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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 February 2023

Mohamed Hajjaji, AbdErrazzak Khadmaoui and Mohamed El Bakkali

The practice of consanguinity has been culturally preferred in most Arab countries, including Morocco. This behavior leads to an increase in genetic abnormalities, such as…

1033

Abstract

Purpose

The practice of consanguinity has been culturally preferred in most Arab countries, including Morocco. This behavior leads to an increase in genetic abnormalities, such as hypertension and diabetes. This paper examines the prevalence and determinants of first-cousin marriages and their impact on diabetes among offspring.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on 882 couples were collected through face-to-face interview via a pre-established questionnaire based on the variables selected within the objectives of this study. The authors used the multiple logistic regression modeling procedure in this study.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that the prevalence of first-cousin marriages were 15% among students’ parents. From the multiple logistic regression modeling, the authors found a significant effect of paternal and maternal grandparents’ first-cousins marriage on that of parents (aOR = 3.27 and aOR = 3.36, respectively). However, an 11-fold higher risk of first relative marriages among parents once the paternal and maternal grandparents were first-cousins and the father was illiterate (aOR = 11.01). Moreover, the authors reported a diabetes risk of more than 14 times when the effects of first-cousin maternal grandparents and parents and the hypertension among mother or her sibling were combined (aOR = 14.48) or when the effects of first-cousins maternal grandparents, first-cousin parents and mother’s age at marriage between 21 and 29 years were combined (aOR = 14.56).

Originality/value

First-cousin marriage depends on the father’s illiteracy and the consanguinity of grandparents’ factors. The cumulative effect of first-cousin marriage among grandparents, parents and a family history of hypertension among mother or her sibling increase the risk of diabetes among these mothers.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Asmae Bouoidina, Mehdi Chaouch, Abdelfattah Abdellaoui, Amal Lahkimi, Belkheir Hammouti, Fadoua El-Hajjaji, Mustapha Taleb and Ayssar Nahle

The inhibition effect of Foeniculum vulgare seeds’ (FVS) extract on the corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium was studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance…

Abstract

Purpose

The inhibition effect of Foeniculum vulgare seeds’ (FVS) extract on the corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium was studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization, as well as the surface morphology of the mild steel.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy analysis of FVS extract were performed.

Findings

FVS extract acts as a good inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in inhibitor concentration but decreases with the increase of temperature.

Practical implications

FVS extract was observed to play an important role in the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic solution.

Originality/value

This paper is intended to be added to the family of green inhibitors which are highly efficient inhibitors and can be used in the area of corrosion prevention and control.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Walid Belmaghraoui, Aimad Mazkour, Hicham Harhar, Mourad Harir and Souad El Hajjaji

This study aims to investigate the corrosion inhibition effect of extracted oil from Ziziphus lotus fruit on corrosion of C38 carbon steel in 5.5 M H3PO4 solution using…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the corrosion inhibition effect of extracted oil from Ziziphus lotus fruit on corrosion of C38 carbon steel in 5.5 M H3PO4 solution using potentiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Oil composition was determined using gas chromatography, and the results showed that oleic and palmitic acids present approximately 84.0 per cent of its total chemical content. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data were analyzed by adapting it to a well-developed electric circuit model. The inhibition efficiency of Z. lotus oil was calculated and compared using Tafel polarization and EIS.

Findings

Accordingly, the oil extract was found to act as an anodic type inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition efficiency of Z. lotus oil extract increase with oil concentrations and achieve approximately 70.5 per cent at 3 g/L solution of Z. lotus oil.

Originality/value

The results obtained from different tested methods were in line, and the oil was able to reduce significantly the kinetics of the corrosion process of C38 carbon steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

H.A. El Dahan, T.Y.S. Mohamed and S.A. Abo El‐Enin

A study is carried out on the resistance to corrosion of mild steel in 5 per cent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 30 and 60°C. The effectiveness of quaternary ammonium…

Abstract

A study is carried out on the resistance to corrosion of mild steel in 5 per cent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 30 and 60°C. The effectiveness of quaternary ammonium salt used as corrosion inhibitor under the same experimental conditions was also investigated. Weight loss results and electrochemical data showed the good inhibiting action of the inhibitor, acting as anodic type. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption of the compound are calculated using the Temkin adsorption isotherm.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Younes El Kacimi, Mouhsine Galai, Khaoula Alaoui, Rachid Touir and Mohamed Ebn Touhami

