/value

This paper is timely in that it addresses the recent proliferation of transnational higher education activities by considering the past and present, as well as providing discussion of potential future directions.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

S.M. Riad Shams and Rajibul Hasan

Transnationalism and transnational concept are extensively researched in many social science areas; however, transnational management and transnational marketing is…

Abstract

Purpose

Transnationalism and transnational concept are extensively researched in many social science areas; however, transnational management and transnational marketing is relatively a less explored research domain. Also, knowledge management for transnational education (TNE) marketing is not well-researched. Capacity building is an established research-stream, with a key focus on socio-economic and ecological development; however, prior research on capacity building from the context of TNE’s knowledge management and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this study is to analyse TNE marketing mix, to understand the influence of transnational stakeholders’ causal scope(s) on knowledge management in TNE to uphold their transnatioalisation processes through capacity building in TNEs’ marketing management.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive constructivist method is followed.

Findings

Organisational learning from the context of transnational market and socio-economic competitive factors, based on analysing the transnational stakeholders’ causal scope(s) is imperative for proactive knowledge management capacity in TNE marketing. Following the analysis of transnational stakeholders’ causal scope(s) to learn about the cause and consequence of the transnational stakeholders’ relationships and interactions, an initial conceptual framework of knowledge management for TNE marketing is proposed. Practical insights from different TNE markets are developed in support of this novel knowledge management capacity building framework of TNE, and its generalisation perspectives and future research areas are discussed.

Practical implications

These insights will be useful for TNE administrators to better align their knowledge management perspectives and propositions with their transnational stakeholders to underpin TNE marketing. Academics will be able to use these insights as a basis for future research.

Originality/value

This study proposes a novel conceptual stakeholder-centred capacity building framework for TNE’s knowledge management to uphold TNE marketing and supports the framework, based on practical insights from three different transnational markets.

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Ka Ho Mok

The principal goal of the article is to examine how Singapore, one of the East Asian tiger economies, has attempted to diversify its higher education system by developing …

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4535

Abstract

Purpose

The principal goal of the article is to examine how Singapore, one of the East Asian tiger economies, has attempted to diversify its higher education system by developing “transnational education” in the island state.

Design/methodology/approach

With particular reference to the most recent education reforms and changing higher education governance in Singapore, this article focuses on how the Singapore government has changed its higher education governance models in enhancing the global competitiveness of its higher education system by adopting more pro‐competition policy instruments and allowing the growth of transnational education in the city state.

Findings

The findings suggest the choice of policy tools (the choice of market forces in higher education and the rise of transnational education in the present case) is highly political and governments should pay particular attention to the particular socio‐economic and socio‐political contexts of their countries when making such choices.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the role of government in East Asia is still important, especially when there is a strong need for government to set up appropriate regulations, social protection and welfare, hence, governments in East Asia are very much conceived as a complement to the markets.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

S.M. Riad Shams

Quality assurance is a key concern in higher education, which is more complex in offshore transnational education (TNE), compared to onshore provision of education

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1339

Abstract

Purpose

Quality assurance is a key concern in higher education, which is more complex in offshore transnational education (TNE), compared to onshore provision of education service. However, higher education quality assurance is an established research domain; there is very limited work on the efficacy of industry-based total quality management (TQM) considerations to uphold quality in higher education, particularly in TNE. From this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop new insights in this under-researched area.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive constructivist approach is followed to analyse extant scholarly views in relevant disciplinary areas to develop new insights, in relation to the significance of industry-based TQM in TNEs’ quality assurance.

Findings

Stakeholder orientation is recognised, as a significant consideration to uphold quality in TNE. Different stakeholders are identified, who would have substantial influence on TNEs’ TQM. How these stakeholders could influence the TQM process is clarified. Some empirical insights are also developed, in support of the arguments of the paper.

Practical implications

These insights will be useful for education administrators to better align their stakeholder relationships to underpin TQM. Academics will be able to use these insights as a basis for future research towards the significance of industry-based TQM in higher education.

