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Article

Dimitrios Sakkos, Edmond S. L. Ho, Hubert P. H. Shum and Garry Elvin

A core challenge in background subtraction (BGS) is handling videos with sudden illumination changes in consecutive frames. In our pilot study published in, Sakkos:SKIMA…

Abstract

Purpose

A core challenge in background subtraction (BGS) is handling videos with sudden illumination changes in consecutive frames. In our pilot study published in, Sakkos:SKIMA 2019, we tackle the problem from a data point-of-view using data augmentation. Our method performs data augmentation that not only creates endless data on the fly but also features semantic transformations of illumination which enhance the generalisation of the model.

Design/methodology/approach

In our pilot study published in SKIMA 2019, the proposed framework successfully simulates flashes and shadows by applying the Euclidean distance transform over a binary mask generated randomly. In this paper, we further enhance the data augmentation framework by proposing new variations in image appearance both locally and globally.

Findings

Experimental results demonstrate the contribution of the synthetics in the ability of the models to perform BGS even when significant illumination changes take place.

Originality/value

Such data augmentation allows us to effectively train an illumination-invariant deep learning model for BGS. We further propose a post-processing method that removes noise from the output binary map of segmentation, resulting in a cleaner, more accurate segmentation map that can generalise to multiple scenes of different conditions. We show that it is possible to train deep learning models even with very limited training samples. The source code of the project is made publicly available at https://github.com/dksakkos/illumination_augmentation

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article

Anoop Singh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economics of supplying energy needs for illumination requirements by hawkers using alternatives like compact fluorescent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economics of supplying energy needs for illumination requirements by hawkers using alternatives like compact fluorescent lamps battery lamps, liquefied petroleum gas mantle lamps or supply from mini‐grids supported by local diesel generators. Further, the prevailing business models like the lamp rental and the mini‐grid models, which epitomise informal electricity markets, are also analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

Three localities in Kanpur city are identified and data on techno‐economic characteristics of illumination options used by hawkers are collected. To compare the available options with varying capital life‐span, equivalent annual cost approach is utilized. This is used to calculate the levelised cost of 1 kiloWalthour energy used for providing illumination.

Findings

The daily user cost of illumination ranges from Rs 6.1 to 17 (for four hours) across the four existing models studied in the paper. This translates to Rs 31.3 to 312.5 per kWh of electricity use. The technology choice by hawkers is influenced by lack of initial capital and inconvenience associated with cheaper options than overall economics of the alternative option is found.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the absence of financial and institutional intervention that can help significantly reduce the cost of electricity access by such users and also help adoption of greener options like solar lanterns or solar battery bank charging stations. A practical solution may include a greater role of micro‐finance institutions. Greater awareness and capacity building needs of local entrepreneurs as well as of end‐users also need attention.

Originality/value

This is perhaps one of the few attempts to unravel the informal electricity markets in India and help identify issues that need attention so as to address needs of millions of consumers at the margin of the electricity grid in the country.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article

Minghua Wei

In order to solve the problem that the performance of the existing local feature descriptors in uncontrolled environment is greatly affected by illumination, background…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to solve the problem that the performance of the existing local feature descriptors in uncontrolled environment is greatly affected by illumination, background, occlusion and other factors, we propose a novel face recognition algorithm in uncontrolled environment which combines the block central symmetry local binary pattern (CS-LBP) and deep residual network (DRN) model.

Design/methodology/approach

The algorithm first extracts the block CSP-LBP features of the face image, then incorporates the extracted features into the DRN model, and gives the face recognition results by using a well-trained DRN model. The features obtained by the proposed algorithm have the characteristics of both local texture features and deep features that robust to illumination.

Findings

Compared with the direct usage of the original image, the usage of local texture features of the image as the input of DRN model significantly improves the computation efficiency. Experimental results on the face datasets of FERET, YALE-B and CMU-PIE have shown that the recognition rate of the proposed algorithm is significantly higher than that of other compared algorithms.