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of silicon and phosphorus content in steel suitable for galvanizing on its corrosion and inhibitor adsorption processes in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of silicon and phosphorus content in steel suitable for galvanizing on its corrosion and inhibitor adsorption processes in steels/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide combined and KI (mixture)/5.0 M hydrochloric acid systems has been studied in relation to the temperature using chemical (weight loss), Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis and Optical 3D profilometry characterization. All the methods used are in reasonable agreement. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for each steels corrosion and inhibitor adsorption, respectively, were determined and discussed. Results show that the adsorption capacity for Steel Classes A and B are better than Steel Class C surfaces depending on their silicon and phosphorus content. Surface analyses via SEM and Optical 3D profilometry was used to investigate the morphology of the steels before and after immersion in 5.0 M HCl solution containing mixture. Surface analysis revealed improvement of corrosion resistance of Steels Classes A and B in the presence of mixture more than Classes C. It has been determined that the adsorbed protective film on the steels surface heterogeneity markedly depends on steels compositions, that is, the heterogeneity increases with decreasing silicon and phosphorus content.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of silicon and phosphorus content in Steels Classes A, B and C on its corrosion and inhibitor mixture adsorption processes in 5.0 M HCl solution has been studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and surface analysis.

Findings

The inhibition efficiency of mixture follows the order: (Steel Class A) > (Steel Class B) > Steel Class C) and depends on their compositions in the absence of mixture according on their silicon and phosphorus content, that is, the corrosion rate increases with increasing of the silicon and phosphorus content. A potentiodynamic polarization measurement indicates that the mixture acts as mixed-type inhibitor without changing the mechanism of corrosion process for the three classes of mild steels.

Originality/value

Corrosion rate mild steels in 5.0 M HCl depends on their compositions in the absence of mixture according to their silicon and phosphorus content, that is, the corrosion rate increases with increasing silicon and phosphorus content. The adsorbed protective film on the steels surface heterogeneity markedly depends on steels class’s compositions, that is, the heterogeneity increases with decreasing silicon and phosphorus content.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Amany Abdellatif Osman

This paper aims to analyze the Egyptian revolution as an anti-systemic movement. It illustrates how Egypt’s position in the world-economy has affected its political economy…

1503

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the Egyptian revolution as an anti-systemic movement. It illustrates how Egypt’s position in the world-economy has affected its political economy orientation and led to the marginalization of critical masses, who launched the revolution.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows Wallerstein’s world-system analysis focusing on the anti-systemic movement concept. The paper analyzes the Egyptian case based on Annales school’s longue durée concept, which is a perspective to study developments of social relations historically.

Findings

The Egyptian revolution was not only against the autocratic regime but also against the power structure resulting from the neoliberal economic policies, introduced as a response to the capitalism crisis. It represented the voice of the forgotten. The revolution was one of the anti-systemic movements resisting the manifestations of the capitalist world-economy.

Originality/value

This paper aims at proving that the Egyptian revolution was an anti-systemic movement; which will continue to spread as a rejection to the world-system and to aspire a more democratic and egalitarian world. The current COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating the crisis of the world-system.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2023

Adah-Kole Emmanuel Onjewu, Richard B. Nyuur, Salima Paul and Yong Wang

Although recent literature has examined diverse measures adopted by SMEs to navigate the COVID-19 turbulence, there is a shortage of evidence on how crisis-time strategy creation…

Abstract

Purpose

Although recent literature has examined diverse measures adopted by SMEs to navigate the COVID-19 turbulence, there is a shortage of evidence on how crisis-time strategy creation behaviour and digitalization activities increase (1) sales and (2) cash flow. Thus, predicated on a novel strategy creation perspective, this inquiry aims to investigate the crisis behaviour, sales and cash flow performance of 528 SMEs in Morocco.

Design/methodology/approach

Novel links between (1) aggregate wage cuts, (2) variable operating hours, (3) deferred payment to suppliers, (4) deferred payment to tax authorities and (5) sales performance are developed and tested. A further link between sales performance and cash flow is also examined and the analysis is conducted using a non-linear structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

While there is a significant association between strategy creation behaviours and sales performance, only variable operating hours have a positive effect. Also, sales performance increases cash flow and this relationship is substantially strengthened by e-commerce digitalization and innovation.