Originality/value

Based on a stakeholder-focussed TNE TQM model, the findings represent an innovative strategic direction towards a better understanding of the significance of stakeholder relationships, pertaining to TQM in the contemporary higher education system.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Fion Choon Boey Lim and Mahsood Shah

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the dynamics facing transnational education (TNE) in Australia through literature review in three major areas: policy changes in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the dynamics facing transnational education (TNE) in Australia through literature review in three major areas: policy changes in Australia and major importing countries of Australian TNE, and recent development in online learning and the impact of the prevailing TNE models. The paper concludes by shedding some light on how these changes could affect the sustainability of the growth of Australian TNE in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on review of literature and use of secondary data on TNE in Australia. The paper analyzes the external quality audit reports with focus on TNE. It finally analyzes the future sustainability of Australian TNE based on growth of higher education in Asia and emergence of online learning.

Findings

TNE is experiencing growth in Australia. Based on the current model such as setting overseas campus and partnerships, the growth may not be sustainable. The emergence of online learning and developments in Asian higher education may pose increased risk and competition. TNE has been subject to external scrutiny through the external quality agency in past. The current compliance-driven quality assessment may put the transnational quality assessment at risk with increased focus on assessing the quality based on review of documentation.

Originality/value

The paper is original and it is based on Australian TNE.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Hei-hang Hayes Tang and Chak-pong Gordon Tsui

The purpose of this paper is to examine the way in which higher education participation is democratized in the entrepreneurial city of Hong Kong by the policy innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the way in which higher education participation is democratized in the entrepreneurial city of Hong Kong by the policy innovation that encompasses internationalization. There is a dearth of empirical studies about transnational education in Hong Kong, except for a few which examine students’ perceptions of transnational education from a user perspective, situated in marketized conditions (Leung and Waters, 2013; Waters and Leung, 2013a, b). The minimal volume of existing research has ignored the innovative aspects of democratizing higher learning by internationalization, namely, the operation of international degrees by overseas universities on offshore campuses. This policy innovation by transnational institutions is significant in an era of the globalization of higher education, as access to higher education cannot be otherwise realized given the local education policies.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing documentary research, this paper presents and assesses the growth of community college international education at The University of Hong Kong and its unique facets, juxtaposing it with the marketized context of East Asian higher education. It engages in specific reviews surrounding the operational mode and academic collaborations of the international educational programs and practices at the Hong Kong University’s School of Professional and Continuing Education.

Findings

This documentary research finds that the internationalized academic profession of partner universities enables curriculum design, pedagogy, teaching ideas and assessment methods to be informed by a diversity of international academic cultures and indigenous knowledge. Through this policy innovation, international education is institutionalized in such a way that it takes Hong Kong students beyond the community college context, which is relatively localized. It also illuminates the way in which the “ideoscape” of American community colleges and international partnerships with Australian and British universities have been manifested in the Hong Kong education hub for transnational student flows and intellectual exchanges across the Asian region.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the academic literature of higher education studies, particularly in the areas of massification and democratization, as well as their connection with internationalization and policy innovation. It also delineates various forces that are propelling the development of higher education’s internationalization and massification.

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Tonatiuh Belderbos

The purpose of this paper is to examine the employability of international branch campus (IBC) students and graduates in Malaysia, including their possession of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the employability of international branch campus (IBC) students and graduates in Malaysia, including their possession of transnational skills and knowledge, and the role of IBC educational characteristics in improving such employability.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of employer interviews (n=21) and a survey of Malaysian students (n=246) enrolled at four IBCs are used in this study. Thematic and matrix analyses were applied to the interviews and multivariate analysis to the survey responses.