Originality/value

The proposed algorithm fundamentally solves the problem of face identity recognition in uncontrolled environment, and it is particularly robust to the change of illumination, which proves its superiority.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article

Wen-Yang Chang and Chih-Ping Tsai

This study aims to investigate the spectral illumination characteristics and geometric features of bicycle parts and proposes an image stitching method for their automatic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the spectral illumination characteristics and geometric features of bicycle parts and proposes an image stitching method for their automatic visual inspection.

Design/methodology/approach

The unrealistic color casts of feature inspection is removed using white balance for global adjustment. The scale-invariant feature transforms (SIFT) is used to extract and detect the image features of image stitching. The Hough transform is used to detect the parameters of a circle for roundness of bicycle parts.

Findings

Results showed that maximum errors of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° for the spectral illumination of white light light-emitting diode arrays with differential shift displacements are 4.4, 4.2, 7.8, 6.8, 8.1 and 3.5 per cent, respectively. The deviation error of image stitching for the stem accessory in x and y coordinates are 2 pixels. The SIFT and RANSAC enable to transform the stem image into local feature coordinates that are invariant to the illumination change.

Originality/value

This study can be applied to many fields of modern industrial manufacturing and provide useful information for automatic inspection and image stitching.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article

Tuğba İnan

The purpose of this research is to investigate natural illumination properties of one of the classrooms in the School of Architecture at Izmir Institute of Technology…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate natural illumination properties of one of the classrooms in the School of Architecture at Izmir Institute of Technology, located in Turkey, which is the northern hemisphere.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the definitions of the basic terms in daylighting, such as daylight factor, illuminance, glazing ratio, are given first. Then, a luxmeter and a lighting simulation software, Velux, are used in order to calculate variable lighting factors during daytime, at different storeys, at different directions, for the classes. Velux is a proprietary software and it enables natural lighting analysis practically.

Findings

Chosen classrooms are examined regarding their having sufficient natural illumination. The height of windows from the floor is changed, and the resultant effects on natural lighting in the classrooms are determined by using the lighting simulation program, Velux. The study shows that daylight factor and illumination near the window decreases as the height of the window above the floor increases. However, the illumination increases away from the window, giving greater uniformity to the lighting. At the same time, the usable depth of the classroom increases. The tall and narrow windows bring the daylight near themselves.

Social implications

Practical window design decisions can help architects to provide effective and healthy natural lighting for interiors.

Originality/value

Adjustment of the dimensions of the windows is important in order to balance the energy consumption of buildings. This study investigates natural lighting depending on both experimental measurements and simulation software, Velux.

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Article

Xuhui Ye, Gongping Wu, Fei Fan, XiangYang Peng and Ke Wang

An accurate detection of overhead ground wire under open surroundings with varying illumination is the premise of reliable line grasping with the off-line arm when the…

Abstract

Purpose

An accurate detection of overhead ground wire under open surroundings with varying illumination is the premise of reliable line grasping with the off-line arm when the inspection robot cross obstacle automatically. This paper aims to propose an improved approach which is called adaptive homomorphic filter and supervised learning (AHSL) for overhead ground wire detection.

Design/methodology/approach

First, to decrease the influence of the varying illumination caused by the open work environment of the inspection robot, the adaptive homomorphic filter is introduced to compensation the changing illumination. Second, to represent ground wire more effectively and to extract more powerful and discriminative information for building a binary classifier, the global and local features fusion method followed by supervised learning method support vector machine is proposed.

Findings

Experiment results on two self-built testing data sets A and B which contain relative older ground wires and relative newer ground wire and on the field ground wires show that the use of the adaptive homomorphic filter and global and local feature fusion method can improve the detection accuracy of the ground wire effectively. The result of the proposed method lays a solid foundation for inspection robot grasping the ground wire by visual servo.

Originality/value

This method AHSL has achieved 80.8 per cent detection accuracy on data set A which contains relative older ground wires and 85.3 per cent detection accuracy on data set B which contains relative newer ground wires, and the field experiment shows that the robot can detect the ground wire accurately. The performance achieved by proposed method is the state of the art under open environment with varying illumination.