Originality/value

Theoretically, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first inquiries to espouse the strategy creation view to explain SMEs' crisis-time behaviour and digitalization. For practical purposes, to supplement Moroccan SMEs' propensity to seek tax deferrals, it is argued that debt and equity support measures are also needed to boost sales performance and cash flow.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

G. Bereket and A. Yurt

Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out on the inhibition of low carbon steel in 0.1M hydrochloric acid solution over the temperature range 20‐60°C at different…

Abstract

Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out on the inhibition of low carbon steel in 0.1M hydrochloric acid solution over the temperature range 20‐60°C at different inhibitor concentrations by various quaternary ammonium salts and cationic surfactants. The inhibitors examined were tetraethyl ammonium chloride, tetrabutyl ammonium chloride, benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, benzyltriethyl ammonium chloride, benzyltributyl ammonium chloride, phenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, alkylbenzyldimethyl ammonium chloride, tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. Maximum inhibition efficiencies of cationic surfactants were observed around and above critical micelle concentration (cmc), while the inhibition efficiencies of the quaternary ammonium salts were found to increase with the increase in their concentrations. The degree of shift in Ecorr value, together with change in anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes (ba, bc), revealed that cationic surfactants behave as an anodic inhibitor, while quaternary ammonium salts behave as mixed type inhibitors. Inhibition efficiencies of studied inhibitors seem to be closely related with the chain length of the alkyl group as well as the presence of benzene ring in quaternary ammonium compounds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for dissolution and adsorption were also calculated.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

G. Bereket, A. Yurt and H. Türk

The inhibiting effects of 2,6‐ionen and 2,10‐ionen type polyvinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and latex, on low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by…

Abstract

The inhibiting effects of 2,6‐ionen and 2,10‐ionen type polyvinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and latex, on low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation measurements and impedance measurement techniques over the temperature range of 20‐60°C at different inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the inhibition efficiencies increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The degree of shift in Ecorr values, together with the change in anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes (βa, βc), revealed that the studied inhibitors behaved as anodic inhibitors. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for dissolution and adsorption were also calculated.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Sabah Ben Messaoud and Bouzidi Mezghiche

The aim of this paper is to make lightweight high-performance concrete (LWHPC) with high economic performance from existing materials on the Algerian market. Concrete with high…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to make lightweight high-performance concrete (LWHPC) with high economic performance from existing materials on the Algerian market. Concrete with high values with regard to following properties: mechanical, physical, rheological and durability. Because of the implementation of some basic scientific principles on the technology of LWHPC, this study is part of the valuation of local materials to manufacture LWHPC with several enhanced features such as mechanical, physical chemical, rheological and durability in the first place and with regard to the economic aspect in the second place.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental study focused on the compatibility of cement/superplasticizer, the effect of water/cement ratio (W/C 0.22, 0.25, 0.30), the effect of replacing a part of cement by silica fume (8 per cent), the effect of combined replacement of a part of cement by silica fume (8 per cent) and natural pozzolan (10 per cent, 15 per cent, 25 per cent) and the effect of fraction of aggregate on properties of fresh and hardened concrete using the mix design method of the University of Sherbrooke, which is easy to realize and gives good results.

Findings

The results obtained allow to conclude that it is possible to manufacture LWHPC with good mechanical and physical properties in the authors’ town with available materials on the Algerian market. The mix design and manufacture of concrete with a compressive strength at 28 days reaching 56 MPa or more than 72 MPa is now possible in Biskra (Algeria), and it must no longer be used only in the experimental field. The addition of silica fume in concrete showed good strength development between the ages of 7 and 28 days depending on the mix design; concrete containing 8 per cent silica fume with a W/B (water/binder) of 0.25 has a compressive strength higher than other concretes, and concrete with silica fume is stronger than concrete without silica fume, so we can have concrete with a compressive strength of 62 MPa for W/C of 0.25 without silica fume. Then, one can avoid the use of silica fume to a resistance of concrete to the compressive strength of 62 MPa and a slump of 21 cm, as silica fume is the most expensive ingredient in the composition of the concrete and is very important economically. A main factor in producing high-strength concrete above 72 MPa is to use less reactive natural pozzolan (such as silica fume) in combination with silica fume and a W/B low of 0.25 and 0.30. The combination of silica fume and natural pozzolan in mixtures resulted in a very dense microstructure and low porosity and produced an enhanced permeability of concrete of high strength, as with resistance to the penetration of aggressive agents; thus, an economical concrete was obtained using this combination.

Research limitations/implications

The study of the influence of cementitious materials on concrete strength gain was carried out. Other features of LWHPC such as creep, cracking, shrinkage, resistance to sulphate attack, corrosion resistance, fire resistance and durability should be also studied, because there are cases where another feature is most important for the designer or owner than the compressive strength at 28 days. Further studies should include a range of variables to change mixtures significantly and determine defined applications of LWHPC to produce more efficient and economical concretes. It is important to gather information on LWHPC to push forward the formulation of characteristics for pozzolan concrete for the building industry.

Practical implications

The LWHPC can be used to obtain high modules of elasticity and high durability in special structures such as marine structures, superstructures, parking, areas for aircraft/airplane runways, bridges, tunnels and industrial buildings (nuclear power stations).

Originality/value

The novel finding of the paper is the use of crystallized slag aggregates and natural pozzolan aggregates to obtain LWHPC.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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