Findings

IBC graduates are well-equipped with the skills and attributes that employers find most important, in particular, soft skills and personal attributes. The development of these employability attributes is related to IBC educational characteristics and international exposure on campus – with important heterogeneity among IBCs and curricula. However, IBC education does not strongly improve the transnational human capital of Malaysian students and is only a partial substitute for education abroad in this respect.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few studies that examine the employability of students that graduate from IBC universities, a type of education that has received only limited scholarly attention. It also broadens the scope of the debate on the relation between international experience and employability by examining whether receiving an IBC education in one’s home country can lead to the development of transnational human capital. Finally, it provides new insights on the returns to (higher) education by directly measuring students’ acquisition of skills and examining the role educational characteristics play in this.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Rebecca Maxwell-Stuart and Jeroen Huisman

Although there is increasing insight in student engagement (SE) in higher education, there is limited insight in how students experience SE in a transnational setting. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there is increasing insight in student engagement (SE) in higher education, there is limited insight in how students experience SE in a transnational setting. The purpose of this paper is to explore SE perceptions and transnational experiences. A model, derived from the literature, representing four student identities (consumer, partner, co-creator and citizen) guides the empirical analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a phenomenological approach, 18 in-depth interviews were carried out with students (business and management) enroled in transnational education initiatives of three Scottish universities in India, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates.

Findings

Students primarily identify the partner and consumer model. Significant levels of apathy were found, not only at the level of the students, but also the staff and the university.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study was based on a relatively small sample, it does highlight the impact of the context (external commitments part-time students, “fly in” staff from home campus) on levels of SE.

Practical implications

Stressing again that the study was explorative, the key practical message is that ultimately meaningful dialogue on SE between all stakeholders – inside and outside – needs to take place to forestall a vicious circle of apathy that would be detrimental for quality (assurance).

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers on SE in a transnational context and offers a solid point of departure for follow-up research.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Carrie Amani Annabi and Stephen Wilkins

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how, and the extent to which, massive open online courses (MOOCs) might be used in the accreditation of students’ prior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how, and the extent to which, massive open online courses (MOOCs) might be used in the accreditation of students’ prior learning, in programme delivery at international branch campuses, and for lecturers’ professional development (PD) in transnational higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained from two international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates. The research adopted a qualitative methodology that involved 20 lecturers participating in semi-structured interviews and ten lecturers participating in a focus group. A rigorous process of content analysis was used to analyse and interpret the data.

Findings

Lecturers in transnational higher education perceived that MOOCs were not suitable for accredited prior learning but that they might be useful as a supplementary resource for student learning and for personal PD. There was a strong belief that as international branch campuses offered a commodified product, MOOCs were unlikely to be adopted as a replacement for traditional programme delivery methods, as students strongly prefer face-to-face teaching and support.

Practical implications

The research has identified a number of recommendations for higher education institutions operating in transnational settings, which might improve both institutional and individual performance. Institutions that intend to use MOOCs in programme delivery should consider how their students and staff would react to such a move, and how this might impact upon institutional image and reputation.

Originality/value

Surprisingly, there has been little academic research published on the use of MOOCs in higher education, and to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study conducted in a transnational education setting. The uniqueness of the environment in which international branch campuses operate, as well as their different objectives and student profiles, provide the rationale for this research.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Troy Heffernan, Stephen Wilkins and Muhammad Mohsin Butt

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the critical relational variables of university reputation, student trust and student-university identification…

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1788

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the critical relational variables of university reputation, student trust and student-university identification influence student behaviour towards transnational education partnerships.

Design/methodology/approach

Students undertaking British degrees at two transnational partnership locations (Hong Kong, n=203 and Sri Lanka, n=325) completed a quantitative survey questionnaire. A conceptual model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

University reputation and student trust were found to be significant predictors of student identification with each partner institution, and student-university identification was a significant predictor of student satisfaction, loyalty and extra-role behaviours towards both the local and foreign educational organisations.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that student relationship management strategies should focus on strengthening the higher education institution’s reputation, and increasing the students’ trust and identification with the institution. Moreover, universities should also assess potential partners for these qualities when entering into transnational education partnerships.

Originality/value

Drawing on theories of social and organisational identification, this is the first study to consider student-university identification as the linchpin between the exogenous constructs of reputation and trust, and the endogenous constructs of student satisfaction, loyalty and extra-role behaviours in both the international education and international business literatures.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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