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Article

Subarna Roy, Sudipta Majumder, Sourin Bhattacharya and Imran Hossain Sardar

An indoor office space should not only provide adequate illuminance on horizontal planes but also cater to the physiological and psychological requirements of the…

Abstract

Purpose

An indoor office space should not only provide adequate illuminance on horizontal planes but also cater to the physiological and psychological requirements of the occupants. This paper aims to describe a lighting simulation-based work conducted in Kolkata, India which modeled an indoor office to investigate the effects of variation in room surface reflectance combinations on user perception, mean room surface exitance (MRSE), average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity of horizontal illuminance.

Design/methodology/approach

A fluorescent illumination system–based office space was modeled and retrofitted with tubular LED lamps in DIALux. Simulations were conducted for 16 different room surface reflectance combinations and a five-point Likert scale-type survey questionnaire was formulated to conduct a survey with 32 test subjects to assess the subjective preferability of each resultant light scene.

Findings

Simulation results demonstrate that the relationship between average horizontal illuminance and MRSE as well as between average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity of horizontal illuminance, was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the conducted survey, the resultant light scene arising out of the reflectance combination of wall:ceiling:floor = 60%:90%:20% was the most well-received one with 187 convinced agreements (“agree” and “strongly agree” responses).

Originality/value

This work found strong linear correlation between average horizontal illuminance and MRSE and between average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity. A five-point Likert scale-type survey questionnaire with seven questions was formulated and validated with 32 test subjects (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.9295), which showed that the wall:ceiling:floor reflectance combination of 60%:90%:20% was the most favored choice.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Content available
Book part

Janter Napitupulu, Herman Mawengkang, Usman Ba’afai and Nasruddin M.N.

Purpose – The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy value of national street lighting on energy conservation and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction.…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy value of national street lighting on energy conservation and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The methods used are the measurement of electrical parameters (low voltage network), the national road illumination level with SON lamp specification, 400 W, 180 W, and 110 Lumen/W, the simulation of energy conservation calculation, and the CO2 emission reduction obtained by utilizing panel solar cells as a source of energy and LED lights for illumination.

Finding – The results show the efficacy of a 100-W light bulb at an altitude of 8 m for the following specification of light bulbs: LED, 130 Lumens/W, SON, 110 Lumen/W, and MBF, 53 Lumen/W gives the illumination level respectively 13,913 Lux, 11,773 Lux, and 5,672 Lux. By replacing the 180 W SON lamp with an LED, 100 W, of energy conservation by 3.171 GW h is obtained, which is equivalent to a CO2 emission reduction of 3.641 kTon CO2.

Originality/Value – This study is a continuation of a study of energy conservation with the utilization of solar cells as an electrical power source for an LED bulb that replaces low-voltage networks as a power source for the bulb type SON.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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Article

Lianyu Wang

Intelligent lighting control system can control lights to go off when people leave, which has been widely concerned by researchers.

Abstract

Purpose

Intelligent lighting control system can control lights to go off when people leave, which has been widely concerned by researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, an intelligent lighting control system based on wireless sensor network was designed. First, the hardware and software designs of the system were described briefly. Then, the lighting control algorithm was analyzed emphatically. Considering the illumination and uniformity of light, an intelligent lighting control algorithm based on gradient descent was designed.

Findings

In the system test, it was found that the system had a good through-wall communication function, and the communication distance could fully meet the system requirements and run normally. In the test of the lighting control algorithm, it was found that the user’s satisfaction on uniformity in different scenarios was close to 1, and the satisfaction on illumination could also meet the user’s needs, which verified the reliability of the lighting control algorithm.

Originality/value

This study provides some theoretical supports for the better application of wireless sensor network in intelligent light control system, which is conducive to the further development of light control system.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Don Braggins

Summarises the presentations made at the UK Industrial Vision Association’s annual general meeting in September 1999, Nottiungham, UK, entitled “Innovations in illumination

Abstract

Summarises the presentations made at the UK Industrial Vision Association’s annual general meeting in September 1999, Nottiungham, UK, entitled “Innovations in illumination for machine vision”.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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